Northern Alaska Geographical Items: Encyclopedia Arctica 12: Alaska, Geography and General

Author Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962

Northern Alaska Geographical Items in alphabetical order

EA-Geography: Alaska (Stefansson Library Research Staff)

NORTHERN ALASKA GEOGRAPHICAL ITEMS

Icy Cape to International Boundary (Place names arranged geographically)
^^
Folder (1): A - B
Folder (2): C - L Folder (3): M - Y

Ruby Collins ^ 75 wds. ^ July, 1949 ADMIRALTY BAY, ALASKA

ADMIRALTY BAY, northern Alaska, is the southern extension of the head of Dease Inlet, an arm of the [: ] Polar Sea. It lies about thirty miles east of Point Barrow and was so named by the British Admiralty in 1856.
This bay has not yet been ^ ^ thoroughly surveyed. McTavish and Wright Points, with Kikiktak, Tiny, and Oarlock Islands midway between, mark the entrance from Dease Inlet. The Inaru, Meade, Topagoruk, and Chipp Rivers (q.v.) flow into Admiralty Bay.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d. ed. Washington, 1906.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ Guidebook for Alaska. ^

^40 wds.^ Ruby Collins July, 1949 ASINIAK POINT, ALASKA

ASINIAK POINT^, northwestern Alaska,^ projects into Peard Bay, an arm of the Polar Sea, south of the broken sandbar leading out to Point Franklin and north of the mouth of the Kugrua River, which drains into the head of Peard Bay.

Ruby Collins June, 1949 ATANIK, ALASKA

^ 100 wds ^
ATANIK, a small Eskimo settlement on the coast of the Polar Sea, northern Alaska, lies between Point Belcher and Point Franklin and only a few miles south of Peard Bay.
This tiny village had a population of 19 in 1939. The long winter trail which skirts most of the arctic coast of Alaska, connecting Seward Peninsula towns and Kotzebue with Barrow (q.v.), is represented as stopping at Atanik. It reappears, however, on the other side of Peard Bay, so that it may be assumed that travelers find their own way across the Bay from Atanik to the coastwise trail on the other side which leads northeastward to Barrow.
Sources:
Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska ^ Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska ^ . 1947 ed. Seattle, Juneau, 1947.
Aeronautical Chart ^ Aeronautical Chart ^ No.63

Ruby Collins June, 1949 AVAK INLET, ALASKA

^ 130 wds ^
AVAK INLET is a shallow, many-fingered inlet emptying into Kasegaluk La b ^ g ^ oon (q.v.) somewhat south and east of Icy Cape (q.v.) on the arctic t coast of Alaska. The Avak River debouches into the head of the Inlet. This small stream rises on the lake-strewn coastal plain and flows northwestward for about thirty miles before entering the Inlet. (For a general description of the terrain, flora, and fauna of this part of Alaska, see article on the Kokolik River.)
Akoliakatat Pass, a few miles east of the mouth of Avak Inlet, breaks the long sand spit which forms the seaward side of Ka ^ s ^ egaluk Lagoon. Between one and two fathom can be carried through this Pass, but the approach is endangered by Blossom Shoals (q.v.), which, according to recent reports ^ , ^ would appear to be spreading.
References:
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II ^ Alaska. Part II ^ . 5th (1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947. Aeronautical Chart No.64.
^ 7,310 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 BARROW, ALASKA

Proofed 19 Jy 49 may need polishing
BARROW (71° 17′ N.Lat., 156° 47′ W.Long.), a post office and settlement about eight or nine miles southwest of Point Barrow (q.v.), the most northerly point of land in Alaska, is itself the most northerly community with a permanent white population. In recent years, Utkiavi, on Cape Smyth, has been considered part of Barrow, being separated from it only by a lagoon. Ever since 1884, Utkiavi has been an important trading post, most of that time centering around a well-stocked store run by Charles D. Brower. For hundreds of years before that, however, the Eskimos of Point Barrow traded with other natives from as far south as Icy Cape and the Kobuk River valley and from as far east as the Mackenzie River. So extensive were these trading trips under– taken by the Eskimos before the arrival of the white man at Point Barrow, that guns sold by the Russians to the Diomede natives and goods sold to the Hudson Bay tribes stood a chance of ultimately being owned by a Barrow whale hunter. Geography Barrow faces the Polar Sea, but south of the settlement stretches the broad, lake-strewn coastal plain which borders all of northern Alaska. Connecting these lakes and marshes and forming an intricate pattern on the face of the plain is the northern drainage of the Brooks Range (q.v.). Hun– dreds of streams flow down from the Range, some northwestward, like the Utukok (q.v.), some almost directly northward, like the Meade (q.v.), and some northeastward, like the Colville (q.v.).
As these streams approach the sea, the gradient becomes so slight as to be indistinguishable to the unaided eye. The drainage, therefore, becomes confused, and the number of tiny lakes interconnected with riverlets and creeks increases, until the entire region is transformed into an enormous [: ] marshland. Grasses, mosses, lichens, and brightly colored flowers blanket this plain from the first few days of spring in June to ^ ^ sometime in
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September. Travel across this terrain is next to impossible during the summer. The long hours of sunlight thaw the ground to d epths of one to two feet, but beneath this layer of soft gravel and vegetable matter, the ground remains permanently frozen from one year to the next. The summer overland traveler finds not only that his route is def el ^ le ^ cted by the many lakes and streams in his path, but also that at every step he sinks knee deep or deeper into the partly-thawed surface of the marshland. Stefansson reports that many of the lakes are wadable, averaging one foot or less in depth and varying this depth hardly more than an inch or so throughout their extent. But progress by foot is so slow and laborious as to be impracticable.
In winter, on the other hand, this enormous plain is transformed into the most perfect type of terrain for sledging. Ground, streams, and lakes are frozen over, many of the more shallow waters being immobilized into masses of solid ice. Under these circumstances a man with a good dog team and sufficient basic supplies may travel at will in this country, averaging forty or more miles a day.
Considering these conditions, it is not surprising the the earliest explorers and traders to this region, ^ most ^ all of whom arrived by boat during the short season of navigation, kept to the waterw ^ a ^ ys for the duration of their stay. Nor is it surprising that ^ here ^ the airplane is of much greater significance in the transportation of men and supplies than it is anywhere in the United States.
Navigation Barrow may be reached by ship for only about one month o ^ r ^ a little more each year; that is from sometime [: ] in August until mid- or late September. Although the pack ice does not usually move down upon Barrow until the latter part of September, vessels plan to leave by about September 10. For the duration of the winter the pack is a constant
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threat to navigation all the way from Icy Cape to Point Barrow. A complete month of safe, open navigation in this region is considered a good year. (See Point Barrow, Alaska article.)
There are no harbors for seagoing vessels anywhere between Cape Lisburne, far down the northwestern coast of Alaska, and the mouth of the Colville River, over a hundred miles ea ^ st ^ of Barrow. The water is so shoal along this enormous stretch of shoreline that large vessels must stand off in open, unprotected roadsteads while their cargoes are lightered ashore. This situation, of course, obtains at Barrow and is another reason for the importance of air freight into this region.
Geology With the discovery of oil seepage in addition to the coal deposits already known to exist on the northwestern coast of Alaska, the U.S. Navy developed a particular interest in this part of the Territory.
It is coincidental that as early as 1886 Captain (then Ensign) W.L. Howard, a member of Stoney's naval expedition to the Kobuk River, traveled to Barrow by way of the Colville, Ikpikpuk, and Chipp Rivers and brought back a specimen believed to be petroleum residuum from the upper Colville region. Although this is the only evidence of petroleum ever to come out of the southern part of the present Petroleum Reserve No.4, it is remarkable that the first evidence of oil in this entire region should have been discovered by a member of the U.S. Navy, which department now controls the petroleum resources of most of northern Alaska.
Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 was established on February 27, 1923. It extends from Icy Cape to the mouth of the Colville, and from the crest of the Brooks Range, northward to the highest watermark on the shores of the Polar Sea. The Reserve totals about 35,000 square miles.
The Executive Order establishing this Reserve read in part as follows: "The reservation hereby established shall be for oil and gas only and shall not interfere with the use of the lands or waters within the area
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indicated for any legal purpose not inconsistent therewith." The staking of mining claims is not permitted.
The Reserve was the result of a long line of reports concerning the coal and oil possibilities of this region. In 1901, F.C. Schrader, the first geologist to visit this part of Alaska, together with W.J. Peters, a topographic engineer, explored the John, Anaktuvuk, and Colville Rivers. They followed the shoreline westward from the Colville to Point Barrow, and thence southward to beyond Wainwright Inlet. Arthur J. Collier, of the U.S. Geological Survey, made a geological reconnaissance of the Cape Lisburne coal deposits in 1904, and E. de K. Leffingwell, also of the Survey, examined the coast in the ^ v ^ icinity of Point Barrow in the course of his exploration of the Canning River region. Leffingwell's investigations covered the years 1906-1914 and included the first mention of petroleum in the vicinity of Dease Inlet. In 1921, while working for a private company, Harry A. Campbell reported oil seepages near Cape Simpson, and that same year two groups of oil claims were staked near that Cape. It was only two years after this that the Executive Order establishing the Naval Reserve was signed.
Paige comments: "As the bedrock source of the oil was unknown, the boundaries of the reserve were so drawn as to include the complete geologic section from the Arctic Mountain watershed on the south to the shores of the Polar Sea on the north, a distance of some 200 miles. East and west it measures nearly 300 miles."
The 1946 report of the Alaska Commissioner of Mines reflects the present attitude toward federal control of the resources of such a large section of the Territory. "Very little information," he wrote, "has been published on the results of the exploratory drilling program being conducted by the U.S. Navy in its petroleum reserve on the Arctic slope. The fact that a large appropriation has been made for the work indicates that a serious attempt is to be made to evaluate the potential petroleum resources of this region. Should a producing field be brought in it would be of considerable importance to the ^ 28 ^

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Territory. The Secretary of the Interior has recently liberalized the leasing regulations on oil lands to permit the control by groups of individuals or corporations of much larger areas than hereto ^ f ^ ore, which should result in renewed interest in exploring some of the other promising structures in Alaska."
Later in the same report he criticizes the prohibition on staking mining claims in the Reserve. "The regulation," he remarks, "seems not to be in the best interests of the Territory and should be amended to permit prospec– ting and location of mining claims under the mining laws. Provisions for loca– tion of [: ] claims and mining, similar to those in effect within Glacier Bay National Monument and Mt. McKinley Nati [: ] nal Park, might be adaptable. Meager information available on the Brooks Rnage indicates the possible presence of valuable mineral occurrences. Prospectors willing to explore this little-known region should be entitled to locate and hold any valuable mineral deposits dis– covered. Prospecting and mining in the mountainous section would in no way interfere with the exploratory program of the Navy Department, which is being conducted in the flatter and foothill sections of the region."
In July, 1949, the government issued a report on ^ ^ the work of the Petroleum Reserve. "The world's largest oil claim" has, according to this report, produced a honey-colored oil that swells like gasoline and pour ^ s ^ at ࢤ70° F. Although no oil in commercial quantities has yet been found, the Navy has already planned pipelines, highways, and ^ a ^ possible railroad to link any future fields with the interior of Alaska and the ic^e-^free coast of the southeastern part of the Territory.
The Navy has also assayed other resources of this vast region. Estimating Alaska's coal reserves at 110,000,000,000 tons, the department con– siders that the construction of at least one synthetic gas and oil plant may be justified. It made certain suggestions as to the use of lignite dust in agriculture. If snow-covered fields were to be spr [: ] ad with black coal dust,
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for instance, thawing would be considerably accelerated and planting dates advanced as much as fourteen days. It was further suggested that lignite dust might be spread over the crops during the growing season so [: ] as to increase the absorption of heat by the soil and thereby stimulate growth of the crops. The report also urged the immediate construction of a cement plant with an initial capacity of 350,000 barrels.
Barrow stands at the apex of the Petroleum Reserve like the fixed point of a pendulum. If one were to conceive of a rod extending from Barrow to Icy Cape, a distance of some 150 miles, and were to swing this enormous pendulum eastward and northward until it once again met the P ^ o ^ lar Sea, in the vicinity of the mouth of the Colville, the area covered would all fall well within the Reserve and would, in fact, omit quite a bit of the southern section.
From extremely ancient times Barrow has been the home of a ^ large group ^ great many ^ of ^ Eskimos who lived entirely from the products of the sea except for the reindeer skins which they used for clothing and the berries they gathered on the [: ] marshlands. Elson, of the Beechey expedition of 1826, commanded a barge trip northward from Point Franklin. He found the number of inhabitants ^ " ^ to increase in numbers as he advanced to the northward." Beechey's report of this trip goes on to say, "On the eastern side of the point ^ [ ^ Barrow ^ ] ^ there was a village, larger than any we had before seen, consisting entirely of yourts. The ^natives^ [: ] , on seeing us anchor, came down opposite the boat in great numbers, but seemed very doubtful whether to treat us as friends or enemies. We made signs of friendship to them; and a couple of baidars reluctantly ventured off and accepted a few beads and some tobacco, which on their return to the shore induced several others to visit us. These people were clothed like the Esquimaux we had seen on the other parts of the coast: their implements were also the same, except that we thought they were more particular ^ ^ in constructing the bow, the spring of which was strengthened with whalebone."
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Of the Point itself, he remarks: "This point is the termination to a spit of land, which on examination from the boat's mast-head seemed to jut out several miles from the more regular coast line. The width of the neck did not exceed a mile and a half, and apparently in some places less. The extremity was broader than any other part, had several small lakes of water on it, which were frozen over, and the village before spoken of is situated on its eastern shore."
The account of this dangerous voyage in an open boat contains much information concerning the movement of ice, the direction, speed, and strength of the current which sets around Point Barrow, and the effect of the wind on both. Naturally, all these factors had more effect on Elson's small boat than they do on the large, powered craft of today.
Elson learned from sad experience that the pack responds quickly to the direction of the prevailing wind. More than once his tiny boat was in imminent danger of being crushed when a northerly or northwesterly wind drove the pack swiftly toward shore. [: ] Several times he was saved by a last– minute shift of the wind to the east or southeast.
Jarvis, in discussing the disposition of the whaling vessels caught in the ice in 1897, gives a notable description of the movement of the pack in the vicinity of Barrow.
'The heavy crushings of the 'ridge' are c ua ^ au ^ sed by the ice first grounding and piling up as it comes closer to the shore. This ridge forms a barrier to the pack outside and generally is solidly anchored by December or January. Attached to this and extending some miles offshore is what is known as the floe, or, locally, 'flaw.' Even in the winter, when the wind blows off the land the pack drifts off, and a lead of open water is made outside the 'floe.' There is always a slight current in this lead running to the north, unless the wind is strong enough to stop and turn it. In the late spring and
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summer this northerly current increases at time ^ s ^ to 2 and 3 knots, but the strength of it must be more or less local and confined close to ^ ^ the land, as evidenced by the drift of the Navarch .
"This vessel caught in the pack off Icy Cape in the latter part of July, 1897, gradually worked offshore and to the northward, passed Point Barrow in August, and during September was about 100 miles east of that point, and about 20 miles from the land. In October, she returned to a position about 40 miles east of Point Barrow, and then in November disappeared. Her next appearance, in the latter part of January, was at [: ] Refuge Inlet, about 20 miles to the south of Barrow Point Barrow, and going off from there she appeared again in February only 4 or 5 miles from the Point. Thus f ^ o ^ r six months she had been drifting back and forth within a distance of 250 miles with Point Barrow in the center, and all the time fast in the pack ice. This could not have happened if there was a continuous currant in one direction. It would seem also that the strength of the current is close to the land, and while offshore there is a slight drift [: ] to the north in summer. In the winter season, however, the ice is moved about almost wholly by the wind."
Thomas Simpson approached Barrow from the east in August of 1837, He, too, found great numbers of Eskimos not only on the Point but also everywhere on the spit. Contrary to Elson's experience, he reported these natives to be friendly and curious, but by no means hostile.
Beginning in the ^ mid-nineteenth century, ^ [: ] the waters off Barrow began to be visited every year by the whaling fleets. In the course of time, many of these whaling captains became thoroughly experienced in the hazards of navigation in the Polar Sea, but this knowledge did not always save them from being caught in the pack and frozen in for the winter. Many ships were crushed in the ice and their crews lost or deposited close enough to shore so that they could walk to safety. The Eskimos became accustomed to sharing their food, clothing, and shelter with these shipwrecked whalers.
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It was just such a crew that the U.S. Revenue Steamer Corwin res uc ^ cu ^ ed in August, 1881, the whaler Daniel Webster having been crushed off Barrow and her crew deposited within safe walking distance from shore.
In November, 1897, Captain Francis Tuttle was placed in command of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear with orders to rescue the crews of eight whaling vessels reported to have been ^ caught ^ cuahgt in the ice off Point Barrow. Because of the lateness of the season, it was, of course, impossible for the Bear to sail D ^d^ irectly to Barrow. The Bear ship having been brought as far north as the ice would permit, Lieut. D.H. Jarvis was put in charge of an overland relief expedi– tion. ^ J ^ arvis received 292 reindeer from W.W. Lopp at Cape Prince of Wales and another 133 deer from Artisarlook, at Point Rodney. From other sources Jarvis raised the total head to 448 deer. It was his plan to drive these deer to Point Barrow where they could be used to supplement the food supply there, and his plan succeeded.
"In coming from Cape Prince of Wales," Jarvis wrote, "the deer had traveled over 700 miles in fifty-five days, counting all the delays from storms and preparations, and Artisarlook's herd had come 100 miles farther, from Point Rodney."
This overland, mid-winter trek remains one of the most remarkable res uc ^ cu ^ e operations ever attempted in Alaska. Its success is a credit not only to Jarvis, but also to Lopp and the several Eskimos who aided him in the actual driving of the reindeer, and to the hospitality of the Barrow Eskimos and the generosity of Charles Browers, owner of the supply station at Cape Smyth.
While on his way to Barrow, Jarvis saw large flocks of ptarmigan, an occasional raven, and several arctic owls. With his arrival and the subse– quent coming of spring, snowbirds, eider ducks, geese, jagers, owls, and loons appeared in ever increasing numbers. These game birds were shot for food and their eggs gathered in June. On the first of July the male eiders began their flight southward. During the first ten days of this migration, two natives and
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two white men established a shooting station in its path and bagged 1,100 birds. Since the supply of fish [: ] had given out several weeks previously, these ducks supplied the final answer to the food problem at Barrow for the spring of 1898. The relief ships arrived during the month of August.
The picture one gets of the village of Barrow during this winter is, of course, somewhat abnormal. The Eskimos remained in the village proper while the whalers were quartered outside it, some crews having come ashore and others having remained on board their ice-bound ships. The Eskimos had, from the beginning, shared their food, clothing, and what fuel they had with the shipwrecked men and had suffered much in consequence of this generosity. They continued to hunt and fish throughout the crisis, dividing their catch among the enormously increased population. It is particularly noticeable, [: ] from Jarvis' account, that they did all this naturally and without complaint. After his arrival, Jarvis had disciplinary troubles with some of the crew members, but none with the Eskimos. The impression one gets of the whole affair is of a hard-working, capable, and philosophical people making the best of a trying situation, going about their ^ ^ regular activities as methodically as condi– tions allowed, and finding fault with hardly anything.
According to Schrader and Peters, about a dozen white men lived at Barrow in 1901, and, if the population of Nuwuk were also included, an additional 623 Eskimos. Schrader mentions the mission school and the Cape Smyth Whaling and Trading Company in charge of Charles "Brauer." "The keepers of the post," he continues, "engage to some degree in whaling, in which they employ the natives. Early in April the whaling parties proceed by dog sled 10 or more miles out over the ice to the open sea, where they pursue their calling in open skin boats.
"Point Barrow ^ [ ^ by which he intends Barrow ^ ] ^ is almost annually visited by vessels of the United States Revenue Services and by various whaling vessels. Ten of the latter are reported to have called there during the summer
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of 1901. Whaling in this part of the Arctic Ocean has been carried on with varying success by [: ] everal companies during the la [: ] t half century, but is now reported to be on the decline. The pursuit is hazardous, as the vessels are often caught in the icepack.
"In 1901 effort was being made by a Japanese to establish a small trading post at the mouth of Staines River, near the one hundred and forty-sixth meridian."
According to the 1920 Census Nuwuk had a population of about 94 and Utkiavi, at Cape Smyth, had about 322, the majority of which were Eskimos. This latter figure doubtless includes Barrow. The drop in population may be attributed to the depletion of the supply of whales and walrus in the nearby waters of the Polar Sea as a result of intensive hunting by white men during the last half of the nineteenth century.
During the 1920's Barrow received three winter mails by dog sled and one water-borne summer mail from Nome each year. A Coast Guard cutter and a trading vessel from Liebes & Co., San Francisco, the principle owners of the trading posts in this vicinity, also called once a year.
The arrival of the airship Norge in the spring of 1926, carrying Nobile, Amundsen, and Ellsworth (q.v. [: ] ), marked the opening of a series of airborne visitors to Barrow. Since this date most of the exploration in this area has been by air. In the summer of 1931 the Lindberghs flew from New York to Tokyo, stopping at Barrow on the way. On August 15, 1935, Wiley Post and Will Rogers crashed near Barrow.
On August 12, 1937, Sigismund Levane [: ] sky and his crew left Moscow in a huge four-motor plane on a proposed flight to Fairbanks. Th [: ] r last radio message reported them over the North Pole. They were not heard from again, and one of the most concerted and extended searches ever carried on by air began. It lasted a full year.
With Barrow as a main winter base (summer operations were conducted
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from Aklavik, Canada) Sir Hubert Wilkins and his companions flew a total mileage of 45,550 miles, of which some 33,970 miles were north of the Arctic Circle. He used a Consolidated flying boat for summer work, and a Lockhead Electra skiplane in the winter. As with the Franklin Search expeditio [: ] s of the mi ^ d ^ -nineteenth century, more was learned about arctic flying in the course of the Levanevsky Search than ever would have been learned in many ^ ^ years of normal arctic flying.
Of the situation as it was then, Wilkins said: "Operation from Point Barrow in winter called for special attention. Landings were made on the lagoon which is situated between the houses of the village ^ [ ^ i.e., between Cape Smyth and Barrow ^ ] ^ . This lagoon might afford a fifteen hundred yard take off, but it is liable to be rough surfaced with ridges in a variety of directions. At Barrow it was found that the salt laden hoar frost loaded on the metal surfaced machine and, if not frequently removed, formed a solid crust of opaque ice, difficult to observe without close inspection. Such coatings of ice, even though they might be only a fraction of an inch in thickness, offer great dangers to the operation of air craft, especially in the take off. Heavy deposits of hoar frost also accumulated on the instruments in the cockpit of the machine and on the inside of the walls of the fuselage at Point Barrow. Constant attention and cleaning, however, enabled us to avoid any serious consequences of these deposits.
"It frequently happens that a stretch of smooth sea ice is to be found opposite the village and outside the shore pressure ridge at Barrow. This might afford a temporary resting place for planes and a take-off ground, but machines left there for any lengthy period would not be safe from being carried off by the ice pack or from the crushing of the ice which might take place at any season of the year."
A Navy base was established about six miles below Point Barrow in 1944. Fresh water for the base is obtained from the small lake nearby, and,
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in case of emergency, supplies can be purchased here. In connection with the W ^w^ ork of this base, Dr. Shelesnyak writes: "The experience of the Navy, chiefly of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 in the years since 1944 while engaged in petroleum exploration in the Point Barrow region, can be considered one of the highest types and the most advanced of scientific exploration of the Arctic. This group has been engaged in actual exploration and has maintained an all year round operating schedule that is not only pioneering, but actually leads the way in establishing a pattern for Arctic colonization."
The Office of Naval Research (formerly the temporary Office of Research and Inventions) was permanently established and approved on August 1, 1946. That same summer an arctic program of research was initiated and an Arctic Scientific Station established at Point Barrow. Here it was proposed to build a laboratory where "civilian scientists under contract with the Navy Department could conduct investigations of physical and biological phenomena related to the environment."
"By the summer of 1947," Dr. Shelesnyak continues, "two teams of scientists, one from Swarthmore Colle [: ] e and one from Cornell Univer [: ] ity were under way conducting a year's study on the biological aspects of the Arctic, especially those related to the metabolism of warm blooded animals including man. The establishment of this scientific station by the Navy is the signal achievement and is the first laboratory to be established in the North American Arctic for the single purpose of pursuing basic scientific investigations."
In March, 1948, Laurence Irving, the Scientific Director of the station, reported that the Office of Naval Research had two laboratories at Barrow, one doing work in the Natural Sciences and the other designated for the Physical Sciences.
"These laboratories," Irving wrote, "receive local maintenance and supplies from the Bureau of Yards and Docks through the Arctic Contractors
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^ [ ^ Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 ^ ] ^ , who operate the base camp. Lodging and food for personnel, common cold-weather clothing, local transportation, and native technical assistance are also provided through the Arctic Contractors."
All this activity in and around Barrow has tended to increase the population. According to the 1939 Census, Barrow had 363 permanent residents, but a 1947 estimate increased this to 575.
One of the three general stores in the town is managed by the Eskimos under the Alaska Native Service. There are also an Alaska Native Service school, a fourth class post office, a Presbyterian mission, and two licensed fur dealers in the town. As would be expected, several officials re– side in Barrow. A U.S. Commissioner has an office there; the Weather Bureau a recording station; the Alaska Communication System (U.S. Army) a telegraph and radiotelephone station; and the federal government a twenty-bed hospital for the natives. Arctic Contractors, Inc., who are developing the Petroleum Reserve ^ , ^ maintain a camp at Barrow. The Coast Guard still pays the settlement an annual visit, and a few trading vessels call at Barrow during the season of navigation.
In August, 1947, the camp set up by Arctic Contractors, Inc. con– sisted of seventy-two buildings, mostly of the quonset type. These buildings included living quarters for about two hundred men, warehouses, machine shops, a radio and weather building, a carpenter shop, power plant, laboratory, under– ground food storage refrigerator, magnetometer buildings, cleaning plant, hos ^ p ^ ital, and recreation hall. Quonset quarters for the wives of a few employees were in the process of construction.
Operating headquarters for Arctic Contractors are at Fairbanks, where all personnel and supplies to be shipped in by air are cleared before entering the Reserve. Administration and purchasing headquarters are at Seattle.
Air support is continuous throughout the year. Noel and Sigurd ^ Wien, ^

BARROW, ALASKA

owners and operators of Wien Alaska Airlines, both famous Alaska bush pilots with twenty years' experience, cover a daily schedule, known as the "line haul," north from Fairbanks to Umiat and Barrow. There is a 5,200-foot airstrip at Barrow. Equipment and supplies are brought from Seattle to Fairbanks by the Naval Air Transport Service.
Every August tons of supplies are brought in to Barr ^ ow ^ by Navy ships. The program called for 22,000 tons to be landed from four A.K.A. Navy vessels and one ice-breaker during August of 1947. Surplus Army and Navy landing barges and some pontoon barges are used in this operation, but perhaps the most useful machine is the Army weasel. The weasel is an amphibious tractor-like vehicle which will cross the tundra or [: ] crawl out of the sea and up onto the ice or vice versa.
Tractors as well as weasels can be used for winter land transpor– tation and small planes make short runs between the various camps in the Reserve. From February to late May tractor trains are used to deliver large shipments of supplies deposited at Barrow for use in other parts of the Reserve.
A news item in the Alaska Weekly for July 8, 1949 shows how this mechanized equipment imported by the Navy may be used to lighten the work of the Barrow Eskimos.
Since the supply of fresh water is restricted, the natives still depend on ice which has lost its saltiness through crytalization for their water supply. Navy Seabees at Barrow watched a group of Eskimo [: ] men cutting ice into blocks with handsaws and dragging the blocks out of the water with a leather thong. The Seabees offered their help. They set to work cutting ice with a motor-driven, circular blade timber saw mounted on wheels, pulled the cakes out of the water with a weasel and slid the cakes ashore on bent-pipe skids. In one eight-hour day they had cut and store ^ d ^ forty tons of ice, which is considerably more than a hard-working Eskimo could produce
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in eighty days.
According to a July 15, 1949, item, eleven naval vessels were to take part in the Barrow supply operations that summer. Known officially as Operation Barex 49, these ships would deliver supplies for the estimated 500 men attached to the Reserve at Barrow, for the many more farther in the Interior of the Territory, and for the naval Air Force personnel and instal– lations on Barter Island, 280 miles east of Point Barrow. An icebreaker was scheduled to leave on July 19, to be followed on July 26 by the supply vessels. All ships planned to ^ r ^ endezvous at Point Lay before continuing on to Barrow. The sc ^ he ^ dule required landing of all supplies accomplished in one week. Continuous reports from planes equipped with radar would keep the unloading parties informed as to the direction of the wind and the position of the pack.
The following chart [: ] outlines the climate at Barrow. Although the low reading of ࢤ48° F. may seem very cold to ^ some ^ residents of the temperate zone, it by no means approaches the extreme winter temperatures to be ex– perienced in the interior of arctic Alaska. The climate of Barrow is marine and is regulated by the proximity of the Polar Sea. The humidity is high the year around, and the sky generally overcast. On the other hand, the sun is above the horizon twenty-four hours a day during the summer months, so that there is considerably more light than the average of one "clear" day in thirty or thirty-one would seem to imply.
^ Barrow Weather Report - 1947 T = Trace^
^

Scroll Table to show more columns

Temp. of the Air Mean Relative Humidity Total Precipitation in Inches Wind Clear Days Cloudy and Partly Cloudy Days Snow fall Total in Inches
Maximum Velocity Aver. Hourly Velocity MPH Prevailing Direction.
Max. Date Min. Date MPH Direct.
Jan 24° 1 sb ࢤ48° 24 [: ] 100 0.07 40 W.SW 9.6 W 12 19 0.8
Feb. 18 ࢤ47° 3 100 0.04 46 E 13.8 E 7 21 0.4
Mar. 20 ࢤ40 5 99 0.36 24 NE 8.0 NE 10 21 4.1
Apr. 27° 12 ࢤ26° 2 98 0.10 30 NE 9.4 E 11 19 1.3
May 36° 24 ࢤ11° 1 97 0.06 35 E 13.7 E 6 25 0.6
June 41° 24 21° 2 96 0.11 25 NE 11.3 E 1 29 T
July 61° 16 29° 6 92 0.09 30 E 11.3 E 1 30 T
Aug. 60° 25 25° 18 92 0.46 35 NW 11.4 W 1 30 T
Sept 41° 3 20° 30 92 0.06 32 W 13 NE 0 30 0.7
Oct. 29° 6 ࢤ6° 29 94 0.43 34 E 13 E 0 31 7.9
Nov. 25° 30 ࢤ12° 26 93 0.16 36 E 14 NE 1 29 3.5
Dec. 12° 27 ࢤ23° 30 92 0.09 29 NE 14.3 NE 1 30 0.6
^

BARROW, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alaska, Dept. of Mines. Report of the Commissioner of Mines for the Biennium ended December 31, 1946.

Report of the Commissioner of Mines for the Biennium ended December 31, 1946.
Juneau, (1947)

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska, ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ No.299)

Beechey, Capt. F.W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait...in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.

Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait...in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.
London, 1831. 2v.

Colby, Merle. Guide to Alaska, last american frontier. ^ Guide to Alaska, last american frontier. ^ N.Y., 1942.

Hooper, Capt. C.L. Report of the Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Steamer Thomas Corwin, in the Arctic Ocean, 1881. Washington, 1884.

Irving, Laurence. ^ " ^ Arctic Research at Point Barrow, Alaska. ^ " ^ SCIENCE, March 19, 1948, Vol.107, No.2777, pp.284-286.

Paige, Sidney (and others). Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska. Washington, 1925. Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska. Washington, 1925. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 772)

Pilgrim, Mariette Shaw. Alaska, its history, resources, geography, and government.

Alaska, its history, resources, geography, and government.
Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton printers, 1939.

Shelesnyak, M.C. Arctic Research Laboratory, Office of Naval Research, Point Barrow, Alaska.

Arctic Research Laboratory, Office of Naval Research, Point Barrow, Alaska.
SCIENCE, March 19, 1948, Vol.107, No.2777, p.283.

Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America... during the years 1836-39.

Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America... during the years 1836-39.
London, 1843.

Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska and Alaska Business Index. ^ Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska and Alaska Business Index. ^ 1947 ed. Seattle, Wash., 1947

U.S. Treasury Department. Report of the Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear and the Overland Expedition for the Relief of the Whalers in the Arctic Ocean, from November 27, 1897, to September 13, 1898.

Report of the Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear and the Overland Expedition for the Relief of the Whalers in the Arctic Ocean, from November 27, 1897, to September 13, 1898.
Washington, 1899.

Willson, C.O. "Full-scale exploration under way by Navy in Arctic Alaska; Climate major factor in determining exploration work in Northern Alaska;Seeking Arctic Oil." Oil and Gas Journal , August 9, 16, 23, 1947.

^ 1,050 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 BARROW, POINT, ALASKA

BARROW, POINT (71° 23′ N.Lat., 156° 21′ W.Long.), the northern– most point of land in Alaska, was so named by Beechey in September, 1826, after Sir John Barrow. In 1837, Dease and Simpson called it Cape North as well as Point Barrow. Nuwuk (q.v.), the Eskimo settlement on the Point, is the native word for "tip" or "point." The town of Barrow, which has recently been thought of as including Utkiavi ^ k ^ , the trading post on Cape Smyth, is on the mainland about eight or nine miles southwest of Point Barrow.
Captain C.L. Hooper in his report on the second voyage of the Corwin remarks: "Point Barrow is the most northern point of the United States, and lacks only 25 miles of being the most northern portion of the continent (a point of land called Boothia Promontory, in longitude 95° west, lies a few miles farther north). Point Barrow is a low sand spit which makes out to the northward about 8 miles from the regular coast-line, which terminates at Cape Smyth, thence turning to the eastward and extending about the same distance forms a bay named by Beechey, Elson Bay, after one of the officers of the Blossom. This bay is too shallow to be of any value, being navigable only for vessels of very light draught Navigation Point Barrow is open to navigation only about one month out of every twelve, that is from some time in August to ^ about ^ mid-September. Most vessels plan to leave the area by September 10.
Captain Hooper gives careful directions as to navigations of the shallow waters surrounding the point. "To the north of the point," he wrote, "lying nearly parallel with the shore, and from 1 to 2 miles distant, is a shoal with only 2 fathoms of water on it, possibly less in places. It is probably 3 miles long from east to west, and 1 mile in breadth. The space between the shoal and the point affords excellent anchorage out of the way of the drift– ice which sets past the point. Small pieces from the southward are constantly starting off shore, and being carried northward by the current, so that an

BARROW, POINT, ALASKA

anchorage on the west side of the point is not always safe or comfortable. A vessel ^ ^ running for this anchorage from the southward should round the point within one half a mile, keeping the lead going and not getting inside of 3 fathoms; the anchorage is in 3 1/2 and 4 fathoms. Vessels going eastward of the point should not 'shut in' the west shore of the point nearer than 2 1/2 miles; and in hauling around the lead should be kept going, and care taken to keep outside of 4 fathoms, which will clear the shoal. In approaching from the north keep outside of 4 fathoms until the coast-line to the south is open to the westward of the point, when the end of the point may be run for with safety until past the shoal."
The ice endangering these waters is of two basic types. The first, known as the ice barrier, is made up of large icebergs which have been grounded about one-half a mile offshore. This barrier extends all the way from Point Franklin, over fifty miles to the southward, to about two miles beyond Point Barrow. The second type is called the pack because it is impenetrable to ships. The pack lies outside the barrier ice, and is estimated to cover from 60% to 80% of the Polar Mediterranean. The pack [: ] drifts back and forth with currents in the ocean and with the direction of the prevailing wind. There is often open water both between the barrier and the shore and between the barrier and the pack.
The barrier has been known to break up and drift seaward before strong offshore winds. During this process, openings of leads may [: ] appear in the barrier, through which, with a shift again to an onshore wind, small icebergs can drift. Since these smaller bergs have a more shallow draft than the ice which forms the barrier, they have been known to fill the inshore water completely, stopping all navigation there. If the barrier remains unbroken, however, it serves as a protection from the pack ice, which also drifts with the currents and the prevailing winds. The amount of ice off

BARROW, POINT, ALASKA

Point Barrow varies from year to year. Sometimes the pack is never out of sight from September to July, and sometimes it drifts far to sea and over the horizon, where it may stay for weeks on end.
When the inshore water is free of ice, a current, with an estimated strength of between three and four knots, flows in a northeasterly direction past the west side of Point Barrow sandspit. Along the east side of the spit a current flows in a northwesterly direction, with an estimated strength of one knot. Judging from the movement of icebergs, there seems to be an eddy centered several miles northeast of the Point where these two currents meet. For many years the current on the west side of the spit has been used as an indication of whether or not open water extends north of Point Franklin. Whaling captains learned that inshore ice north of Point Franklin reduced the strength of the current and lowered the temperature of the water even that distance south.
In general it may be said that, during the months of July, August, and September, navigation is sometimes possible outside the barrier. Navigation inside the barrier is feasible, but pilots should take soundings frequently, since old channels are constantly being filled in and new ones ^ ^ formed by the gouging action of floating icebergs.
Vessels drawing twenty-four feet or less can round Point Barrow easily by keeping a little less than one mile offshore. Navigation eastward from the Point is not recommended although, if an easterly passage must be attempted, August is the safest month. In southerly weather, ships can anchor just east of the Point as close to the shore as their draft permits with good holding bottom.
A survey conducted from May to August of 1945 reported the prevailing winds to be westerly, although winds blew from all directions [: ] with equal force. The strongest winds did not exceed forty-five miles per ^ ^ hour. More than half of this time fog was present and rain and snow fell at various

BARROW, POINT, ALASKA

times all summer.
During this particular season, the pack was never completely out of sight, opening to the westward only to close to the eastward and vice versa. Large icebergs floated about in the open water all the time. Some of these, which rose thirty to fifty feet above the sea, grounded at the five-fathom curve and remained in place a week, until a wind shift dislodged them.
The mean rise and fall of the tide at Point Barrow is only about half a foot. The weather station there is one of the oldest in the Territory. From 1881 to 1883 it was commanded by Major P.H. Ray, of the U.S. Engineer Corps, who is famous for his dog team reconnaissance trip of the Meade River.
For a general description of this part of Alaska, see article on Barrow, Alaska.

BARROW, POINT, ALASKA

REFERENCES
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Hooper, C.L. Report of the Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Steamer Thomas Corwin ^ Report of the Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Steamer Thomas Corwin ^ , in the Arctic Ocean, 1881. Washington, G.P.O., 1884. ^ in the Arctic Ocean, 1881. Washington, G.P.O., 1884. ^
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, G.P.O., 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 540 wds ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 BEAUFORT, CAPE, ALASKA

BEAUFORT, CAPE, on the arctic coast of Alaska, at 69° N.Lat., 164° W.Long., is a dark mountain coming down directly to the shores of the Polar Sea. There is no break in the coast at this Cape, which is the most northerly extension of high land on the coast of Alaska. The mountains at Beaufort trend inland while the coast continues low.
While writing of the conditions under which he named this point, Beechey gives a good description of the country in the vicinity of Cape Beaufort.
"The wind was light, and we made so little progress that on the 9th ^ [ ^ August, 1826 ^ ] ^ Cape Lisburn was still in sight. Before it was entirely lost I landed at a small cape, which I named Cape Beaufort, in compliment to Captain Beaufort, the present hydrograp ^ h ^ er to the Admiralty. The land northward was low and swampy, covered with moss and long grass, which produced all the plants we had met with to the southward, and two or three besides. Cape Beaufort is composed of sandstone, enclosing bits of petrified wood and rushes, and is traversed by narrow veins of coal lying in an E.N.E. and W.S.W. direction. That at the surface was dry and bad, but some pieces which had been thrown up by the burrowing of a small animal, probably the ermine, burned very well.

BEAUFORT, CAPE, ALASKA

"Cape Beaufort is situated in the depth of a great bay, formed between Cape Lisburn and Icy Cape, and is the last point where the hills come close down to the sea, by reason of the coast line curving to the northward, while the range of hills continues its former direction. From the rugged mountains of limestone and flint at Cape Lisburn, there is an uniform descent to the rounded hills of sandstone at Cape Beaufort just described. The range is, however, broken by extensive valleys, intersected by lakes and rivers. Some of these lakes border upon the sea, and in the summer months are accessible to baidars, or even large boats; but as soon as the current from the beds of thawing snow inland ceases, the sea throws up a bar across the mouths of them, and they cannot be entered. The beach, at the places where we landed was shingle and mud, the country mossy and swampy, and infested with [: ] moskitos. We noticed recent tracks of wolves, and some cloven-footed animals, and saw several ptarmigans, ortolans, and a lark. Very little drift wood had found its way ^ ^ upon this part of the coast."

^ Beaufort, Cape, Alaska ^

According to the U.S. Coast Pilot, the wide bite extending from Cape Lisburne (q.v.) to Cape Beaufort is relatively shallow, but with a regular bottom, so that ships may rest at anchor within two miles of shore anywhere along this stretch of coast. The water directly off Cape Beaufort is more shallow than elsewhere, however. Fresh water may be obtained from any of the several streams which enter the Polar Sea in this vicinity and Elliott reports coal near Cape Beaufort in a ridge some 300 feet high.

BEAUFORT, CAPE, ALASKA

Although it does not show up on charts for this part of the arctic coast of Alaska, the indentation eastward of the Cape is reported to be fairly deep, offering good shelter from westerly and southwesterly storms.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Beechey, Capt. F.W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait...in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.
Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait...in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.
London, 1831. 2v.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
^ 105 wds. ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 BEECHEY POINT, ALASKA

BEECHEY POINT projects into the Polar Sea from the arctic coast of Alaska about midway between the mouths of the Colville and the Sagavanirktok Rivers. The most easterly of the Jones Island stand a few miles to sea and directly in front of Beechey Point. ^ In 1837, ^ Dease and Simpson named this point after a hummock of land seen by Sir John Franklin from Return Island in 1826. Simpson remarks, however, that his Beechey Point could not be seen from Return Island "in any state of the atmosphere," because both rise only 30 or 40 feet above sea level and are 12 miles distant from each other.
Recent maps show a town on this point which had a reported population of 12 in 1947.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II ^ Alaska. Part II ^ . 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 140 wds ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 BELCHER, POINT, ALASKA

BELCHER, POINT (70° 48′ N.Lat., 159° 23′ W.Long.) is a blunt promontory, about midway between Point Franklin and Wainwright (q.v.), northern Alaska, on the coast of the Polar Sea. The coast in this vicinity again is a shingle beach, with lagoons inside, back of which lie rolling hills. These hills are higher than any other land that can be seen northeast of Cape Beaufort. North of the Point the coast continues in a low sand beach to Point Franklin.
The water is shoal for several miles off ^ Point ^ Pt. Belcher. Recent maps show no streams cutting the coastline in the immediate vicinity of the Point although tiny Sinaruruk River enters the sea about nine miles south of ^ it. ^ the Point. This stream should not be confused with ^ the ^ Sinaru which enters the Polar Sea about half-way between Point Franklin and Barrow, just north of 71° N.Lat.
^ 920 wds. ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 BLOSSOM SHOALS, ALASKA

BLOSSOM SHOALS are a number of ridges parallel with the coast extending six to eight miles off Icy Cape on the arctic coast of Alaska. These shoals are greater in extent than shown on charts, and, from the grounding of vessels and observation, appear to be spreading.
According to the U.S. Coast Pilot the bottom becomes lumpy and the sound– ings irregular upon approaching these shoals. Vessels are advised to give them a wide berth, and to round Icy Cape outside the 12 fathom limit.
In 1930, Pederson, captain of the trading vessel Patterson , reported a good channel through the Shoals about two miles off Icy Cape. The Coast Guard cutter Northland surveyed a channel with depths of 5 to 9 fathoms, parallel to the west side of Icy Cape, and about 2.5 miles off. This would appear to be the same channel reported by Captain Pederson. The Coast Guard also reports two shallow spots, one with 3 fathom about two miles from the point of the Cape, and another with 2 1/2 fathom about 2 miles from the ^ same ^ point ^ . ^ of the Cape. These two danger ^ ous ^ points ^ spots ^ are inshore of the channel. This channel is of par– ticular importance to vessels caught north of the Shoals by ice setting onto their outer edge.
Blossom Shoals form the approximate southern limits of the inshore ice during the July-September season for navigation. The ice moves inshore and offshore with the winds. As the shoals form a salient at this part of the coast, open water may extend north and south of them but access from one open– water area to the other may be blocked by ice on the other side of the shoals.
In summer, the pack ice frequently lies only a few miles offshore between Icy Cape and Point Barrow, and is likely to close in at any time. A northeast wind, although it blows directly along the shore, keeps the ice clear of the shore to and past Point Barrow. Heavy ice, when close inshore, appears to stop the surface current, nearly or quite, and lowers the temperature to about 36°F.

BLOSSOM SHOALS, ALASKA

or less. It was considered by the Yankee whaling ships that a vessel working up the shore might readily tell if ice was on Point Barrow by watching the set of the current and the temperature of the water. If the ice was clear of the shore, the current would be setting northward from 1 to 3 knots, with a tempera– ture of about 40° F.
It was a whaler and Revenue Cutter rule that a vessel going northward of Icy Cape should sight the ice pack frequently, keeping close watch of its movements, and in the event of its starting inshore should get south of Blossom Shoals as soon as possible. Several whaling and trading vessels, and Stefans– son's ship the Karluk , are on record as having been caught in the ice off Point Barrow, some of them to be carried helpless, beset in the pack, along the shore to Barrow, where they usually continued [: ] orth from the Point, to be freed usually when from ten to thirty miles north of the Point.
The preceding information is mainly from the Coast Pilot and is, therefore, based on a great deal of seafaring experience [: ] ; but nevertheless it requires comment. The Pilot goes to the extreme of saying that the pack ice "seldom moves more than a few miles offshore between Icy Cape and Point Barrow," which would seem an oversata overstatement. For there are sometime periods sometimes periods of weeks at a time when no ice can be seen from the land and when in all probability the open water along shore extends far beyond the horizon. ^ On the other hand, ^ I ^ i ^ t is true, however, that there are summers when the ice scar [: ] cely ever leaves the beach and when the best chance of getting along is to use a ship of very shallow draft that can take [: ] advantage of heavy cakes having been so grounded offshore that they fend the pack away.
On this same coastal stretch the ice may "go abroad" in winter far beyond the horizon; but at that season it is rare if it stays away more than a few days. At such times, of course, it leaves a strip of fast ice along the shore. This varies in width at different places and at different times from a few

BLOSSOM SHOALS, ALASKA

hundred yards to several miles. There have been cases when [: ] in winter the ice was broken right along the beach at some points so that the width of the shore ice was only a few yards.
Beechey, who named Blossom Shoals after his ship in August of 1826, described them as follows: "We passed along the land in about eight fathoms water until near Icy Cape, when we came rather suddenly into three fathoms and three quarters, but immediately deepened the soundings again to seven: the next cast, however, was four fathoms; and not knowing how soon we might have less, the ship was immediately brought to an anchor. Upon examination with the boats, several successive banks were found at about three quarters of a mile apart, lying parallel with the coast line. Upon the outer ones, there were only three and a half or four fathoms, and upon the inner bank, which had hitherto escaped notice from being under the sun, so little water that the sea broke constantly over it. Between the sh [: ] als there were nine and ten fathoms, with very irregular casts. These shoals lie immediately off Icy Cape where the land takes an abrupt turn to the eastward, and are probably the effect of a large river, which here empties itself into the sea; though they may be occasioned by heavy ice grounding off the point, and being fixed to the bottom, as we found our anchor had so firm a hold, that in attempting to weigh it the chain cable broke, after enduring a very heavy strain."

BLOSSOM SHOALS, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.

Beechey, F.W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait... in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.

Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait... in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28.
London, 1831. 2v.

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947.

VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^

^ 310 wds ^

Ruby Collins January, 1950 BRITISH MOUNTAINS, ALASKA

BRITISH MOUNTAINS, arctic Alaska, rise treeless and partly snow-covered sixty or more miles west of the 141st meridian, the Alaska-Canada boundary, and extend for an equal distance east of the boundary. The name British Mountains was adopted by the International Boundary Commission for the crest line on the 141st meridian. Leffingwell extends the name to cover "the northern portion of the Arctic Range between the boundary line and the Jago River, where the Romanzof Mountains begin." This demarcation would seem to omit the Richardson Mountains (q.v.), which appear on most recent maps as separating the British Mountains from the coastal plain, thereby making up part of the international boundary. Leffingwell continues: "The writer has applied the term British Mountains to the portion of the Arctic Mountains l ^ y ^ ing east of the Romanzofs and north of the Yukon-Arctic divide. The mountains which Franklin discovered from Point Griffin were undoubtedly the higher snow-clad granite mountains about the headwaters of Okpilak River ^ [ ^ just southeast of the Romanzofs ^ ] ^ ."
On July 21, 1826, Sir John Franklin climbed Mount Con ^ i ^ bear o ^ (Conybeare) ^ , near the mouth of the Malcolm River some twenty miles east of the boundary and about eight miles inland. ^ In Franklin's words, ^ the view from this 800-foot elevation "possessed the charm of novelty, and attracted particular regard. We commanded a prospect of three ranges of mountains lying parallel to the Buckland chain ^ [ ^ in Canada ^ ] ^ , but of less altitude. The view was bounded by a fourth range of high-peaked mountains, for the most part covered with snow. This distant range was afterwards distinguished by the name of the British Chain."
On the Alaska w ^ s ^ ide of the boundary, the British Mountains enclose the headwaters of the Kongakut River, and on the Canadian side the

BRITISH MOUNTAINS, ALASKA

entire course of the tributaries to the upper Firth River an ^ d ^ part of the Firth itself. There are doubtless a great many unnamed streams in this section of Alaska; ^ but, ^ and ^ since [: ] they are almost entirely unexplored, ^ little is known in detail of the entire region of the British Mountains. since [: ] they are almost entirely unexplored,
Franklin, John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826, and 1827
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1825, 1826, and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828, p.134.
Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1919. U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof.pa ^ Prof.pa ^ . 109.
^ 3,050 wds ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

THE BROOKS RANGE traverses northern Alaska like an enormous backbone, forming the divide between ^ ^ the river ^ s ^ flowing southward to the Yukon and southwestward to Kotzebue Sound, and those flowing northward into the Polar Sea. The southern drainage system, which includes the Porcupine, Chandalar, Koyukuk, Kobuk, and Noatak Rivers, are discusses separately. We are concern– ed here with the rivers flowing northward from the Range.
Although the Brooks Range is spoken of as a unit, it consists of several individual mountain groups, some of which have separate names. The De Long, Baird, Schwatka, Melville, and Endicott Mountains, as well as the Mulgrave, Igichuk, and Lisburne Hills are, for instance, all part of the Range. The Schwatka Mountains lie between the head of the Kobuk and the Alatna Rivers; the Melville Mountains between the Colville and the country east of the Alatna; and the Endicott Mountains more towards Canada. The Mulgrave Hills separate the lower Noatak from the coast; the Igichuk Hills form the lower gorge of the Noatak; and the Lisburne Hills extend southeast– ward from Cape Lisburne. In addition, Leffingwell's map of the Canning River region shows the Franklin, Romanzof, Shublik, and Sadlerochit groups north of the Endicotts.
Compared with other ranges, the Brooks is relatively low. Its sculpture has produced ragged mountain masses interrupted by steeply trenched or glacially opened out valleys. Throughout its extent from the International Boundary, on the ^ ea ^ st, to the Colville River, the greatest heights are Mount Michelson, 9,239 feet, and Mount Chamberlain, 9,131 feet. From the Colville westward to the Polar Sea, the highest peak, around 8,400 feet, is near the head of the Noatak River. It forms part of a high ridge west of the Alatna, where many elevations of over 7,000 feet were recorded. An 8,000-foot
^ 25 ^

BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

peak was mapped in the upper part of the Noatak about seven miles southwest of the mouth of Portage Creek. A 7,600-foot peak was recorded at the head of one of the tributaries of the Chandler River near 68° 15′ N.Lat., 153° 15′ W.Long. There are ^ ^ peaks between 7,000 and 7,400 feet near the head of the Chandler.
In the vicinity of the Aniuk, a tributary to the Noatak at about 158° W.Long., and west of this point, no peaks as high as 5,000 feet were recorded though there are probably some of that height or greater in the unsurveyed re– gion between the Noatak and the Kobuk west of the mouth of the Aniuk.
The average height of the summit of the Brooks Range from the meridian of the headwaters of the Aniuk eastward to the Colville region is probably between 6,000 and 7,000 feet. From the Aniuk westward the highest parts of the range probably have an average elevation between 3,500 and 4,500 feet, and in the extreme western part near the coast the highest peaks stand less than 3,000 feet above the sea.
Speaking for the range west of meridian 150°, Smith and Mertie report that while glaciers were formerly extensive they are uncommon now. In all the region traversed by the Geological Survey party only three glaciers were seen, none of them more than two miles long. Two were near the high peaks at the head of the mappe ^ d ^ portion of the Noatak, the other at the head of the valley that comes into the Alatna River from the west a short distance down– stream from the Kutuk, or Pish River. The almost entire absence of glaciers is in marked contrast with the situation 500 miles or more to the south in the mountains of the Alaska Range.
Leffingwell found that near meridian 146° there were no proper glaciers in the [: ] 5,000-6,000-foot mountains visible from the coast, but that there were glaciers of some size a little farther south,
^ 24 ^

BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

where the peaks run up beyond 9,000 feet. He considers that over a large part of the arctic plain of Alaska there is as yet no evidence of past glaciation. Smith and other members of the Alaska Division of the Geological Survey are in agreement.
Passes The height of the peaks and ridges makes the range seem a formi– dable barrier to travel; but there are many gaps at lower eleva– tions by which passage of the mountains can be made with reasonable facility.
From the Alatna River there is a good route, much used in the past, by way of Helpme jack Creek and thence across a pass at less than 1,200 feet to the upper Kobuk. A route by way of the Alatna River to the Noatak is afforded by a small tributary to the Alatna from the west about twenty-five miles (air line) above the mouth of the Unakserak, thence across a pass at less than 3,400 feet, and so down Portage Creek, a tributary of the Noatak. Between the Kobuk and Noatak, passes across the mountains probably occur at the heads of many of the larger valleys, but the only ones that are definitely known to have been used are those from the Ambler and Redstone to the Cutler River and the route southward by the Ipmiluik River (which probably leads either to the head of the Kogoluktuk or to that of the Ambler River), and one at the head of Squirrel River over which pack horses are said to have been driven into the Noatak Basin. The elevations of the routes between the Kobuk and the Noatak are not known, but probably they do not stand much above 3,000 feet.
There are several good routes north to the arctic coastal plain. One of these is by way of John River to the Anaktuvuk, across a 2,200-foot pass; another by way of the Alatna River and its tributary Unakserak to the Killik, across a pass at 3,800 feet; a third by way of the side streams of the Noatak to streams tributary to the Colville across passes that, at the heads of the Aniuk and Nimiuktuk stand between 2,200 and 3,800 feet. There are other
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BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

routes by way of the Kugururok, a tributary of the Noatak, to the Utukok across a pass about 2,600 feet high; by way of another pass at the head of this same river to the Kokolik; and by way of the Kivalina River across a pass at about 1,300 feet to the Kukpuk River and thence by another pass at 1,400 feet to the Kukpowruk.
Victor Shaw, in the Alaska Sportsman for November, 1937, says of the John pass that the river is ^ ^ swift with a stiff gradient and a rocky bed. In the spring, canoe travel averages five to seven miles a day, so that during high water, it takes several weeks to make the pass from Bettles, where there is a portage of two or three miles to Chandler Lake. Game consists chiefly of white goat, caribou, ptarmigan, and waterfowl, with grayling in the streams. Coarse gold has been found in creek gravels on the arctic side, and Shaw concludes that the formation is probably an extension of the auriferous sedi– mentary schists and slates of the upper Koyukuk region.
Smith and Mertie's farthest [: ] east was 150° W.Long. Information on passes east of that point, and going from north to south, is derived from Leffingwell, from Eskimo report, and from the observations of Dr. R.M. Anderson of the Stefansson-Anderson 1808-12 expedition.
Generally speaking, the coast Eskimos and the more experience ^ d ^ white men think sledge passes can be found, and certainly passes for a man with pack dogs, at the head of practically any river, provided it heads well into the mountains.
Listing the rivers from west to east, there is no information about a [: ] Kuparuk pass. That at the head of the Sagavinirktok is considered bad. Sledges do go through it, however, and the river has other qualities which make it at least a moderately desirable route. For, of its 200-mile length, an umiak could, in early summer, probably be tracked 100 to 150 miles,
^ 25 ^

BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

and there is abundant wood for camping purposes the whole way. In winter the same stream will be a sledge route, with the excessive curves cut off by climbing upon the higher land and travelling parallel.
Neither Leffingwell nor Stefansson was able to obtain much information from natives about the Shaviovik pass. They vaguely believed there was one and that it was rather difficult.
During the winter of 1908-9, Anderson and his party of Eskimos crossed easily with sledges and moderate loads through the pass of the south fork of the Hulahula. Their chief difficulty was with sand bars over which they had to pull sledges. There are pretty good willows on the north side of this river and willows and spruce on the south.
One of the worst rivers, by common report, is the Okpilak, for it rises in some of the high mountains that run up towards 9,000 feet and there– fore contain glaciers. This applies to both the eastern and western tribu– taries which form the river.
The local Eskimos in Stefansson's time (1907-14) were uninformed about passes from the Jago River; but this was natural, for they were not the original natives and were superstitious about the river.
The Aichilik River passes are said to be difficult. There are many glaciers, the mountains are jagged, and there are few willows to burn.
The pass up the Turner River is frequently used by Eskimos, Indians, and whites. It is considered easy and is practically a beaten road. Its main disadvantage is occasional flooding.
The rivers which we have not mentioned are those which head short of the mountains or in their outskirts, so that they do not suggest themselves as routes between the Yukon basin and the arctic coast.
However, it is sometimes a good idea in crossing these northern moun– tains to forget all about rivers and to go over mountains which seem neither jagged nor high and where the slope looks good from seaward. This is how the
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party crossed which, in early April, were carrying Stefansson south from Herschel Island to Fort Yukon when he was convalescent from typhoid fever in 1918. They did not follow river valleys except occasionally and yet made a good crossing into the valley of the Old Crow.
The Brooks Range reaches to the coast in only three places: for about 25 or 30 miles south of Cape Lisburne; at Cape Thompson, and again at Cape Seppings.
At all three of these points steep, unscalable cliffs rise directly out of the sea to height of from 500 to 1,000 feet. Depths up to twenty fathoms, deep water for this part of the Polar Sea, will be found directly off or close to these cliffs, but such depths do not make these waters truly safe for navigation. Strong winds flow over the cliffs, and there are no harbors, only an abundance of drifting ice, strong currents, and fog.
From Cape Lisburne northward to Cape Sabine the land is lower and loses the rugged character of that to the south. The hills are rounded and rolling, regular in outline, and sloping toward the sea. Toward Cape Sabine the land becomes a series of ridges and valleys running inland: both terminate at the coast in bluffs.
Arctic Coastal North of the Brooks Ranger there is a plateau, known Plain as the Arctic Coastal Plain, which does not reach quite to the sea. It is a triangular prairie with its apex at Point Barrow, about a hundred miles north of its base. From mountain foothills in the south the land slopes northward down to 200 feet on the plateau and as the coast is approached changes to very low land. Heading inland, by sledge in wirter or pack animals in summer, from the coast the plain is so nearly level that in most places it is not possible to determine offhand whether you are going uphill or down. The rivers are all sluggish near the coast, but thirty or
^ 24 ^

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forty miles inland most of them run between fairly high banks, which shows that the land does slope up, even though almost imperceptibly, toward the foothills.
From Oliktok, just east of the Colville, or about midway of the arctic coast of Alaska, the mountains are probably about 80 miles inland. As one proceeds eastward, they become visible from near the mouth of the Kuparuk. Continuing eastward they are nearer the sea and higher so that at Demarcation Point, only a few miles from the International Boundary, they are only some six or eight miles from the sea. The highest, as said, are above 9,000 feet and contain a few small glaciers.
On the entire coastal plain, from sea to mountains, there are the lake multitudes which characterize all non-mountainous northern lands. Stefansson has hunted over this plain different years, in winter. Neither he, nor anyone who could help it, has hunted in summer in this area, for the lakes make progress afoot difficult and tedious. It is often necessary to walk five miles to gain one. What seems to be an isthmus between two lakes will frequently turn out to be a peninsula, making it necessary to retrace many steps. However, frequently these lakes are so shallow that with knee [: ] boots they can be waded. Stefansson has sometimes waded across lakes more than a mile in diameter, finding the depth varying only by a few inches. In a summer crossing of such lakes there may be first a foot of water, then beneath it a foot of mud through which the traveler sinks at every step to the level of permanent frost.
The most striking characteristic of this plain is the uniformity of its landscape. Except for minor details, its appearance is everywhere the same; prominent landmarks are rare or absent.
Of this region in winter Leffingwell says: The heavy deposits of ice
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that are formed over the flood plains of arctic rivers have been described in many of the recent reports upon Alaska. Middendorff, however, first described and explained this phenomenon in the middle of the last century, after several years of observation in northern Siberia. The writer can add very little either to his description or his explanation.
"Deposits of this kind of ice are called 'glaciers' by miners and even by some geologists. 'Flood ice' has also been used, but does not convey the proper impression. Middendorff introduced the term aufeis, and the writer has adopted it for this report.
"The process of formation of aufeis is as follows: During the winter the flow of the rivers is locally impeded by the formation of anchor and frazil ice, or the shoal places may freeze solidly to the bottom. The water coming from the upper stretches of the river, being thus impeded, will rise and flood the adjacent land. When the river is entirely ^ ^ frozen over, as is the rule in the Arctic, the hydraulic pressure is sufficient to bulge up and fracture the ice at weak places. The escaping water is soon coated with ice, and the flow is gradually restricted by freezing, until sufficient hydraulic pressure is set up to enable the water to burst through again. This flooding and freezing goes on all winter, or at least until the winter flow of water is so reduced that it can pass through the gravels beneath the ice. Thus a deposit of ice may be built up, much after the manner of an alluvial deposit.
"If the winter flow is sufficient the aufeis may reach a considerable thickness, so that it may override the ordinary banks of the river and spread out over the whole flood plain. The greatest deposit seen by the writer was about a mile wide and 3 or 4 miles long. The thickness in the last part of June was about 12 feet.
"In autumn the river is covered with thick ice before the flow is retarded sufficiently to set up hydraulic pressure. Acting under this pressure
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BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

the water forces up the domes and ridges of ice, which are a conspicuous feature of aufeis deposits. These elevations are as a rule less than 10 feet high; about 15 feet is the maximum. As a rule their shape is oblong, though ridges over a hundred feet long have been noted. There is invariably a fracture along the crest of the mounds, whence water occasionally flows. The writer has never seen these mounds in the process of formation, but early in November the Canning was dotted with them. The natives say that they have seen them rising early in the autumn, accompanied by an outflow of water. The prospector Arey confirms this report.
"After this first process of formation of the mounds the water escapes more quietly. As soon as the newly flooded area is frozen over hydraulic pressure is again set up, but it has only a few inches of ice to fracture. Consequently there is but slight disturbance of the surface.
"With the advent of warm weather the flooding water, no longer freez– ing, covers the whole deposit of aufeis. Soon the drainage is concentrated into troughs, which have been melted along the lines of greatest flow. As these troughs are cut downward those most favorably situated grow at the expense of the neighboring streams, until by the time the actual river bed is reached the water is concentrated into one or two streams flowing at the bottom of ice canyons...
"The ice is gradually undermined by the river, so that large blocks break off with loud reports and fall into the water. Navigation at this time would be very dangerous, for there is danger from falling ice and of being swept under the ice by the current. All of the ice within reach of the river is cut cut before the summer is over, but that upon the high bars may remain until September or may possibly last over a second winter. By the 1st of July the aufeis of the Canning was removed from the stretch north of the mountains; a week earlier that near the forks was almost intact.
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The mounds often remain some weeks after the thinner deposits have melted away.
"Okpilak River contained very little aufeis. There was a steep valley train of ice that had been built out a couple of hundred yards from the lower end of the West Fork Glacier. A similar deposit floored the bottom of a valley that stretches eastward from Mount Michelson. At the time of the writer's visit the Hulahula had two areas of aufeis outside of the mountains, and within the mountains as far as the forks most of its floor was covered with ice. Sadlerochit River had one area of aufeis north of the mountains, but above this there were only a few patches confined to the side streams. On the Canning aufeis occurs nearly everywhere from the forks to the coast, the greatest development being near the forks and below Shublik Springs."
Names The names of the various mountain groups included in the Brooks Range have been assigned at different times by several different explorers.
The De Long Mountains, for instance, were so identified by Stoney, in 1886, in honor of George Washington De Long, like Stoney a member of the U.S. Navy, who headed the fated voyage of the Jeanette in 1879. Stoney also named the Baird Mountains after Professor Spencer F. Baird, then Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Schwatka Mountains, probably in honor of Lieut. Frederick Schwatka.
The Endicott Mountains, however, were named by Henry T. Allen, of the U.S. Army, in 1885, probably after William C. Endicott, then Secretary of War.
In 1778, Cook called a point between the Noatak and the sea "Mulgrave," but Beechey, having approached closer to shore and seen that the hills were
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farther inland and of greater extent than Cook had supposed, called them the Mulgrave Range. Since they are now recognized to be only a minor group in the Brooks Range, they have more recently been reduced to the status of "Hills."
Cape Lisburne was discovered and named by Cook in 1778, but it was Collier, in 1904, who named the highlands extending southwestward from this Cape the Lisburne Hills.
(See separate articles for the history of the names of individual rivers, towns, and coastal points in this part of Alaska.)

BROOKS RANGE, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.

Leffingwell, E. de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)

Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of North ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of North^ western Alaska ^western Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.

^ 230 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 BROWNLOW POINT, ALASKA

BROWNLOW POINT, on the arctic coast of Alaska, is the western entrance point to Camden Bay. Only about two miles of water separates this point from the eastern end of Flaxman Island.
Landing at Brownlow Point during his August, 1826, attempt to complete the northwest passage, Franklin saw that the "bay" to the southwest (in reality the [: ] mouth of the Staines River (q.v.)) was strewed with stone and that his only chance of making progress was to sail northwestward again toward the ice. After struggling through heavy floe ice, he came upon Flaxman Island. Shoal water defeated his attempt to sail along the south shore of the island, and the ice was solidly packed against the north shore. Such experiences as this very well indicate the unusual amount and persistence of the ice of the north coast of Alaska during the 1826 season.
Leffingwell, who spent the years 1906-1914 in this part of Alaska, notes that Brownlow Point is one of the best fishing spots along the coast. Using four gill nets of 2 1/2-inch mesh, he caught more than 300 fish there in about 18 hours. His catch had an average weight of 1 1/2 pounds.
A narrow line of sandbars and reefs extends southeastward from Brownlow Point into Camden Bay. The point itself is low and the mainland to the west of it curves sharply southward to the mouth of the Staines River. This stream is really the western embouchure of the Canning River (q.v.), another branch of which drains into Camden Bay several miles southeast of Brownlow Point.

BROWNLOW POINT, ALASKA

R. J. COLLINS - Photographer 20 MAIN STREET MILLER FALLS - MASSACHUSETTS TELEPHONE 2861 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic dictionary of Alaska ^ , 2d ed. [: ] Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1906.

Franklin, John. Narrative of a second expedition to the shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827

Narrative of a second expedition to the shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828.

Leffingwell, E. de K. Canning River region, northern Alaska ^ Canning River region, northern Alaska ^ , Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1919. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional paper ^ Professional paper ^ 109).

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ , Part II, 5th (1947) ed., Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1947.

EA-Geography: Alaska (Stefansson Library Research Staff)

NORTHERN ALASKA GEOGRAPHICAL ITEMS
Icy Cape to Int [: ] rnational Boundary (Place names arranged geographically)
Folder (1): A - B
^^ Folder (2): C - L
Folder (3): M - Y
^ 1980 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

CANNING RIVER, one of the major streams in arctic Alaska, enters the Polar Sea by two distributaries slightly north of 70° N.Lat., and between 145° and 146° W.Long. The eastern and larger distributary retains the name of the main stream and flows into the western end of Camden Bay. The smaller, western distribu– tary enters the sea just south of Brownlow Point, some 10 (airline) miles west of the main mouth of the river. This western branch is also known as the Staines River (q.v.), although this name has been dropped from some recent maps of the region.
According to Leffingwell, who studied the entire Canning River region between the years 1906 and 1914, the Canni [: ] g is about 120 miles long. The pros– pector, [: ] S.J. Marsh, had previously recorded the length as 180 miles, but Leffingwell feels this is an exaggeration.
The headwaters of the Canning rise in the Brooks Range among 7,000-foot peaks. The two streams which later join to form the Canning both rise close to each other and across the divide from the Junjik and East Chandalar Rivers in the Yukon River (q.v.) system.
The larger and more easterly fork is considered part of the main river, but the smaller and more westerly is known as Marsh Fork. After flowing north– ward for about 50 miles, these two streams converge at a [: ] point about 70 miles from the coast. Mount Salisbury, 6900 feet, rises about 12 miles off to the southwest of this junction. Leffingwell reports that the ice cap on this peak may discharge small glaciers into the Canning River system.
This part of the Canning valley is open and trough-shaped, with slopes rising on both sides to heights of about 3000 feet. Below the forks, the river flows to the northwest through a flat basin a mile or so wide. For about 7 miles, as it skirts the western edge of the Franklin Mountains, the river

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

suddenly narrows and plunges through a rocky gorge not more than 100 feet wide and some 50 feet deep.
North of the Franklin Mountains the basin again opens up. Across a low area extending eastward from this part of the Canning ^ river ^ flow Eagle and Cache Creeks, the first named tributaries of the Canning. West of this same stretch the basin rises about 1000 feet to meet the Anaktuvuk Plateau.
At this point the Canning passes Shublik Springs, which gush out of the Shublik Mountains at an elevation of some 400 feet above the river , and then join to form the torrent which breaks through the east bank of the river a few miles below Cache Creek. Leffingwell reports that these springs continue to flow all winter. He found the June temperature of one of them to be 43° F. and the torrent to be impassable on foot.
A few miles farther downstream the river passes around Shublik Island and within a few miles of Mt. Copleston and then, after skirting the western end of the Shublik and Sadlerochit Mountains, it enters the upland plateau. The mountains withdraw from the west side of the river, and a bluff perhaps 100 feet high follows along the east side to within 20 miles of the coast. Below this point the Canning only slightly incises the face of the coastal plain and splits about 15 miles from the sea into the two distributaries previously mentioned.
Climate Leffingwell gives a good account of the weather in the Canning River Region. Until about January 20 the sun is not visible, but the nights are clearer during this particular month than at any other time of year. February is usually marked by warmer weather and storms. Maximum February temperature recorded by Leffingwell was 43.5° F. March he considers the most unpleasant month of the year. Temperatures drop and high winds are common. By April the sun is strong enough so strong that goggles must be worn against

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

snow blindness. The first part of April is apt to be cold, but a sudden rise in temperatures toward the end of the month is the earliest sign of spring. Leffingwell is of the opinion that more snow falls during April and May than at any other time of year.
Snow buntings, geese, ducks, and sea gulls return in May, and there is light enough to travel by night. Toward the end of May the Canning River breaks up, flooding the sea ice at its mouth. River water drains into the ocean through the many cracks in the sea ice. The sunshine is now sufficient to soften the snow during the day, although it hardens again each night; T ^ t ^ ravel is therefore easiest after midnight. The mountains lose most of their snow during May and, by the end of the month, it is no longer possible to sled along the river basins.
June weather is clear and warm. Pools of water from melting snow appear on the ice floes and the snow slowly melts from the coastal plain. River water eats away the sea ice, and shoal waters are free of ice. It is now possible to travel short distances along the coast in a small boat. Travel by water improves during July. At some time during that month an easterly gale may be expected to drive the ice out of the lagoon west of Flaxman Island. At about the same time the weather becomes generally windy, and rainy, skies are overcast and fog is frequent. The stars are not usually visible again until the last of August. The sea is freest from ice during August. Navigation s continues to be possible for the first three weeks of September, although new ice may form at any time thereafter. Land pools and shoal waters will crust over with ice several times before it forms permanently.
Toward the end of September the ground is already covered with snow, but the sea ice, although formed, is not yet strong enough to support a man, and yet is already too thick for boat travel. These conditions suspend all

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

travel for about a week. Coastal travel is once more possible by mid-October, but the winter storms have already begun. Leffingwell records gales with tem– peratures down to ࢤ5° F. for late October, and adds that November and December are also stormy. The sun sets for the winter about November 20, but the 6 hours of twilight which persist until its reappearance make night travel possible.
Vegetation The entire course of the Canning River lies well beyond the tree line. On the upper river, within the mountains, a few small willows , perhaps 12 or 15 feet high , will be found ^ appear ^ , and farther downstream scattered patches of cottonwood. Some of these seem very tall because of the unrelieved flatness of the surrounding countryside, but they do not measure more than 25 feet high, at the greatest. Leffingwell found no evergreen trees north of the Brooks Range divide. According to members of the U.S. Geological Survey who have traveled with horses in the Canning region, the grasses of the river bars and the plains are [: ] sufficient throughout the summer to sustain the strength of pack animals so long as they are not over-worked.
Animal Life Caribou were once extremely numerous everywhere over the arctic coastal plain of Alaska, but, during the last few years of Leffingwell's stay, their numbers were greatly reduced and have not been replenished. Leffingwell reports a few Dall sheep near the headwaters of the Canning, but no other large game. Eider ducks, black brant, white-fronted geese, and ptarmigan are all fairly numerous in the Canning region. Although certain spots are more favorable than others, fishing is generally successful all along the coast during July and August, and the larger rivers, such as the

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

Canning, are well-stocked at all ^ ^ times of year. The best season for river fish– ing, however, is ^ ^ just before the fall freeze-up when the water is low and the deeper pools are approachable by wading. Eskimos who fish in the river during the winter usually catch enough to keep them going from day to day. Grayling are found in the rivers, the salmon trout both in the rivers and along the coast and the whitefish only in the sea.
According to Leffingwell, the white fox is the most valuable fur– bearing animal in this part of Alaska. Working continuously a trapper will secure between 50 and 100 skins a season, although fluctuations in the fox population are very great from one year to the next.
^ Exploration ^ Although Franklin had named the Canning in 1826 while passing through Camden Bay, he did not explore the river. It was not until Collinson was from in frozen in near Flaxman Island during the winter of 153/54 that was a white man investigated the Canning region. Going ashore on July 5, 1854, Collinson discovered that the Staine ^ s ^ River was really another mouth of the Canning. In 1901, the prospector, H.T. (Ned) Arey, sledded from Pt. Barrow to the Canning and wintered in that region for eleven years. He was the first white man to study the region in detail, the first to enter the Canning and the first to collect native maps of the vicinity. S.J. Marsh, another prospector, went up the east or main fork of the Canning farther than Leffingwell's upper camp. Leffingwell's report reviews the history of the exploration of the Canning region, ^ and ^ brings all pre-existing information concerning it into focus with his own detailed study of the entire region. Although his main interest is geologic and geographic, he includes aspects many other aspects as well, all based upon his own 1906-1914 experiences in the field.

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

Ice A kind of ice sometimes called "glaciers" and sometimes "flood ice" is formed over the flood plains of the rivers of arctic Alaska every winter. Leffingwell prefers the term "aufeis" for this phenomenon.
Extended low temperatures and the shallowness of the lower reaches of the streams contribute to the formation of aufies. For some distance up from the mouth of a river anchor or frazil ice may form, or the stream may freeze solidly to the bottom. At the same time, water continues to arrive from the upper river through channels which its greater velocity has cut under the layer of surface ice which covers the entire river. The hydraulic pressure created by this means increases until it is able to break through the surface ice. Large quantities of water escape and spread out over the frozen surface of the river. Very soon this water is transformed into ice, and the break in the surface ice also refreezes, but never to the strength of the unfractured sections. The same fractures bursts open again and again all winter long, until the flow of water beneath is so slight that it can pass through the gravels of the river bottom. Repetitions of this process sometimes cause the aufeis to overflow the river banks and to spread out over the flood plain. The greatest deposit seen by Leffingwell was in June and measured about 1 mile wide, 3 or 4 miles long, and about 12 inches thick.
Before actually breaking through the surface ice, the water always forces domes and ridges in it. These are usually oblong and about 10 feet high, although Leffingwell records one 15 feet high. The first fracturing of these domes, which is always lengthwise of the crest, is explosive, but there– after the water escapes more quietly.
With spring the river floods and large amounts of water flow through the domes and out over the aufeis, forming troughs and channels in the surface of the ice and finally working its way back to the river bed.

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

With the continuing warmer weather and the flooding of the river, the ice directly over the river bed it cut away from underneath. Large blocks of ice break off and fall into the water. Before the end of summer, all the ice within reach of the river water is cut away, but that which has formed high on the bars may persist until September of even until the following year. Aufeis is formed almost everywhere on the Canning, but is greatest near the forks and below Shublik Springs.
Mineral Resources In view of the fact that it is now proposed to extend the boundary of Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 eastward toward the Canning River, it is interesting to note that Leffingwell mentions a seepage of oil and some coal outcrops in the western part of the arctic slope of the Canning River region. He also mentions a few colors of gold in the stre ^ a ^ ms of the region, but adds that the isolation of the area, the severity of the climate, the absence of fuel, and the problems of transportation would probably be sufficient to discourage most prospectors from working the region.
Name On the morning of August 5, 1826, when Sir John Franklin was approaching the mouth of the Canning from the east, he was "much teased by the boat's repeatedly touching the ground." However shallow Camden Bay had proved to be, Franklin found even less water off the mouth of the large river which he named "in honour of the late Mr. Canning." Franklin further notes that the water of the bay was perfectly fresh 3 miles from the land and that the ice was much more loose abre ^ a ^ st of the mouth of the river than it had been elsewhere along the coast.

CANNING RIVER, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic dictionary of Alaska ^ , 2d ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.

Leffingwell, E. de K. Canning River region, northern Alaska ^ Canning River region, northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional paper ^ Professional paper ^ 109.

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ , Part II, 5th (1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947.

Willson, C.O. "Full-scale exploration under way by Navy in arctic Alaska," Oil and Gas Journal ^ Oil and Gas Journal ^ , August 9, 1947.

----. "Airborne, surface, and subsurface facilities used in seeking arctic oil," Oil and Gas Journal ^ Oil and Gas Journal ^ , August 23, 1947.

^ 80 wds ^

Ruby Collins January, 1950 CHAMBERLIN, MOUNT, ALASKA

CHAMBERLIN (CHAMBERLAIN), MOUNT (69° 17′ N.Lat., 144° 51′ W.Long.), arctic Alaska, was named by Leffingwell after Professor T.C. Chamberlin. For some reason the name appears in its alternate form on a great many recent maps.
Mount Chamberlin rises to 9,131 feet a few miles south of Lakes Peters and Schrader at the headwaters of the Sadlerochit River. Leffingwell shows it as the most prominent peak in the Franklin Mountains, its double, ice-clad summit towering 3,000 feet above the neighboring mountains.
Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. Wash., D.C., D.P.O., 1919, ^ p.50. ^ U.S.Geol.Surv., Prof.pa. 109.
^ 515 wds ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 CHIPP RIVER, ALASKA

CHIPP RIVER, northern Alaska, the modern name for the stream known to the Eskimos as the Ikpikpung, flows into the Polar Sea by way of Admiralty Bay, an extension of Dease Inlet (q.v.). Three other streams, the Inaru, Meade, and Topagoruk, also enter the head of Admiralty Bay.
Because of the low and almost perfectly flat nature of the surrounding countryside, and the resultant confusion in the drainage, there has been [: ] some doubt both as to the name and the course of the Chipp River.
In the early spring of 1883, Lieut. P.H. Ray made a trip to the Meade River and some of its neighboring streams. He reported the Chipp as the Ikpikpung. Three years later, in May and June of 1886, Ensign W.L. Howard, of Stoney's naval expedition to the Kobuk River, traveled down the Ikpikpuk and the Chipp on his way to Point Barrow. It was Stoney who named the Chipp in honor of Lieut. Charles Winans Chipp, U.S.N., who [: ] perished on the De Long expedition of 1881.
According to most recent maps the Chipp is a western branch of a larger river, the Ikpikpuk, which flows more directly northward and empties into the head of Smith Bay, the next large depression in the north coast of Alaska east of Admiralty Bay.
Howard describes the upper Chipp River country as being low, flat, and sandy. Only occasional mounds of sand and a growth of stubble relieved the monotony of the landscape. At first the Chipp was only about 100 yards wide, but soon increased this to 500 yards, remaining shoal and filled with sand spits and sand islands. Game was scarce having remained farther in the interior. The river banks were so low as to be scarcely perceptible, causing the stream to overflow onto the plain during periods of high water.
"Passed [: ] through two lakes," the report reads, "made by the ^ ^ river widening over the tundra; the first nearly ^ ^ circular and about a mile in diameter; the second, half a mile further on, was about five miles in diameter. Both were very shallow (the boats grounded in the larger) and were full of

CHIPP RIVER, ALASKA

sand-spits and islands. The surrounding country was level ^ ^ and a network of ponds and lakes of all sizes, with ^ ^ the river winding in and out among them connecting a great many."
At about this point in his trip Howard and his Eskimo companions met a group of Point Barrow Eskimos who were on their way to the Colville and the Mackenzie Rivers to trade. They had with them dogs and sleds as well as boats and were carrying the boats on the sleds over the marshlands until they should meet open water. "The trip from Point Barrow to Mackenzie River and return occupies two years. They communicate [: ] and trade with ^ ^ the [: ] Hudson Bay natives, and the latter sometimes visit Point Barrow, and some of them visited us at this camp."
So extensive was this brisk [: ] pre-white trade among the Eskimos that products of the Hudson Bay natives far to the east or those of the Diomede or Cape Prince of Wales tribes, to the southwest in Bering Strait, might finally come into the possession of a Point Barrow Eskimo. The report of the Howard trip mentions the considerable trading which ^ ^ went on at the mouth of the Chipp. The inland, Kobuk River natives exchanging all kinds of furs for the rifles, cartridges, caps, lead, and tobacco which the coast Eskimos had acquired in abundance from the white man.
^ 43 ^ ^ 12 ^ ^ [: T ] 6 ^ ^ 43 ^ ^ 516 ^

CHIPP RIVER, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Stoney, George M. Naval Explorations in Alaska. ^ Naval Explorations in Alaska. ^ Annapolis, Md., United States Naval Institute, 1900.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ Guidebook for Alaska. ^
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Ruby Collins August, 1949 COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

COLVILLE RIVER, northern Alaska, the master waterway in the drainage of the arctic slope of the Brooks Range, has a basin of about 30,000 square miles and is distinguished not only for its size but also for the fact that, contrary to the many other streams in this drainage system, it flows almost directly east– ward for hundreds of miles before turning northward to Harrison Bay.
Smith and Mertie point out that although the Colville has been thought of as the northern boundary of the Brooks Range province, the main stream lies entirely within the arctic plateau, and is ten to seventy miles from the true northern front of the range all the way from its head to within 75 miles of the mouth.
The Colville runs parallel to the trend of the rock formations in the Brooks Range. This fact offers one possible explanation for the westward extension of the river. It probably cut headward by eroding a belt of weak rock, thus capturing a great many northward-flowing streams which had cut their valleys across the structure of the rocks. It is possible that the Killik, Etviuk, Kuna, Kiligwa, and all the other early tributaries of the Colville might have been captured in this manner.
Smith and Mertie suggest further that, since this process began, certain modifications have taken place in the valley formations surrounding the upper Colville which may in the future give the advantage to other streams.
According to observations made on the early Colville on May 30, 1925, in the vicinity of 69° N.Lat., 160° W.Long., Disappointment Creek, a tributary to the Utukok (q.v.), stands a good chance of recapturing some of the water from the Colville and its early tributaries. The Colville here is flowing at an approximate elevation of 2,000 feet and only a few hundred yards south of the summit of the divide separating it from the headwaters of Disappointment Creek.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

The divide stands only 110 feet above the Colville, and the distance between the 2,000-foot contour on the two sides of the divide is less than half a mile. From this point the Colville drops 200 feet in an airline distance of 26 miles, or considerably less than 10 feet per mile, but Disappointment Creek drops 600 feet in an airline distance of 7 miles, or almost 90 feet per mile. Given [: ] normal erosion of the two sides of this divide, Disappointment Creek may be expected to recapture from the Colville some of the water which that river took from the Utukok conturies ago.
Measuring from the head of its most westerly tributary, the Colville is 275 [: ] airline miles long, but, since the river makes several large-scale bends and numberless smaller meanders, its actual length would be several times this distance.
Storm, Meridian, Reynard, and Nuka Creeks, the first four tributaries to the Colville, rise in the vicinity of Thunder Mountain and Lake Noluk near the southern boundary of Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 and 160° W. Long. All these streams enter from the south. The main stream begins a few miles west of the mouth of Storm Creek and receives a few small, unnamed affluents from the east side of Meat Mountain. Several tributaries to the Utukok drain from the west side of this mountain. Disappointment Creek rises at about 69° N.Lat., 160° W.Long., and flows northward into the Utukok.
From this point the Colville continues eastward, crossing and recrossing 69° N. Lat. but never deviating far from it. Between 159° and 156° W.Long., the Colville receives the Kiligwa, Kuna, Ipnavik, and Etivluk Rivers from the south, and Grayling Creek from the north. This part of the river runs between ^ ^ the Brooks Range and a low group of ^ low ^ hills known as Lookout Ridge. North of this ridge, but also parallel to it, is the eastward-flowing Awuna, the next important

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

tributary to the Colville.
Between 156° and 154° W.Long., the Colville receives the Kucher, Kurupa, and Aupuk from ^ ^ the south. This section of the Colville is only a few miles from the Kigalik River and Maybe Creek, the two streams which join to form the Ikpikpuk. In the spring of 1886, Ensign W.L. Howard, of Lieutenant G.M. Stoney's naval expedition to the Kobuk River, reached Barrow by leaving the Colville here, crossing the low divide to the rendezvous village of Kigalik and then continuing down the Ikpikpuk and the Chipp to the Polar Sea. This was the regular route used by the inland Eskimos on their annual trading trips to the north coast of Alaska.
A few miles east of 154° W.Long., the Colville swings northeastward away from 69° N.Lat. and starts its tortuous 75-mile journey across the coastal plain to Harrison Bay. The Killik River, the first stream to enter this part of the Colville, is one of its major tributaries and comes in from the south.
The Killik rises deep in the Brooks Range in the vicinity of 68° N. Lat., 155° W. Long., and takes a generally northeasterly course to the Colville. Its chief tributaries are April and Easter Creeks, in the upper section, and Chandler River, about 20 miles (airline) from the mouth.
The Chandler is about 45 miles (airline) long and drains from a lake by the same name. Chandler Lake appears on recent maps in dotted outline but is reported to be about 10 miles long and one and one-half miles wide at the greatest. It is large enough for pontoon planes in summer and ski planes in winter to land and take off after five or six hours at bush flying speed out of Fairbanks or about one hour from Wiseman.
Chandler River became widely known when coarse gold was found on it. in the summer of 1935. G. Stanley Herbert, while prospecting this area, found one tract about 24 miles square that showed high-grade quartz gold throughout.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

He also traced out one vein outcrop of high-grade silver ore for over 3 miles. The region was then uninhabited except by roving Eskimo hunters. No development of these ore deposits has ever been reported, probably because of the ban on staking mining claims in Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4., in which Herbert's dis– coveries lie. A request that this ban be removed appeared in the annual report of the Governor of Alaska for 1948. (Sea Barrow, Alaska, article.)
Farther downstream, Ninuluk and Prince Creeks enter the Colville from the south and north respectively. The headwaters of the Prince are only a few miles from those of Maybe Creek, in the Ikpikpuk system.
Perhaps 28 (airline) miles below Prince Creek, the Colville swings north and, at the same time, receives a large unnamed tributary from the south.
The Anaktuvuk, the largest tributary of the Colville, enters a few miles below this [: ] stream, and also from the south. It rises in a narrow valley in the Brooks Range guarded by 5000-foot peaks. Alapah Mountain, 8500 feet, is hearby. Some maps show it draining from tiny Eleanor Lake. Anaktuvuk Pass, 2400 feet, leads to the headwaters of the John River, a tributary of the Koyukuk. This pass is only a few miles from where the range falls off to the plateau on the north, and the Anaktuvuk very soon finds its way out of the mountains. The intermontane part of the valley is wide, with abrupt walls, and about 15 miles long. The river descends 200 feet in this distance, passing [: ] [: ] through several small lakes, including Cache Lake, and receiving a tributary from Stuver Mountain.
After leaving the mountains the Anaktuvuk enters a broad basin about 40 miles in length, which has been incised in the Anaktuvuk Plateau, where it receives several tributaries. Below this basin there is a small canyon and then

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

^ the ^ valley broadens to a width of two or three miles. Both above and in the canyon, the Anaktuvuk has many rapids and the bed is strewn with glacial boulders. Farther downstream the current is between 2 and 6 miles per hour. Below the canyon, Willow Creek and Nanushuk River enter from the east, and the Tuluga comes in from the west. The Anaktuvuk is about 100 (airline) miles long.
Perhaps 40 (airline) miles below the Anaktuvuk, the Colville bends eastward for about 10 miles and then turns northeastward for perhaps 30 more miles before entering Harrison Bay. The Itkillik enters from the east about 25 (airline) miles up from the mouth.
The Itkillik is over 150 (airline) miles long. It rises in the Brooks Range in the vicinity of 68° 05′ N.Lat., 150° 30′ W.Long. and takes a generally northerly and northwesterly course to the Colville. For its first 30 miles it is over-shadowed by towering 7,000- and 8,000-foot peaks, but thereafter works down the mountain plateau and so to the low, flat, lake-strewn coastal plain. Its upper sections are relatively straight, but the coastal section, because of the inadequacy of the drainage, is braided, tortuous, and extremely meandering.
The Colville enters Harrison Bay about 40 miles east of Cape Halkett between 150° and 151° W.Long. The enormous delta is conventionally mapped as about 20 miles wide, with a 15-mile radius and 5 or 6 mouths, but, like most large deltas, it is really indefinite as to its eastern and western boundaries.
The channels shift every year so that even the relatively recent air survey map of the U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey is neither accurate nor complete. It is probable that during some years the best channel for boats has been the one called Main Channel, or the second most easterly one on the U.S.C. & G.S. map 9400; but when Stefansson was there on several occasions between 1907 and 1914, a better channel seemed to be the one most easterly, past Oliktok Point.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

From his own experience and from native report, Stefansson believes that a boat drawing 5 or 6 feet could probably navigate both the most easterly and the most westerly branches of the delta to the mouth of the Utkillik, and do doubt, some distance beyond.
The Colville ^ d ^ elta is composed of innumerable low islands which are constantly merging and regrouping from year to ^ ^ year. On their seaward sides they [: ] pass gradually into marshes, mud flats, bars, and finally shoals which are continuous with the ever-deepening ocean floor. Sand dunes, some 60 or more feet high, appear on the islands at the head of the delta.
Schrader suggests that the "Pelly Mountains," noted and named by Dease and Simpson in 1837, during their trip westward to Barrow along the north coast of Alaska, may have been sand dunes similar to these at the head of the Colville delta but a little farther west. Other explorers have never been able to find the Pelly Mountains. Schrader goes on to explain that, under certain conditions of light along this coast, refraction causes low objects to be enormously exaggerated in the vertical scale. This, in combination with the generally unrelieved flatness of the surrounding countryside, may explain why Dease and Simpson mis– took a group of sand dunes for a mountain chain.
To the landward side the islands of the delta are fairly heavily covered with "willow," which means small growth alders, willows, and several other species. They are twig size near the seaward edges of the delta and may be 10 or more feet in height on the landward side. In addition to growing willow, the delta islands have fuel both as drift willow from the Colville itself and as ordinary seaborne driftwood from the Mackenzie and other rivers.
The freshening influence of the Colville extends 12 or 14 miles into Harrison Bay. The delta water is often fresh enough for cooking purposes as far east as Oliktok Point, westward some distance beyond the most westerly

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

channel shown on the map, and seaward a few miles beyond the delta edge. But the "tide" which rises some hours before the advent of a westerly gale, and which may run to five or even six feet, may carry salt water up the delta channels not merely to what is mapped as the head of the delta but perhaps 10 or more miles farther still.
The appearance and character of this extensive river changes with the terrain through which is flows. Above Prince Creek the current is so strong that little or no progress upstream can be made by rowing, and it is likewise impos– sible, because of the current, to effect a crossing that holds to a direct line. The early tributaries, especially those from the Brooks Range or south side of the river, are swift, but those from the Lookout Ridge or north side are relatively sluggish. This is particularly true of the Awuna and Prince Creek.
Between the mouth of the Anaktuvuk and Ocean Point, about 10 miles upstream from the delta, the current is 3 to 4 miles per hour, but below this point the current is slack, although the river is deeper than the channels through the delta.
Canoe navigation is possible from the mouth to a considerable distance up Storm Creek, near the head of the Colville; for the entire length of the Anaktuvuk, and the Etivluk; and for the greater part of Prince, Killik, Chandler, and Awuna Rivers. Above the Killik, the Colville usually follows a single, fairly deep channel, so that it could probably be traversed by shallow-draft launches as far as the Nuka River. From the mouth of the Killik to the Prince, the Colville splits up into several channels which are frequently interrupted by sand bars so that travel, even by canoe, is difficult during periods of low water. Below the Prince to the head of the delta, the river again becomes [: ] deeper and would probably accomodate a small river steamboat.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

[: ] continuous line of bold, steep-faced bluffs walls the west side of the river all the way from the mouth of the Anaktuvuk to Ocean Point, 40 miles farther south. These bluffs descend gradually from a height of 200 feet in the south to about 80 feet at Ocean Point, where the river turns eastward away from them.
Schrader's explanation for this formation is that the Colville has migrated laterally westward across what he calls the Colville Flats, down-cutting into the torrains composing the plain so extensively that the west side of the river is banked with these high bluffs and the east wide is an expanse of low, abandoned flats laid waste by the river.
The Colville Flats form a triangle covering probably 2,000 square miles and extending northeastward from the mouth of the Anaktuvuk, as an apex, to the coast, where they include the Colville delta and attain a maximum width of 50 or 60 miles. Shallow ponds and lakes are everywhere strewn about these flats, and the dead level is relieved only by occasional mounds of gravel rising perhaps 10 to 40 feet above the surface.
Schrader suggests that the Colville once entered the ocean through Gwydyr Bay (q.v.), some 30 or 40 miles east of the present delta, or even through Prudhoe Bay (q.v.), still further east, and that it has migrated westward to its present position, eating away at the bluffs on the west and leaving behind, on the east, a desolated flat.
Willows more than four or five feet high begin to be found approximately 20 miles away from that sea water which in summer is constantly cooled by drifting ice. Near the mouth of the Itkillik some of the willows are 15 and even 20 feet high. By native report there are some spruce trees toward the head of the Itkillik; but one of Stefansson's companions of his third expedition, Aarnout Castel, who, subsequent to 1930, lived on the Colville above the mouth of the Itkillik, told Stefansson verbally (1935) that he was sure there were no spruce.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

However, he said this made little difference as willows, good for fuel and suitable for [: ] native-style house building, were everywhere abundant.
In pre-white times the Colville was one of the chief meeting and trading places where goods originally brought from Siberia by the Port Clarence people would find their way through Kotzebue Sound to Eskimos on the north coast of Alaska, and as far east as the Mackenzie delta. Inland Eskimos from the upper Kobuk, Noatak, and Colville Rivers used the Colville Valley to reach the arctic coast of Alaska. In the spring they would follow the caribou north– ward to the edge of the mountains, wait for the ice to break, and then sail all the way downstream. Those go [: ] ng to the Mackenzie followed the Colville to its mouth, and ^ ^ those going to Barrow left the upper Colville, crossing Look– out Ridge and sailing down the Ikpikpuk and the Chipp. The return trip was made by water to the head of navigation where the boats were cached until the following year. Wood for these boats was either brought across the divide from the timbered valleys of the southerly and westerly flowing rivers or else was obtained as driftwood on the coast.
Although, as Brooks points out, the Colville Valley supported a large native population in pre-white times, it was by and large nomadic so that few permanent settlements grew up along the river. Rendezvous points might buzz with activity every spring, but they would be almost deserted at all other times of year.
Since the beginning of intscnvie ^ intensive development ^ work on the development of ^ in ^ Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4, however, Umiat (q.v.), about half way between Prince Creek and the Anaktuvuk has been the site of continuous year-round activity. (See ^ also ^ Barrow, Alaska, article.)
There are a few landing fields in the valley, one called Colville

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

Bar, at the mouth of the Killik, and another on Chandler Lake, but no information as to their facilities is available. Chandler Lake has an emergency seaplane anchorage near the south end.
Dease and Simpson ^ named ^ this magnificent river, the Colville, on July 24, 1837. "Coasting along ^ [ ^ Harrison Bay ^ ] ^ ...for eight miles," Simpson wrote, "the beach preserved the same low character, consisting of mud and gravel; the soundings nowhere exceeding seven or eight feet on a bottom of gravel and sand. At length, at 9 A.M., the water shoaled to from one to two feet, and, after seeking in vain for a deeper channel, we were obliged to stand out to sea. We, [: ] however, had the satisfaction of tracing the land to the bottom of the bay, into which a very large river falls; for the water, even at the distance of three leagues to seaward, was perfectly fresh. We called it Colville River, as a mark of our respect for Andrew Colville, Esquire, of the Hudson's Bay Company." Although his written account gives the name ^ as ^ [: ] "Colvile", it appears on Simpson's map as "Colville", which spelling has been retained.

COLVILLE RIVER, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Brooks, Alfred H. Geography and geology of Alaska; a summary of existing ^ Geography and geology of Alaska; a summary of existing ^ knowledge. ^ knowledge. ^ Washington, 1906. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional ^ Professional ^ Paper ^ Paper ^ , No.45)
Schrader, F.C. Reconnaissance in northern Alaska ^ Reconnaissance in northern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1904. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ No.20)
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the discoverios on the north coast of America. ^ Narrative of the discoverios on the north coast of America. ^ .. during the years 1836-39. ^ during the years 1836-39. ^ London, Bentley, 1843.
Smith, P.S., and Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and mineral resources of northwestern ^ Geology and mineral resources of northwestern ^ Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part I ^ Alaska. Part I ^ I. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^
^ 55 wds ^

Ruby Collins January, 1950 COPLESTON, MOUNT, ALASKA

COPLESTON, MOUNT, a peak of unreported elevation at the west end of the Shubelik Mountains, arctic Alaska, was named by Sir John Franklin after Dr. Copleston, provost of Oriel College. Franklin called the group rising just south of Mount Copleston the "Rocky Mountains," but these have since been renamed in honor of the explorer himself.
Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1919. U.S. Geol.Surv., Prof.pa ^ Prof.pa ^ . 109.
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart ^ Chart ^ 9400.
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Ruby Collins May, 1949 CORWIN BLUFF, ALASKA

CORWIN BLUFF, between Cape Lisburne and Cape Sabine on the arctic coast of Alaska, near 165° W.Long., is a headland two hundred feet high, projecting only slightly beyond the regular coastline and interrupting the continuity of the beach for only a few hundred yards. Collier, who investigated coal possibilities here in 1906, says that the development of the coal beds at Corwin Bluff would be easy because of their perfect regu– larity. He sa ^ w ^ no reason why mines developed in this way could not be worked all winter.
Coal mined and cached in winter would be available for shipment in summer if piled on the level ground above the cliffs or at places near sea level where the cliffs are lower and snowdrifts do not form. There are at least two such places convenient to Corwin Bluff, with good beaches before them for landing. Collier believes lightering would be best, which can probably be done more easily at Corwin Bluff than at Nome because ships can anchor near shore.
Corwin Bluff lies only a few miles west of Thetis Creek (q.v.), beyond which another coal deposit is known to exist. Both these ^ ^ deposits have for many years been used by the Eskimos living in this region and by the whaling and Coast Guard vessels sailing these waters.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of North- ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of North- ^ western Alaska ^ western Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 815 ^ Bulletin 815 ^ )
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
^ 17 ^
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Ruby Collins September, 1949 CROSS ISLAND, ALASKA

CROSS ISLAND, in the Polar Sea, about 12 miles off the arctic coast of Alaska, belongs in a chain of low sand islets and shoals stretching from about 146° to 150° W.Long., a distance of some 100 miles. These islands lie, in general, from 4 to 7 miles offshore, although Cross Island is more nearly 10 miles off. From east to west the island chain contains Flaxman Island, near the mouth of the Canning River, the Maguire, Stockton, and McClure Islands, Cross Island, ^ and ^ the Midway, Return, and Jones Islands. The most westerly of the Jones group, Thetis Island, lies off the mouth of the Colville River, in Harrison Bay. Between these islands and the mainland stretches the inland waterway known as Simpson Lagoon.
Cross Island was so named in 1889 by Charles H. Stockton, of the USS Thetis , for the wooden cross erected there by whalers.
The islands making up this chain are of two kinds. Some are nearly barren, low sandbars; others are somewhat higher and prairie-like. The Spy Islands, at the west end of the Jones group, are mainly gravel, though with some vegetation. Beginning with Leavitt Island, of the Jones group, there are sever– al that are comparatively big and grass-covered. In the more easterly part of the chain the only island with much grass is ^ F ^ laxman. Proof that vegetation is slow to take root is given by Leffingwell who notes that, although the cross on Cross Island was erected before Stockton visited it in 1889, the gravel was still bare at its base in 1914.
The gravel islands are heaps of earth on which there was a lot of driftwood until the introduction of wood-burning stoves, just before 1900. Thereafter, most of the wood was collected and burned as fast as it beached. Cross Island is more talked about than all the rest combined. This is because it happens so often that ships from the west are held up there by ice pressing in from seaward. Small ships may enter the lagoon at Cross Island and proceed eastward; or they may anchor behind the island and wait for a change of wind or

CROSS ISLAND, ALASKA

current to move the ice.
Because of the tongue of ice which often forms there, Cross Island is identified in the U.S. Coast Pilot as one of the most difficult places along this coast. The channel between the island and the mainland has depths from 6 to 12 feet, but both this channel and the entrances between the islands appear to be shoaling. ^ At one time ^ U ^ u ^ p to 18 feet [: ] ^ could ^ be carried through Newport Entrance, between McClure and Stockton Islands, but less water was found in 1944.
Vessels may enter past pole Island, about midway of the chain, steering for a small inshore group of islands until in mid-channel. They can then follow the mainland, coming out near the Return Islands. The entrance channel is said to be marked by a pole on the island.
Sources:
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington,D.C., 1947.
Stockton, Charles H. "The Arctic Cruise of the U.S.S. Thetis in the Summer and Autumn of 1889." National Geographic [: ] Magazine ^ National Geographic [: ] Magazine ^ , Vol. II, No.3, 1890, pp.171-198.
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Ruby Collins January, 1950 DAVIDSON MOUNTAINS, ALASKA

DAVIDSON MOUNTAINS, arctic Alaska, run approximately parallel to the shores of the Polar Sea, [: ] but separated from it by the British and Richardson Mountains. They stretch northwest-southeast between the basin of the Old Crow River and the Romanzof Mountains and are bounded on the south by the Endicott Range.
The Davidson Mountains form part of the ^ Yukon-Arctic ^ divide between the Yukon and arctic drainage systems . From the south side of the range flow the Coleen and Sheenjek Rivers, both of which enter the Porcupine, one of the major tributaries to the Yukon. The northern flank of the range sends small tributary waters into the Kongakut and Firth Rivers, both of which flow northward to the Polar Sea.
^ 930 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 DEASE INLET, ALASKA

DEASE INLET, an arm of the Polar Sea, cuts southward into the north coast of Alaska from the eastern end of Elson Lagoon (q.v.) between Christie Point and Tangent Point. Igalik Island, one of the [: ] Plover group ^ , ^ which stretches eastward from Point Barrow sandspit to form the northern boundary of Elson Lagoon, lies directly in the entrance to Dease Inlet.
[: ] From midway between Christie and Tange ^ nt ^ Points the Inlet extends about 15 miles in a southwesterly direction. Its width varies from about five to about 15 miles, and its depth from about 6 to 8 feet, except near the beach where it is extremely shallow. The southern end of the Inlet is marked by McTavish and Wright Points, on the west and east shores respec– tively, and by Kikiktak, Tiny, and Oarlock Islands midway of the five of six miles of water separating these two points.
South of these islands the Inlet merges into Admiralty Bay (q.v.) which is shorter and comparatively wider than the Inlet proper.
The best entrances into Dease Inlet are by way of Elson Lagoon and Sanigaruak Pass. Small boats can pass near Tangent Point, but this entrance is not recommended for any except light draft vessels.
A survey of Dease Inlet made in ^ ^ 1945 reports that the winter ice did not break up in Elson Lagoon until July 28, and that it started forming again on September 13. The survey ^ ^ launches had difficulty in getting out of the Inlet on September 15, by which time both the inlet and the lagoon were covered with one inch of ice. During the winter ^ , ^ ice forms on these two bodies of water to a thickness of 6 to 10 feet.
Dease Inlet and several of the local ^ ^ promontories were named by Thomas Simpson in August, 1837, during his trip westward to Barrow along the north coast of Alaska. "The land, which so far had led north-westerly," he wrote, "soon turned sharply off to S.S.W., forming an acute angle, well

DEASE INLET, ALASKA [: ]

termed Point Tange ^ n ^ t. The gravel reefs here separate from the muddy beach, and stretch, as I found on our return, in a direct line of eleven miles to Boat Extreme, enclosing the singularly shaped bay, of which we had now com– pleted the tecious circuit, and on which I conferred the approppiate title of Fatigue Bay...After travelling about ten miles, and wading through many a salt creek, the waters of which wer ^ e ^ at the freezing temperature, the land, to our dismay, turned off to the eastward of south, and a boundless inlet lay before us. Almost at the same instant, to our inexpressible joy, we described four Esquimaux tents, at no great distance, with figures ^ ^ running about. We immediate– ly directed our steps towards them; but, on our approach, the women and children threw themselves into their canoes, and pushed off from the shore... The men were absent, hunting, with the exception of one infirm individual, who, sitting under a reversed canoe, was tranquilly engaged in weaving a fine whalebone net. Being unable to make his escape with the rest, he was in an agony of fear; and, when I first went up to him, with impotent hand he made a thrust at me with his long knife. He was, however, soon convinced of our good intentions; and his first request was for tobacco, of which we found men, women, and even children inordinately fond...Our new friends forthwith brought us some fresh venison; and, concluding, not without reason, that we were very hungry, they presented, as a particular delicacy, a savoury dish of choice pieces steeped in seal-oil. Great was their surprise when we declined their favourite mess; and their curiosity in scrutinizing the dress, persons, and complexions of the first white men they had ever behld, seemed insatiable. They shewed us, with evident satisf ca ^ ac ^ tion, their winter store of oil, secured in seal-skin bags buried in the frozen earth. Some of their reindeer robes, ivory dishes, and other trifles were purchase; and I exchanged the

DEASE INLET, ALASKA

tin pan, which ^ ^ constituted my whole table service, for a platter made out of a mammoth tusk!...Confidence being now fully established, I told them that I required one of their comiaks, or large family canoes, to take us two or three days' journey--or sleeps, as they term it--to the westward; after which we should return. These skin boats float in half a foot of water...They acceded to my demand, without a scruple...Scarcely had we left the shore when a strong north-eas ^ t ^ wind sprung up from seaward, bringing back the ^ ^ cold [: ] dense fog. We could not see a hundred yards ahead, but steered due west, by compass, across the inlet, which at this narrowest part proved to be five miles wide. I had much gratification in naming it Dease Inlet, as a mark of esteem for my worthy colleague. The waves ran high ^ ^ on the passage, but our new craft surmounted them with wonderful buoyancy. The coast we attained was from ten to fifteen feet high, and the ground was solidly frozen within two inches of the surface. Not a morsel of drift wood was to be found in this land of desolation; but we followed the example of the natives, and made our tiny fire of the roots of the ^ d ^ warf willow, between three upright pieces of turf. Our oomiak turned to windward, and proppe ^ d ^ up with the paddles, formed a good shelter; and under it we ^ ^ stowed ourselves snugly away for the night...We breakfasted at the northern point of land, on a gravel reef, where some drift wood had been washed up...It afforded me unfeigned pleasure to call t ^ h ^ is point after Chief Factor Christie ^ [ ^ of the Hudson's Bay Company ^ ] ^ , a warm personal friend, and also a zealous promoter of the interests of the expedition. Lofty icebergs appeared to seaward; dark– coloured seals were sporting among the masses in-shore; and one of [: ] those gelatinous substances called by sailors 'sea-blubber' was, for the first time, seen floating in Dease Inlet. From Point Christie the low coast, con– sisting of mud and sand, with a facing of ice, again turns westward."

DEASE INLET, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the Discoveries in the North Coast of America; effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the years 1836-39
Narrative of the Discoveries in the North Coast of America; effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the years 1836-39
. London, Bentley, 1843.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 95 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 DOCTOR ISLAND, ALASKA

DOCTOR ISLAND [: ] a [: ] small, low, sandy island in the Polar Sea just east of Point Barrow (q.v.), the most northerly point of land in Alaska, has been identified with Crescent or Martin Island, which names appear on British Admiralty charts of the mid-nineteenth century. The Eskimo name for Doctor Island is Il-liut-kak. Eastward from Doctor Island stretches the chain of the Plover group (q.v.) to form the northern boundary of Elson Lagoon (q.v.). For descriptions of the land and sea conditions governing life in this part of Alaska, see articles on Point Barrow and Barrow.
^ 170 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 DUCK ISLAND, ALASKA

DUCK ISLAND, between Prudhoe and Foggy Island Bays on the arctic [: ] coast of Alaska, is a small, silt island in the delta of the Sagavanirktok River. It was identified and named by Leffingwell during his reconnaissance of the Canning River country between the years 1906 and 1914.
The Pacific eider duck builds its nest only on islands fringing a coastline. A few of these nests will be found on almost every ^ member ^ one of the island chain starting with Flaxman Island, off the mouth of the Canning River, and continuing westward to the Jones Islands, near the mouth of the Colville. The Pacific [: ] eider has favorite nesting places, however, and Duck Island is one of these. According to native report, hundreds of Pacific eiders collect on Duck Island each year, and the Eskimos have been known to gather 300 to 400 eggs during a single raid on the island. Leffingwell remarks that too frequent raiding causes the birds to abandon a location, so that the Pacific eider may have left Duck Island since Leffingwell reported the situation there in 1914.
Source:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 70 words ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 DYER, CAPE, ALASKA

DYER, CAPE, on the arctic coast of Alaska, between Point Hope and Cape Lisburne, was named by Beechey in 1827. The Eskimo name, Kapaloa (Capaloa) is still retained by the small creek which enters the ocean in a falls on the south side of Cape Dyer. Collier recorded this name for the creek in 1904. There was once a native village with the same name on the Cape, but it [: ] is now abandoned.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
^ 550 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 ELSON LAGOON, ALASKA

ELSON LAGOON, northern Alaska, is separated from the Polar Sea by Point Barrow sandspit on the west, the Plover Islands on the north, and the mainland on the south. It may be entered either by way of channels between the Plover Islands or from the east by way of the wide opening opposite Christie Point and the entrance to Dease Inlet.
Beechey named this lagoon in September, 1826, "in compliment to Master Thomas Elson," of the Royal Navy, the member of Beechey's party who commanded a barge trip from Point Franklin northward along the coast of Alaska to Point Barrow and then southward into the Lagoon. The work of Elson and his companions, which proceeded despite ^ the ^ almost constant ^ threat ^ danger of being crushed by the ice or carried away by the strong northeasterly current which sweeps up the west side of Point Barrow sandspit, produced the first accurate map of this section of the Alaska coastline.
According to the Admiralty charts, the Eskimo name for this lagoon is Tasuk, meaning "enclosed water", i.e. a bay.
Elson Lagoon [: ] is from two to five miles wide, about sixteen miles long, and uniformly from eight to ten feet deep. The important navigable entrances to the Lagoon are Eluitkak Pass, at the north, Ekilukruak Entrance, in the center, and Dease Inlet, at the southeast. When using this latter entrance vessels can avoid shoal water by keeping to the mainland (southern) side of the Lagoon.
Eluitkak Pass, between the eastern end of Point Barrow sandspit and Doctor Island, the first of the [: ] Plover Island, is the main westerly entrance to the Lagoon. The Eskimo name means "something wrong with the pass." Ekilukruak Entrance, between Deadmans and Tapkaluk Islands, [: ] farther east in the [: ] Plover group, means "big, wide."
Moore Channel, which appears on ^ ^ some maps, is reported to lead

ELSONLAGOON, ALASKA

past some small, sandy islands just east of Point Barrow into Port Moore. The Admiralty assigned this name in 1853 in honor of Commander Thomas E.L. Moore, R.N. The Eskimo name has been variously reported as Ik-ke-ra-luk and Ikiraaluk.
Brandt Point projects into the southern part of the Lagoon a few miles from the base of Point Barrow sandspit. Scott Point is a promontory on the southern shore about midway between Brandt and Christie Points. Iko Bay indents the southern shore a few miles east of Scott Point.
Many small streams drain the marshes south of the Lagoon and flow northward into it, but none of them is named on recent maps.
The climate is arctic, characterized by short, cool summers, long, cold winters and a low annual precipitation. Although the surrounding countryside is treeless, the entire coastal plain south of the Lagoon is covered with lichens ^ , ^ and mosses, grasses, and a great [: ] ariety of flowers during the short growing season. The large herds of reindeer which have been [: ] maintained in ^ ^ this area attest to the value of this terrain as pasture land. The native population is mostly marine in culture, depending on products of the sea for their food and fuel, but they have always dressed in reindeer skins, which are obtained by regular hunting trips into the interior, ^ or by trade with the inland Eskimos. ^
For a general description of this part of Alaska and a history of its exploration, see article on Barrow, Alaska.

ELSON LAGOON

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Paige, Sidney, & Foran, W.T. Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska
Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska
. Washington, 1925. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 772)
Smith, Philip S., and Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern Alaska
Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern Alaska
. Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
^ 960 wds ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 FLAXMAN ISLAND, ALASKA

FLAXMAN ISLAND in the Polar Sea, is the most easterly of the chain of low, sand and gravel islands which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska all the way from the mouth of the Canning westward to the mouth of the Colville River, a distance of over 100 miles. Flaxman Island lies slightly northwest of the Canning River delta. Reading Leffingwell's map from east to west the other members of this long island chain include Mary Sachs Island, the Maguire, Stockton, McClure, Midway, Return, and Jones Islands.
Generally speaking the north coast of Alaska is sinking, which means not only that the sea flows in over the land because the levels are changing, but also that the sea has a chance to attack with its waves this year places that were not accessible last. Flaxman Island, Leavitt Island and the rest of the prairie group are subject to this pressure.
A geological formation has been named after this island because of the frequency of its exposure there. The Flaxman formation is a deposit of foreign glacial till, sometimes containing glacial ice. This formation is often exposed all along the arctic coast of Alaska, but is never found inland.
The till is made up of clay, boulders, gravel, and sands. Where the clay is not mixed with muck and sand it is a dark blue-gray color. The boulders are a particularly noticeable characteristic of this formation and range from 10 feet in diameter to less than 2 feet. Many of them have the rubbed and worn look of the ordinary glacial boulder, but some are angular and shattered by frost. Quartzites are the most conspicuous and numerous kind of rock in this formation, and are commonly pink, red, or purple, and banded, cross-bedded or conglomeratic. Dark greenstones are frequent although pink and red granites are more noticeable. Leffingwell found no sandstones, limestones, or metamorphic rocks among the Flaxman rocks, these being restricted to the till of the mountains in the interior. [: ]
Leffingwell does not think that the ice underneath the Flaxman formation is entirely glacial nor that the whole of Flaxman Island is underlain by it.

FLAXMAN ISLAND, ALASKA

As a whole, except for the glacial ice possibly contained in it, the Flaxman formation is a thin surface layer. The boulder clay is somewhat less than 3 feet thick at the greatest, and the boulders themselves are mostly super– ficial. Leffingwell found evidence of this formation not only on the islands off this coast, but also along the coast itself, although these evidences were not continuous and did not extend more than a mile inland. The mouth of the Canning, Shaviovik, and Sagavanirktok Rivers showed typical deposits, and the coastline all the way to and beyond Barrow revealed the formation in certain places.
Leffingwell reports that the ice in the la ^ g ^ oon west of Flaxman Island usually breaks up and floats westward before an east gale sometime before the middle of July. Ice outside the island chain, however, does not usually move until much later. At about this same time raw winds begin to blow and the days become foggy and cloudy. Drizzling rains are ^ ^ frequent, but heavy rains are uncommon. The skies clear somewhat in August, and the stars once more are visible.
Sailing eastward from Pt. Barrow [: ] in the Enterprise , Collinson sighted Flaxman Island [: ] about August 5, 1851, but passed on beyond Herschel Island into British territory where he spent two winters. In 1853, returning westward, he again sighted Flaxman Island on September 14. Ice forced him into shoal water abreast of the island, and, being hemmed in by heavy ice, he tied up to a floe grounded in 7 1/2 fathoms. In this position, on September 26, the Enterprise was frozen in for the winter. The ensuing ten months were spent in charting the coast and the interior. On July 15, 1854, the ice began to break up, and Collinson set sa ^ i ^ l for Point Barrow, which he reached on August 8.
A shoal area is reported to exist about 25 miles northeast ward of Flaxman Island and northwest of Camden Bay, but no definite information con-

FLAXMAN ISLAND, ALASKA

cerning it is available. In 1944 its existence was reported as doubtful, although it still appeared on charts of the region.
White whales, walrus, and bearded seal are seldom g seen in the vicinity of Flaxman Island, but the small Point Barrow seal is abundant. White– fronted geese migrate past Flaxman Island on their way westward to their breed– ing grounds near Harrison Bay.
Summer travel between Flaxman Island and Barrow is almost exclusively by boat. In average weather, the trip can be made in a native canoe in about 10 days, and by whaleboat or other powered vessel in from 3 to 5 days. When the ocean is frozen, the trip along the coast and over frozen bays can be made by dog sled, but, in recent years, the airplane has to a large extent replaced other methods of travel. There are now no permanent settlements on Flaxman Island.
Mikkelsen described Flaxman in 1906 as being four miles long and three-fourths of a mile wide. According to Stefansson, who was in this area from 1913 to 1918, it is probably less than half a mile wide now, and very likely sections have been cut off the ends, or perhaps there has been a channel made through it. A few years hence, Flaxman Island may be two or three tiny islets; a few score years hence it may be nothing but a series of gravel bars, like Cross Island.
But even on a sinking coast there are building processes, though temporary. Sandbars may be made somewhat higher by one of the sea's activities, particularly by the ploughing up of the bottom through ice under pressure, and the shoving of the scooped up material against or upon the sandbars. As said, it can happen, too, and often does, that one gap in the island chain may be filled up this year so as to be impassable, while another has [: ] deepened so much that craft can get in with double the draft of last year.
In his description of Flaxman Island, Mikkelsen reports that its east end is about 35 feet high. Only Leavitt Island of the Jones group is as

FLAXMAN ISLAND, ALASKA

high as that, only Barter Island is higher. The mainland shore is frequently only five or six feet high, and, at times, slopes right down to sea level.
Sources:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. ^ Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Franklin, John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ Guidebook for Alaska. ^
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Part II. 5th(1947)ed. Washington,D.C., 1947.
^ 410 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 FOGGY ISLAND, ALASKA

FOGGY ISLAND, a gravel island on the east side of the Sagavanirktok River delta, on the arctic coast of Alaska, was named by Sir John Franklin during his ^ August, ^ 1826, attempt to complete the northwest passage.
The fog, which had tormented and delayed Franklin ever since he had cleared Demarcation Point, reached an extreme state of density and persistence at Foggy Island. The expedition was delayed at "this dreary place" [: ] or some time. Attempts to sail westward from the island were defeated by the [: ] shallowness of the delta channels and by the persistence of the fog.
"Fog is," Franklin wrote, "of all others, the most hazardous state of the atmosphere for navigation in an icy sea, especially when it is accom– panied by strong breezes, but particularly so for boats where the shore is unapproachable. If caught by a gale, a heavy swell, or drifting ice, the result must be their wreck, or the throwing the provisions overboard to lighten them, so as to proceed into shoal water. Many large pieces of ice were seen on the borders of the shallow water; and from the lowness of the tempera– ture, we concluded that the main body was at no great distance. We had also passed through a stream of perfectly fresh water, which we supposed was poured out from a large river [: ] in the immediate vicinity, ^ [ ^ this would be the Sagavanirktok River ^ ] ^ but the fog prevented our seeing its outlet. . . The obstinate continuance of fog forms another material differ– ence between this season and the same period of 1821. . . As an instance of the illusion occasioned by the fog, I may mention that our hunters sallied forth, on more than one occasion, to fire at what they supposed to be deer, on the bank about one hundred yards from the tents, which, to their surprise, took wing, and proved to be cranes and geese."
Between August 16 and 18, Franklin beat his way a few miles farther westward to the Return Islands, which he called Return Reef, but was there ^ forced to turn back. ^

FOGGY ISLAND, ALASKA

The other islands in the Sagavanirktok delta, Howe Island for instance, are composed of silt. [: ]
[: ] Foggy Island, however, is composed of glacial drift. According to Leffingwell, Foggy Island may have been formed by the grounding and subsequent wasting away of a large iceberg. Only a deposit of drift would then remain to ma [: ] k its former position. Leffingwell suggests that some of the ice found below the surgace of Foggy Island may be the last remnants of the iceberg that carried the boulders, gravel, and till, of which the island is composed, along the arctic coast of Alaska to the mouth of the Sagavanirktok River, and there laid them down.
Sources:
Franklin, John. Narrative of a second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
Narrative of a second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)

Ruby Collins September, 1949 FOGGY ISLAND BAY, ALASKA

FOGGY ISLAND BAY opens into the Polar Sea between Point Brower, on the north end of Foggy Island, and Lion Point, on Tigvariak Island. It receives the waters of three arctic Alaska rivers: the Sagavanirktok, the Kadleroshilik, and the Shaviovik. Only one branch of the southern distribu– tary of the Sagavanirktok flows into this bay, the others veering northward and [: ] debouching directly into the Polar Sea.
Foggy Island Bay is generally shoal, having from three to six feet near the shore and gradually deepening to eighteen or more feet outside the entrance. There is a very shallow channel with only about 1 1/2 feet of water between the mouths of the Shaviovik River and Tigvariak Island which leads into Mikkelsen Bay (q.v.)
Source:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 540 wds ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS,ALASKA Revised January, 1950

FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS rise abruptly from the coastal plateau of arctic Alaska between the Hulahula and the Sagavanirktok River (q.v.) just south of 70° N. Lat., and between 144° and 148° W.Long.
Thomas Simpson and P.W. Dease arrived at the mouth of the Sagavanirktok River about June 20, 1837. Looking southeastward they saw the Franklin Mountains. Simpson wrote: "The portion of the Rocky Mountains ^ [ ^ the Brooks Range ^ ] ^ visible from the coast does not terminate, as conjectured by Sir John Franklin, with the Romanzoff chain. After a brief interval, another chain commences, less lofty perhaps, but equally picturesque; which, in honour of the distinguished officer whose discoverie ^ s ^ we were following up, we named the Franklin Range. . . In the afternoon ^ [ ^ of the 22nd ^ ] ^ we enjoyed a distinct view of the Franklin Mountains, extending from S.E. to S.W. by S. (true), the central and highest peak bearing S. by E. about twenty miles distant. They were still partially covered with snow; and the whole range presents a precipitous front to the coast."
C. H. Stockton in command of the U.S.S. [: ] Thetis mentions these mountains in his account of a trip along the north coast of Alaska in 1889. "As we ran from off Lion Reef to Camden Bay," he wrote, "we sighted the beautiful ranges of mountains close to the coast known as the Franklin and Romanzoff mountains, making an agreeable change in the topography of the shore, which had been low and monotonously flat since leaving Point Hope and the vicinity of Cape Lisburne ^ [ ^ in northwestern Alaska, south of Point Barrow ^ ] ^ ."
Leffingwell somewhat revises the position of these mountains. From Simpson's report it might be assumed that they lie mostly west of the

FRANKLING MOUNTANS

Canning, but Leffingwell places them mostly east of the Canning. Both the southern and western boundaries he reports as indefinite, then adds, "on the northeast the Franklin Mountains end definitely against the higher Romanzof Mountains. . . ^ [ ^ and ^ ] ^ on the southeast border they appear to merge into the British Mountains." There are some mountains between the Canning and the Saganavirktok Rivers, but these are lower and farther from the coast than those east of the Canning. Many maps identify this westerly group as the Franklin Mountains, but Leffingwell feels that the main mass of the range lies eastward from the Canning and marks his map accordingly.
Leffingwell, who ^ Having ^ spent the years 1906 to 1914 in northern Alaska, ^ Leffingwell ^ gives the first detailed description of the Franklin Mountains. The northern boundary (that facing the Polar Sea) is steep, rising 3,000 feet above the rolling upland. The southern boundary merges into the Brooks Range to form the Yukon– Arctic divide and is, therefore, less well-defined. On the northeast they

FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS, ALASKA

end definitely against the higher Romanzof Mountains (q.v.), but on the southeast they seem to merge into the British Mountains.
The northern front of the Franklin Mountains average about 5,000 feet above sea level, but between the forks of the Sadlerochit ^ River ^ , they rise to 7,000 feet. Mt. Salisbury, 6900 feet, west of the upper Canning and perhaps 60 miles from the coast ^ , ^ is double-peaked. Mt. Chamberlin, 9131 feet, some 35 miles northeast of Salisbury and south [: ] of Peters and Schrader Lakes belong properly to the Romanzof Mountains. Except from the headwaters of the Sadlerochit River, very vew peaks are distinguishable in the Franklin Mountains, but the abruptness with which they rise above the unrelieved flatness of the coastal plain makes them memorable. Many of the higher peaks are snow-covered the year around, although those visible from the coast are not usually so.

FRANKLIN MOUNTAINS, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Mar [: ] us. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska . 2d ed. Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1906.

Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska . Washington, D.C., G.P.O., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 109)

Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the [: ] Discoveries on the north coast ^ Narrative of the [: ] Discoveries on the north coast ^ of America. . . during the years 1836-39 ^ of America. . . during the years 1836-39 ^ . London, Bentley, 1843.

Stockton, Charles H. "Arctic Cruise of the U.S.S. Thetis in the Summer and Autumn of 1889." National Geographic Magazine ^ National Geographic Magazine ^ , II,3, 1890, p.171-198.

^ 200 wds ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 FRANKLIN POINT, ALASKA

FRANKLIN POINT, on the arctic coast of Alaska, somewhat north of the midway point between Icy Cape and Point Barrow, is one of the highest spots on ^ the ^ sand bar stretching northward from Point Belc [: ] er. At Point Franklin this sandbank turns abruptly eastward toward the mainland, outcropping again in a broken chain known as the Seahorse Islands. In this way the bank partially encloses a large lagoon which may be considered part of Peard Bay (q.v.), which lies immediately south of Point Franklin.
The Point itself is a very small sand island with a few hummocks on it, but it is so tiny and far removed from the Seahorse group as to be difficult to make out.
Openings between these islands are usually very shallow and always changing. The greatest changes would seem to occur between Point Franklin and Peard Bay, immediately to the south of the Point where only a narrow strip of sand appears above water to indicate the existence of this extensive sand bar.
Northward and northeastward from Point Franklin, a shoal extends several miles out to sea, so that vessels rounding the Point should give it a berth of at least four or five miles.
Beechey named this point in 1826 after Sir John Franklin, for whom he was looking throughout t his voyage up the coast of Alaska.
^ 265 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 GWYDYR BAY, ALASKA

GWYDYR BAY, an arm of the Polar Sea, indents the arctic coast of Alaska in the vicinity of 149° W. Long., and receives the Kuparuk (q.v.), the only large river between the Colville and the Sagavanirktok (q.v.). The entrance to Gwydyr Bay is shoal and partially cut off from [: ] open sea by the Return Islands (q.v.).
On August 26, 1826, after being storm-bound for seven days, Sir John Franklin was able to make astronomical bearings and to trace the shores of this bay around to the western entrance point, which he named after his Lieutenant (afterward Captain) George Back, R.N. Leffingwell gives Point Storkersen as the eastern entrance point to Gwydyr Bay. From Back Point, Franklin saw a hummock of land to the westward which he named after his friend, Captain Frederic William Beechey, who was at that very time awaiting Franklin's arrival in Kotzebue Sound. Franklin had intended to complete the westward passage [: ] and to meet Beechey somewhere south of Barrow on the northwest coast of Alaska. Heavy ice, fog, and violent storms, however, so delayed Franklin, that he was unable to procede byond beyond Gwydyr Bay and Return Islands. His Beechey Point, which appears on current maps, is probably the same as Point Berens, named by Dease and Simpson in 1837.
Simpson describes Gwydyr Bay as protected by a chain of gravel reefs (Return Islands). [: ] By July 24, when he was in the bay, the ice was hard aground on the seaward side of the reef. Gwydyr Bay is extremely shoal, carrying only one-quarter to one fathom, but this was sufficient for Simpson's small boat and is like– wise sufficient for the skin boats which the Eskimos have for centuries used along this coast.

GWYDYR BAY, ALASKA

Sources
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ^ ^ ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.
Franklin, Sir John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826,and 1827
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the years 1825, 1826,and 1827
. London, Murray, 1828.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the Discoveries on the north coast of America. . . during the years 1836-39.
Narrative of the Discoveries on the north coast of America. . . during the years 1836-39.
London, Bentley, 1843.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th(1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947. VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 165 words ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 HALKETT,CAPE, ALASKA

HALKETT, CAPE (70° 46′ N.Lat., 152° 18′ W.Long.) well over one hundred miles east of Point Barrow on the north coast of Alaska, is the western entrance to Harrison Bay, an arm of the Polar Sea.
The water close in to the north side of the Cape is shoal, but it is reported that a landing can be made south of the island at the Cape. There is a trading post on the Cape which, in 1939, had a population of 31.
Dease and Simpson named this Cape in July, 1837, in honor of one of the directors of the Hudson's Bay Company. Of his observations in this vicinity, Simpson wrote: "The land trended north-east, for eight miles, to a small island, separated from the mainland by a channel too shallow for boats. This island appeared to be a favorite resort of the natives in the spring, for we found a spot where baidars had been built, and picked up an antler out asunder with a saw. . . This remarkable point was named Cape Halkett, in compliment to one of the Company's Directors. It terminates the great bay, which, from Point Berens, is forty-three geographical, or fifty statute miles, in beadth. ^ [ ^ Harrison Bay ^ ] ^ ."
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America ^ Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America ^ ; effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the ^ effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the ^ years 1836-39 ^ years 1836-39 ^ . London, Bentley, 1843.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
^ 845 wds. ^

Ruby Collins August, 1949 HARRISON BAY, ALASKA

HARRISON BAY, one of the widest indentations in the north coast of Alaska between Point Barrow and the Alaska-Canada boundary, is marked by Cape Halkett, on the west, and by Oliktok Point, on the east. The distance between these two points is about 57 miles. From a line drawn across the entrance, Harrison Bay is about 20 miles deep, at the greatest.
Dease and Simpson named this Bay in July, 1837, while on their way westward to Point Barrow along the north coast of Alaska. Of it Simpson wrote: "On this spacious basin, which receives the waters of two noble rivers, we con– ferred the name of Harrison Bay, in honour of the Deputy Governor of the ^ [ ^ Hudson's Bay ^ ] ^ Company, whose attention has long been sedulously directed to ^ ^ the moral and religious improvement of the natives of the Indian country."
The "two noble rivers" are the Colville and the Itkillik (q.v.), the former being the longest and most extensive waterway in all of northern Alaska. The lower ten or fifteen miles of these two streams join and enter the head of the Bay in an enormous, triangular delta, the base of which projects several miles into the Bay proper.
The shoreline is irregular. From Cape Halkett it veers southwestward for a little over ten miles, past the mouth of Garry Creek and to within a few miles of the eastern end of Teshekpuk Lake (q.v.). This large lake occupies most of the peninsular separating Harrison from Smith Bay, the next more westerly indentation of the coast (q.v.).
^ ^Following^ an exhausting twenty-five-hour trip across the shoals of Harrison Bay, ^ ^ in July, 1837, ^ Dease and Simpson named the Garry "after Nicholas Garry, Esquire, whose name has long been associated with Arctic research," They found the mouth of the Garry to be a mile wide and its banks thickly covered with driftwood, apparently deposited there by the river.
From this point the shore of the Bay proceeds eastward for well over fifteen miles to A ^ ti ^ garu Point. Midway of this section a narrow finger ^ of water ^ leads

HARRISON BAY, ALASKA

westward into the mainland to the mouth of a small stream known as the Kogru River. This short stream rises in a tiny lake very close to the eastern end of Lake Teshekpuk, and flows eastward into Harrison Bay. Off the mouth of this river is Saktuina Island.
Dease and Simpson reported the country backing this part of the Bay as plains masked with short grass and moss, perfect pasture land for the large herds of reindeer which they saw. The coastline itself was composed of banks of frozen mud about 10 to 15 feet high.
From their camp at Point Comfort, near the mouth of the Garry, members of the party again saw the "Pelly Mountains," lying to the southeast between them and the mouth of the Colville. Simpson had first noted these mountains when approaching Harrison Bay from the east and named them "in honour of the public– spirited Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company." Subsequent travelers to this region have never found any mountains near the south shore of Harrison Bay. Schrader, of the U.S. Geological Survey, suggests that Simpson and all his com– panions were deluded by a group of sand dunes in this area which, by comparison with the perfectly flat expanses on every side, acquired considerably stature in the eyes of these weary travelers. Schrader further explains that under certain conditions of light on the north coast of Alaska, all objects are magnified in the vertical scale. These two facts together make it possible to understand how Simpson might have named some forty-foot sand dunes the Pelly Mountains.
From Atigaru Point the shoreline bends southwestward and then eastward again to meet the Colville-Itkillik delta. The main channel through this delta is the most easterly but one . From here the shore of the Bay curves northeastward to Oliktok Point.
Pacific Shoal (q.v.), in the northwestern part of the Bay, lies about 8 miles east of Cape Halkett, and tiny Thetis Island, the first of the Jones

HARRISON BAY, ALASKA

group (q.v.), lies a few miles northwest of Oliktok Point.
It is particularly with reference to Harrison Bay that the whaling captains of the nineteenth century emphasized what they considered a rule, that the number of fathoms shown when they cast the lead gave the approximate mileage from the coast. On this stretch they said it was important to sound frequently and not to go within the 10-fathom line except very cautiously. There has been reported and recorded on charts a 10-fathom sounding 40 miles from shore (near 71° 50′ N.Lat., 151° W.Long.), but this would be a small shoal, and the 10-fathom line is no doubt frequelty ^ frequently ^ at a distance of no more than 10 to 15 miles from the coast. It was a whaler rule that land must never be visible from the bridge while a ship was crossing Harrison Bay.
For the winter c ^ ro ^ ssing of this Bay the shoalness is convenient, for, when anyone attempts to make a sledge course direct from Cape Halkett to Oliktok Point, he does not usually have to swing much coastward to avoid rough ice. This means that pressure ice here grounds normally along about the 8 or 10-fathom depth.
No doubt a good deal of pressure ice takes ground, especially in middle and late winter, much farther to seaward than the direct line from Halkett to Oliktok or even from Halkett to the Jones Islands; for ordinarily the shore floe is farther offshore opposite Harrison Bay than at most other points on the north coast of Alaska.

HARRISON BAY, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus, Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River region northern Alaska ^ Canning River region northern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Schrader, Frank Charles. Reconnaissance in northern Alaska ^ Reconnaissance in northern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1904. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional paper ^ Professional paper ^ No.20)
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of America ^ Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of America ^ . . . during the years 1836-39 ^ during the years 1836-39 ^ . London, Bentley, 1843.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II ^ Alaska. Part II ^ . 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 45 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 HOPSON POINT, ALASKA

HOPSON POINT is a low promontory on the arctic coast of Alaska in the vicinity of 70° 10′ N.Lat., 146° 30′ W.Long., which appears on Leffingwell's map of the Canning River region. Alaska Island, one of the Maguire group (q.v.), lies a few miles off from this point.
Source:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ . Washington D.C., G.P.O., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 60 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 HOWE ISLAND, ALASKA

HOWE ISLAND, off the arctic coast of Alaska between Prudhoe and Foggy Island Bays, is a conspicuous silt island in the delta of the Sagavanirktok River (q.v.). Leffingwell, in 1914, estimated it to be 30 feet high at the eastern end. Anxiety Point, at that same end, was named by Sir John Franklin during his August, 1826, attempt to complete the north– west passage.
Sources:
Franklin, John. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827.
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827.
London, Murray, 1828.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)

Ruby Collins June, 1949 ICY CAPE, ALASKA

^ 465wds ^
ICY CAPE, about midway between Point Franklin and Cape Beaufort on the arctic coast of Alaska, is a low, flat point on the sandspit forming the seaward side of Kasegaluk Lagoon.
The small Eskimo village of Akeonik lies on the mainland just opposite Icy Cape and the Avak River empties into Avak Inlet (q.v.) south of the Cape.
The report of the 1924 Geological Survey expedition describes another settlement at Icy Cape as being situated on the low headland that forms it. According to the Survey, the Bureau of Education maintained a school in this village for many years, but, since the enrollment was less than a dozen children through this period and schools were badly needed in other more thickly populated sections of the Territory, this Icy Cape school was finally closed.
The Geological Survey found that the town had one or two other good houses [: ] in addition to the schoolhouse and several sod houses which the Eskimos had built. In 1924, about forty natives lived in the Icy Cape settlement at least part of the year, and a branch of one of the Wainwright stores carried a small stock of supplies. At that time several thousand rein– deer, owned cooperatively by the small community, were pastured on the main– land with a semi-permanent camp for the herders at [: ] Akeonik. Although this town does not appear in the 1939 Census, it is without any doubt still in existence.
The water off Icy Cape is shoal, offering only 2 1/2 or 3 fathom directly offshore. Blossom Shoal ^ s ^ (q.v.), which is reported to be spreading, lies directly off Icy Cape and presents a major hazard to pilots in these waters.
The meridian of Icy Cape forms the western boundary of U.S. Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4 (q.v.)

ICY CAPE, ALASKA

Cook named this Cape in 1778 ^ ; ^ H ^ h ^ e was followed, in ^ August of ^ 1826, by Beechey.
"This cape, the farthest point reached by Captain Cook," Beechey wrote, "was at the time of its discovery very much encumbered with ice, whence it received its name; none, however, was now visible. The cape is very low, and has a large lake at the back of it, which receives the water of a con– siderable river, and communicates with the sea through a narrow channel much encumbered with shoals. There are several winter habitations of the Esquimaux upon the cape, which were afterwards visited by Lieutenant Belcher. The main land on both sides of Icy Cape, from Wainwright Inlet on one side to Cape Beaufort on the other, is flat, and covered with swampy moss. It presents a line of low mud cliffs, between which and a shingly beach that every where forms the coast-line there is a succession of narrow lakes capable of being navigated by baidars or small boats. Off here we saw a great many black whales--more than I remember ever to have seen, even in Baffin's Bay."

ICY CAPE, ALAK SKA

[: ] BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. 2d ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. 2d ^ ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.

Beechey, F.W. Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait. . . ^ Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Beering's Strait. . . ^ in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28. ^ in the years 1825, 26, 27, 28. ^ London, 1831. 2v.

Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern Alaska.

Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern Alaska.
Was ington, D.C., 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)

Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska and Alaska Business Index. ^ Tewkesbury's Who's Who in Alaska and Alaska Business Index. ^ Juneau, Alaska, 1947.

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II Alaska. Part II . 5th (1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947.

VS Guidebook for Alaska.

Aeronautical Chart No.64

U.S.C. & G.S. Chart No.9400.

Ruby Collins July, 1949 IKPIKPUK RIVER, ALASKA

^ 790wards ^
IKPIKPUK RIVER is the major tributary to Smith Bay, an arm of the Polar Sea on the north coast of Alaska between Point Barrow and Harrison Bay (q.v.)
This river is formed by the junction of Kigalik River and Maybe Creek at about 69° 23′ N.Lat., 154° 35′ W.Long. The Kigalik flows eastward for about 50 miles (airline) through the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, and Maybe Creek takes a similar route in a westerly direction to its junction with the Kigalik.
A camp named after the Kigalik was the rendezvous village visited by Ensign Howard, of the Stoney expedition, in May, 1886, while on hi [: ] way to Point Barrow from Fort Cosmos on the Kobuk River. Here Howard found thirty tents and 150 natives, [: ] all preparing for their annual trading trip to Point Barrow. Collected here were eighteen seal skin umiaks and twenty deerskin kayaks. Everyone was busy, the men making new boat frames, the women tanning skins and making clothing. These were all interior Eskimos going to trade their deerskin clothing and certain other objects for the marine products ^ , guns & ammunition ^ available from the Barrow Eskimos.
Howard climbed the highest hill (which proved to be only 500 feet high) separating the Kigalik from the Colville (q.v.) and noted that the Ikpikpuk was "tortuous in the extreme, bending and doubling upon itself in a remarkable manner."
Below the mouths of the Kigalik and Maybe Creek, the general dire [: ] tion of the Ikpikpuk is determined by the northward slope of the plateau north of the Brooks Range, but this, like the other streams in the northern drainage system, has so deeply incised its course that the floor of the upper Ikpikpuk stands several [: ] hundred feet below the uplands. Many of the side streams entering the main river have also eroded their courses along the east-west trend of the weeker belts of rock. This is particularly true of the Kigalik and of Maybe Creek. Such a drainage pattern has been classified as trellised.

IKPIKPUK RIVER, ALASKA

From its point of origin the Ikpikpuk continues in a generally northerly direction receiving Titulak River from the west and Price River from the east, within the first thirty-five miles (airline) of its tortuous course. Perhaps another thirty-five miles (airline) below Price River, the west fork of the Ikpikpuk, known as the Ikpikpung or Chipp River (q.v.), branches off on its way to the head of Admiralty Bay (q.v.). The more easterly and main fork of the Ikpikpuk continues for another thirty-five miles (airline) to the head of Smith Bay which it enters by way of a considerable delta.
Miguakiak River, which rises in Teshekpuk Lake, enters an eastern channel of the lower Ikpikpuk. Teshekpuk Lake occupies a considerable portion of the peninsula separating Smith Bay from Harrison Bay, the next large bay to the east. ^ t^T^he Miguakiak, ^ I ^ i ^ ts main outlet, is perhaps thirty or forty miles long.
The entire length of the Ikpikpuk is navigable by canoe. In the opinion of the 1926 Geological Survey party it might also be navigated by shallow– draft [: ] launches.
Although its airline length is only a little over 100 miles, the actual length of this stream could easily be twice this distance. The "bending and doubling" noticed by Howard increases as the river approaches the sea. From the mouth of the Titulak to Smith Bay, the Ikpikpuk works a snake– like course across fifty miles of lake-strewn marsh and grassland which charac– terizes the coastal plain of this part of Alaska. The surrounding countryside, although it actually slopes slightly down toward the sea, appears to be perfectly flat for as far as the eye can see.
"Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the coastal plain," wrote Smith and Mertie, "is the uniformity and monotony of its landscapes. Except for minute minor details, its appearance is everywhere the same. Its slope is so slight that to the unaided eye it appears to stretch away to the horizon as an endless flat. Prominent landmarks are entirely absent. Owing

RIVER IKPIKPUK Alaska

to its [: ] featurelessness even minor elevations such as sand dune 10 feet high appear to be notable prominences; in fact, it is said that one of the earlier explorers reported a range of mountains east of the Colville where subsequent explorations have proved that only low sand dune ^ s ^ exist. Over these plains the winds sweep with unbroken severity, and the traveler caught in the sudden storms that are common in the winter finds it next to impossible to get any natural shelter. In the summer the poorly drained tracts of upland afford only spongy footing, which makes travel laborious and slow, and lakes and deep sloughs necessitate circuitous deviations from direct courses."
The banks banks of the lower Ikpikpuk are only a few feet above the level of the water so that, during times of high water in the spring, it overflows its banks and floods much of the surrounding countryside. As would be expected, this part of the river is shallow and the current [: ] slow.
The only settlement on the Ikpikpuk, according to recent maps, is Valley of Willows about ten miles below the junction of the Kigalik and Maybe Creek.

IKPIKPUK RIVER, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alask ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alask ^ a. 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, Philip S., and Mertie, J.B., JR. Geology and Mineral Resources of ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of ^ Northwestern Alaska. ^ Northwestern Alaska. ^ Washington, G.P.O., 1930. (U.S. GEOlogical Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
Stoney, George M. Naval Explorations in Alaska ^ Naval Explorations in Alaska ^ . Annapolis, Md., United States Naval Institute, 1900.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ Guidebook for Alaska. ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 INARU RIVER, ALASKA

^ 130words ^
INARU RIVER, northern Alaska, joins the Meade River (q.v.) from the west only a few miles above the point where the Meade debouches into Admiralty Bay, an extension of Dease Inlet and the P l ^ o ^ Sea.
The Inaru is about sixty miles long and flows in a generally northeasterly direction, roughly parallel to the coastline of Alaska between Peard Bay and Barrow (q.v.). The headwaters of the Inaru may be reached by an easy portage of only about ten miles from Peard Bay.
The Inaru is so meandering, narrow, and steeply banked as to have remind some explorers of an artificial ditch. The current is sluggish, and the entire river is navigable by canoe.
On his way to the Meade River in March, 1883, Lieutenant P.H. Ray crossed the Inaru, which he called the Kuahroo . The name appears in this form on some early U.S. Coast Guard maps of the region.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, Philip S., and Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of ^ northwestern Alaska. ^ northwestern Alaska. ^ Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin 8 ^ Bulletin 8 ^ 15)
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. ^ Alaska. ^ Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .

Ruby Collins September, 1949 JONES ISLANDS, ALASKA

^ 960wds ^
JONES ISLANDS, also called Thetis Islands, in the Polar Sea, off the arctic coast of Alaska, are a chain of small, low sand islands extending from the Colville River delta eastward for about 25 miles to Return islands. They stand several miles offshore from Oliktok, Milne, and Beechey Points, for ^ forming ^ part of the northern boundary of Simpson Lagoon.
Travel ^ ing ^ westward, Dease and Simpson came upon this group of islands in July, 1837, and named them for Rev. David T. Jones, "the faithful and eloquent minister at Red Rivers."
Capt. Robert McClure, of the Investigator , stopped at the Jones Islands on August 11, 1850. It was on this trip that McClure, although defeated ^ prevented ^ by the ice from sailing it himself, completed the surveying work on the north– west passage. He found the shores of Jones Islands stre ^ wed ^ with driftwood. During the afternoon of the 11th, about 30 Eskimos came out in skin boats and traded ^ f ^ ish and ducks for tobacco. One of these Eskimos had a gun which he had obtained from the Russian Fur Company.
"Their surprise, of course," wrote McClure, "was very great, par– ticularly at the size of our handkerchiefs (the sails); the whale boats attracted their attention, and they asked if trees grew in our country sufficiently large to make them. . .As a fair specimen of the observation of these people and their aptitude for trade, the following may be taken. Seeing that we cut the tobacco into pieces to give in exchange for their fish (salmon trout), they began to do the same with the fish; this, however, we would not admit, so they were obliged to come to our terms."
To these natives McClure entrusted a despatch which ^ ^ they were to deliver to the Russian trading post on the Colville River, whence it would ultimately reach the Admiralty Office in London.
C.H. Stockton renamed the Jones group after his ship the Thetis , in which he sailed eastward along the north coast of Alaska during the summer of

JONES ISLANDS, ALASKA

1889. Most recent charts continue to call these the Jones Islands, although the most westerly, off the mouth of the Colville and Point Oliktok, is identified as Thetis Island. From west to east the Jones group ^ ^ includes Thetis, Spy, Leavitt, Bertoncini, Bodfish, and Cottle Islands. The largest was reported in 1940 to be about 3 miles in length.
When Stefansson first saw these islands, in 1907, the longest of them, the one named by Leffingwell Leavitt Island, after Captain George B. Leavitt of Portland, Maine, was at least 6 miles long. All islands along the north coast of Alaska east of Barrow are being rapidly destroyed by the sea. In his Hunters of the Great North, when speaking of his stay among the Jones Islands the summer of 1907, Stefansson writes: "The Eskimos had told me that in prehistoric times (before the memory of the fathers of the old men living) there had been a big Eskimo settlement on one of the Jones Islands which lay in a row parallel to ^ ^ the coast a few miles offshore. . . .This [: ] island was a little bigger thatn Flaxman. I say was , designedly; for it and all the other islands are growing smaller year by year.
"It seems the north coast of Alaska is sinking gradually. So long as the sea ice remains in winter and spring, nothing happens to the injury of the islands. But when the ice goes away, as it does nearly every summer, and when a gale comes from the open sea, the waves will undermine the cliffs of the islands at a great rate, so that the coa ^ s ^ tline sometimes recedes as much as a hundred ^ y ^ ards in a single summer. When the early whalers came to the north coast of Alaska, Flaxman Island was probably some eight or ten miles long. It is now no more than half that long and less than half as wide as it used to be. The Eskimos said that similarly the ocean was rapidly cutting away the sites of the villages on the Jones Islands and that all sorts of ancient implements and other relics were being

JONES ISL [: ] NDS, ALASKA

washed away by the sea.
"The island containing the house ruins was a low, rolling prairie. . . There was a great abundance of driftwood on the north coast and we erected a com– fortable camp near the ruins. As I had been told, the sea was cutting this island and it appeared as if half the village site was already gone. I found awash on the beach a number of carvings of bone and ivory and a number of weapons and implements of bone and wood. These differed in some respects but not funda– mentally from those that were in use by the Eskimos when the whites first came to the country. The houses had all fallen and looked superficially merely like so many mounds. I found on investigation that the ground plan had been similar to that of the houses not in use along the coast. In my opinion this village was inhabited no more than two or three centuries ago."
None of the Jones Islands is more than 20 or 30 feet above sea level. Spy Island is really two or three closely connected sand spits forming a semi– circle, the result of the action of waves and ice. Westerly winds drive five– and six-foot "tides" against the northern and northwestern shores of these islands, leaving behind a considerable amount of driftwood. Easterly winds raise the water only slightly, so that the wood left by easterly winds is carried away during westerly storms, but the reverse is never possible.
The west end of Spy Island is highest and broadest and encloses a lagoon of salt or brackish water which freezes over later than corresponding bodies of water on the mainland coast, although it is only about one foot dee ^ p ^ . The vegetation on these islands is of the type found on dry, sandy ground.
Leffingwell erected a beacon on Thetis Island in April, 1910, as an aid to navigating the shallow waters of Harrison Bay. "This island," he ex– plained, "is the first place picked up in crossing Harrison Bay from the west, and it is important that it should be recognizable."

JONES ISLANDS, ALASKA

Stefansson, and the hunting party which left the Karluk before she was beset, arrived at Thetis Island (which Stefansson calls Amauliktok ) on September 2, 1913. "Inside this island chain," Stefansson writes, "we found the ice young and rotten, so that crossing to the mainland was not practicable and we camped for the night, using for cooking and warmth our sheet-iron stove, and drift wood which in this district is abundant. [: ]
"The name of this sandspit is typical in the sense that an Eskimo place name is frequently found, when translated literally into English, to be the equivalent not of a word but rather of a sentence of ours. Thus Amauliktok means 'he killed a Pacific eider.'"

JONES ISLANDS, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.

Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington,D.C. 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)

McClure, Robert. "Proceedings of Captain M'Clure of Her Majesty's Ship "Investigator," in search of the Expedition of Sir John Franklin, from Au ust 1850 to April 1853, and reporting the Discovery of the North West Passage." (Great Britain. Admiralty. Papers ^ Papers ^ Relative to the Recent Arctic Expeditions. ^ Relative to the Recent Arctic Expeditions. ^ London, 1854. No.V)

Simpson, Thomas Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of the ^ Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of the ^ Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827 ^ Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827 ^ . London, Muarray, 1828.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Friendly Arctic. ^ Friendly Arctic. ^ New ed. N.Y., Macmillan, 1943.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Hunters of the Great North ^ Hunters of the Great North ^ . N.Y., Harcourt, 1922.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .

U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, D.C., 1947.

^ 85 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 KADLEROSHILIK RIVER, ALASKA

KADLEROSHILIK RIVER, arctic Alaska, rises between the Franklin Mountains and the Sagavanirktok River and flows in a generally northeasterly direction into Foggy Island Bay, a shallow arm of the Polar Sea.
The fanlike upper drainage of the Kadleroshilik system originates in part in the foothills of the Brooks Range, about 45 miles inland, and in part in the many lakes and marshes strewn over the coastal plain. For its last 25 or 30 miles the Kadleroshilik follows a well-defined channel, entering the bay at about 70° 12′ N.Lat., 147° 35′ W.Long.
Source:
U.S. C&GS. World Aeronautical Chart ^ World Aeronautical Chart ^ (63) Brooks Range, Alaska.
^ 490 wds ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 KA ^ S ^ EGALUK LAGOON, ALASKA

KASEGALUK LAGOON, off the arctic coast of Alaska, starts about ten miles north of Cape Beaufort (q.v.) and stretches northward without a break past Point Lay and Icy Cape (q.v.) to within a few miles of Wainwright Inlet (q.v.). Separating this lagoon from the ocean is a narrow strip of sand beach, elevated but a few feet above the water, with several small, shallow openings through it south of Icy Cape, and two considerable openings north of that cape. The land on the inside of the lagoon is generally low; but, in coasting along, some small bluffs with low, rolling land back of them can be seen in places.
South of Icy Cape the lagoon has three rivers emptying into it, the Kukpowruk, Kokolik, and Utukok (q.v.), and its whole ex tent is filled with flats and bars that make it scarcely navigable even for native skin canoes. North of Icy Cape the water in the lagoon is deeper. Through an opening about 10 to 12 miles from the Cape, 8 feet of water can be carried safely, with 2 to 3 fathoms inside. The channel is close to the sand spit on the south side of the entrance.
References:VS Guide Book for Alaska; U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Pt.II,1947.

KASEGALUK LAGOON, ALASKA

While in charge of the overland relief expedition to Barrow in 1898, Jarvis ^ (q.v.) ^ passed Kasegaluk Lagoon. His diary for March 14 reads in part as follows: "We now came to the lagoon that stretches along this coast for a distance of more than 100 miles, about 5 to 10 miles wide, and separated from the sea by a narrow [: ] sand spit with four openings in the entire length. Three large rivers empty into the lagoon south of Icy Cape. About 15 miles below Point Lay is the mouth of Kookpowruk ^ [ ^ Kukpowruk ^ ] ^ , a large stream nearly 100 miles long. Its source is to the south of the Meade River Mountains, and it runs in a general northeasterly direction. The Kokolik, the shortest of the three, rises on the north side of the mountains, its mouth being just back of Point Lay. The largest and farthest north is the Ootookok ^ [ ^ Utukok ^ ] ^ . Its head waters are near a branch of the Noatok and almost directly south of Icy Cape, and its mouth is in the lagoon, about 15 miles south of the cape. Before the wild deer were driven from this part of the country there were large [: ] settlements on these rivers, and the natives from Kotzebue Sound often made the passage up the Noatok and down the Ootookok in the spring, to trade with the people on the northern coast.
"Along the shores of the lagoon, near the mouths of the rivers, the land is marshy and low, gradually rising to rolling hills until the Meade River Mountains are reached. The southern part of the lagoon is shallow and filled with bars, but the northern half is wider and has depths of 3 fathoms in places, and through the two openings from 8 to 10 feet can be carried. There are only a few small streams emptying into the northern half, and the land back of the lagoon is generally higher than along the southern half."
^ 120 wds ^

Ruby Collins January, 1950 KATAKTURUK RIVER, ALASKA

KATAKTURUK RIVER, arctic Alaska, rises in the Shubelik Mountains in the vicinity of 69° 33′ N.Lat., and 145° 30′ W.Long. and flows northeastward through the Sadlerochit Mountains (q.v.) and across some twenty miles of coastal plain to the Polar Sea. The mouth of the Katakturuk is double, opening into Simpson Cove, midway of Camden Bay, which in turn is an arm of the sea.
Leffingwell, who spent the years 1906-1914 in this part of Alaska, found two exposures of ground ice on the east mouth of the Katakturuk. He thinks these were probably formed where ^ when ^ hydraulic pressure had bulged up the frozen turf. Leffingwell was one of the first to make a study of ground ice in Alaska. Those interested in this subject are referred to his detailed study of the Canning River region.
Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1919. U.S.Geol.Surv., Prof.pa. ^ Prof.pa. ^ 109.
^ 45 ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 KILIMANTAVIE, ALASKA

KILIMANTAVIE is a small Eskimo village at the extreme northern end of Kasegaluk Lagoon on the arctic coast of Alaska, about fifteen miles south of Wainwright (q.v.).
According to Murdock this name means "sling." It has been variously reported throughout the years as Kilametagag-miut, by Tikhmenief in 1861; as Kolumakturook, by Petrof in 1880; and as Kilimantavie by Jarvis in the late nineteenth century.
Recent maps show no river in the immediate vicinity of the village and the surrounding countryside is perfectly flat. The settlement does not appear in the 1939 Census, so that no estimate of its present size can be made.
The long winter trail which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska passes through Kilimantavie on its way southward to Kotzebue and Seward Peninsula and northward to Barrow.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of North ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of North ^ western Alaska ^ western Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
Aeronautical Chart No.64
^ 1,235 wds. ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 KOKOLIK RIVER, ALASKA

THE KOKOLIK RIVER is a meandering stream which flows into Kasegaluk Lagoon at about 69° 45′ N.Lat., in the vicinity of Point Lay, on the arctic coast of Alaska. This river is the second more northerly tributary to the lagoon, its mouth lying between those of the Kukpowruk and Utukok Rivers (q.v.).
The Kokolik rises in the Brooks Range, its headwaters draining from Tingmerkpuk and Poko Mountains near 68° 30′ N.Lat., 162° W.Long. For about 50 or 60 miles the rivers flows almost directly northward, through a narrow valley in the midst of the mountains. At about 69° 12′ N.Lat., it veers northeastward of 162° W.Long. finally curving northwestward, recrossing this same meridian, and continuing in a sinuous but generally westerly direc– tion to Kasegaluk Lagoon. The Kokolik is about 120 (airline) miles long, but, because of its numberless meanders both great and small, is without doubt actually at least half again that length.
The only named tributaries to this river enter early in its course long before the stream has found its way out of the mountains. These are: the Tingmerkpuk River, from the west, and Iligaruk Creek, from the east. A great many other streams enter all along its ^ ^ course, but they are not identi– fied on recent maps.
For the final half of its course, the Kokolik escapes completely from the mountains and crosses the low, lake-strewn coastal plain. The surrounding countryside here is almost perfectly flat with a resulting confusion of drainage systems, so that the course chosen by the Kokolik is particularly tortuous for these last 60 or more miles.
The Kokolik is navigable by canoe for a considerable part of its length. During the winter, of course, it freezes over early in September, remaining frozen until the last of May or early June. The spring break-up

KOKOLIK RIVER, ALASKA

is often accompanied by sudden, sharp rises of the water-level at different points along the stream. These are c ^ au ^ sed by the damming of blocks of ice at a point below the flood area. Smith and Mertie reported just such a rise in the water on June 4, 1926. On June 5, however, the Geological Survey party set out downstream in canoes, which they were able to use to the mouth of the Kokolik. The highest water came on June 8, after which date no more ice was seen in the river.
Vegetation The entire course of the Kokolik is above the spruce line, and even the scrub willo ^ w ^ growing along the banks are small and so thinly scattered that the places where they are sufficiently abundant for camp uses are many miles apart. This paucity of firewood, particularly in the regions where driftwood from the sea is unavailable, reduces ^ causes ^ the natives living in these regions to spend ing at least half of their time in a never– ending search for fuel. They often travel ten or more miles by dog team on these fuelling trips, but even so get only enough for their most basic needs.
Blueberries, salmonberries, currents, and cranberries grow along al l most everywhere on the arctic coastal plain. The blueberries in this region are slow, ripening in the fall. The natives often allow them to freeze on the bushes and to be covered with the winter snows. They are then gathered in the spring. Howard mentions this technique and adds that the berries treated in this manner were particularly delicious. The Salmonberry ripens in late July.
The Eskimos of this region also eat something which they call "mashu", which is the root of a knotweed belonging to the genus Polygonum. This root is eaten raw and boiled and is reported to taste much like sweet potato.
The most striking characteristic of what is otherwise a severe and unrelieved country is the great variety and brilliance of the many kinds of

KOKOLIK RIVER, ALASKA

flowers which bloom from early spring to fall over the arctic plain section of the Kokolik and all the other coastal rivers of northern Alaska. The first to show are large pu ^ r ^ ple and white anemones, and these are followed by a wide variety of blooms belonging to the poppy, mustard, saxifrage, rose, and aster families.
Animal Life Mountain sheep have been reported in the upper Kokolik region al– though constant hunting has reduced their numbers, and they are now found only in the most inaccessible sections. The U.S. Geological Survey party of 1924 saw caribou in the hills bordering the upper Kokolik, and, at the same point, one good-sized brown bear. One possible explanation for this party's seeing so few bear is that ^ their ^ visit ^ coincided with ^ [: ] during the period of hibernation. This same party saw many red, cross, and black foxes, in the interior, but no white foxes. Rabbits were not as numerous near this stream as near those either farther northeast or farther south. One wolverine was killed in the May 15 camp on the upper Kokolik.
Ptarmigan, snow-white in winter and brown in summer, were found in flocks of hundreds. Ducks and geese were next most abundant and one lone