Encyclopedia Arctica - Document Index

Encyclopedia Arctica

Encyclopedia Arctica Document Index
Title
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleConsultants Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleSnow, Ice, and Permafrost Glossary: Introductory Note Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGlossary of Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Terms Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleOutline of the Economic Geology of Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitlePhysiography of Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleStratigraphy and Geologic History of Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleExplorations in Alaska by the United States Geological Survey Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleVolcanoes of Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleEarthquakes in the Arctic Area Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleMeteorological Factors Affecting Variation of Glaciers Along the Alaskan Coast Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of Arctic Canada Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of Svalbard Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of Siberia Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of the European North, U.S.S.R. Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeology of Novaya Zemlya Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleArctic and Subarctic Hydrology Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGlaciology Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleGeophysics Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleConsultants Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitlePermafrost as a Natural Phenomenon Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleEngineering Problems and Construction in Permafrost Regions Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitlePhysics of Ground Frost Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleSoil Mechanics in Permafrost Regions Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleNatural Cold Storage Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleCivil Engineering Encyclopedia Arctica 2a: Permafrost-Engineering
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleEffect of Extreme Arctic Cold on Materials Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitlePetroleum Products for Arctic Winter Use in Automotive Equipment Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleTractor-Type Transportation Units for Arctic Operation Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleSled-Type Transportation Equipment for Arctic Operations Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleAnalysis of Design Factors for Power, Heating, Ventilating, and Refrigeration Systems Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitlePower Plant Development and Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleMining Engineering Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitlePetroleum Engineering Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleSanitary Engineering Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitleForeword Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitlePart I: Terrestrial Zoology Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitlePart II: Marine and Freshwater Zoology Encyclopedia Arctica 3: Zoology (Excluding Birds)
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleEconomic Use of Birds in Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleEconomic Use of Birds in Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleMigration of Northern Birds Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleBird Write-ups Encyclopedia Arctica 4: Zoology (Birds)
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleBacteria Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleAlgae Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleAlgae: Planktonic Groups Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleFungi Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleLichens Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleBryophytes Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleVascular plants Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleEcology and Physiology Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitlePaleobotany Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleVarious Topics Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleCanadian Eastern Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleFlora and Vegetation between 55° and 60° N. in Quebec and Labrador Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleFlora and Vegetation of Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleFlora and Vegetation of Iceland Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleFlora and Vegetation of Svalbard and Jan Mayen Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitlePhytogeography and Vegetation of the Soviet Arctic Region Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitlePhytogeography and Vegetation of the Bering Sea District Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleFlora and Vegetation of Arctic Alaska, Yukon, and Northwestern Canada Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleVegetation of the Central and Southern Mackenzie River Basin Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleSoils Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleEconomic Botany Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleAgriculture and Horticulture Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleThe Meteorology of the Arctic Region Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleCanadian Meteorology Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleThe Climate of the American Northlands Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleUnited States Weather Bureau Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleFirst International Polar Year (1882-83) Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleSecond International Polar Year (1932-33) Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleOceanography of the Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleArctic Sea Ice Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleSubmarines in the Polar Sea Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleArctic Tides Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleThe Uses of Ice Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleGreenland Inland Ice Weather Stations Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleThe Ice of the Seas in the North American Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleDaylight and Darkness in High Latitudes Encyclopedia Arctica 7: Meteorology and Oceanography
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleContributors Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleThe Pacific Eskimo Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleBering Sea and Arctic Coast Eskimos of Alaska Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleThe Copper Eskimos Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleThe Hudson Bay Eskimos Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleEthnology of the Greenland Eskimos Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleThe Aleuts Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleThe Indians Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleArctic Skin Boats Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleArctic Pioneer Craft Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleEarly Vessels in Arctic Exploration and Voyaging Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleDesign and Development of Arctic Trading Vessels Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleThe Development and Design of Arctic Whaling and Sealing Vessels Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitlePast and Present Coast Guard Vessels for the Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleWater Transportation in the Canadian Shield Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleLand and Ice Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleAir Encyclopedia Arctica 9: Transportation and Communications
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleOutline Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleLower Amur Oblast Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleArkhangelsk Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKamchatka Territory Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKandalaksha Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKarelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelia) Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKhabarovsk Territory Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKhibiny Mining and Industrial Combine Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKirovsk Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleApatite, calcium fluophosphate (Kola Peninsula) Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleNepheline (Kola Peninsula) Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleSphene Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKoriak National Okrug Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKrasnoyarsk Krai Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleMonchegorsk Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleNenets National Okrug Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleNiva River Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleNorthern Dvina River Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleYakutia Territory Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleYamalo-Nenets National Okrug Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleKhanty-Mansi (Ostyako-Vogul) National Region Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleEvenki National Region Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleRussian Hydrographical Expedition Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 11: Territorial Sovereignty and History
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 11: Territorial Sovereignty and History
TitleTerritorial Sovereignty in the Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 11: Territorial Sovereignty and History
TitleAirspace Rights Over the Arctic Encyclopedia Arctica 11: Territorial Sovereignty and History
TitleHistory Encyclopedia Arctica 11: Territorial Sovereignty and History
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleNorthern Alaska Geographical Items Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleSt. Lawrence Island Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleNunivak Island Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleThe Aleutian Islands Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleMount McKinley Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleAdditional Alaska Geographical Items Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleGeneral Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleVarious Geographical Items Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleBylot Island Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleGeneral Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleClimate of Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleThe Voyage of Powell Knutsson Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleWhaling: Greenland and Davis Strait Fishery Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleGreenland During and Since the Second World War Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleGreenland Ovibos in Captivity and Under Domestication Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleOvibos in Northeast Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleSvalbard: Geography Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleJan Mayen: Geography Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleGeographical Items on East Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleGeographical Items on West Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleGeographical Items on North Greenland Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General
TitleCautionary Remarks Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleTitle Page Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleTable of Contents Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleLuigi Amedeo Abruzzi Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleRoald Amundsen Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilliam Baffin Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAleksandri Andrevich Baranov Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleFrederick William Beechey Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAdmiral Sir Edward Belcher Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSilas Bent Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleEmil Bessels Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleStephen Borough Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleLouis Arner Boyd Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAlfred Hulse Brooks Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilliam Spiers Bruce Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleRichard Chancellor Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAleksei Ilich Chirikov Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleHenry Bascom Collins, Jr. Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAugustine Courtauld Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJohn Davis Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitlePeter Warren Dease Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleMax Demarest Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSemen Dezhnev Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Dixon Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleDuc d'Orleans Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Mellis Douglas Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleCarl Ben Eielson Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleOtto Fabricius Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJane Franklin Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir John Franklin Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilhelm August Graah Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAdolphus Washington Greely Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleCharles Wesley Hawkesworth Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSamuel Hearne Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilliam Herbert Hobbs Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGustav Frederick Holm Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilliam Lauriston Howard Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleHenry Williamson Howgate Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Kennan Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleRichard King Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleFrans Reinhold Kjellman Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleLauge Koch Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJean Francois Galoup Lapérouse Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleMartin Lindsay Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Francis Lyon Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir Alexander Mackenzie Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJohn Meares Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWalter Curran Mendenhell Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGerhard Friedrich Mueller Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAlexander Feodorovich Middendorf Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJens Munk Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir George Strong Nares Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir William Edward Parry Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJosephine Diebitsch Peary Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleRobert Edwin Peary Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleEmile Fortuné Stanislas Joseph Petitot Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitlePytheas Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleAlfred de Quervain Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleNikolai Petrovich Rezanov Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir John Richardson Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleHenrik Johannes Rink Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJohn Rodgers Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleWilliam Scoresby, Junior Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleCharles Sheldon Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGrigor Ivanich Shelekhov Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir George Simpson Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleTomas Simpson Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorg Wilhelm Steller Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Morse Stoney Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleHarald Ulrik Sverdrup Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJohn Cleves Symmes Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJames Williams Tyrrell Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJoseph Burr Tyrrell Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGeorge Vancouver Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleBaron Eduard Vasilievich von Toll Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleGino Watkins Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir Hubert Wilkins Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJohn Wilkins Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleSir Hugh Willoughy Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
TitleJames M. Wordie Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies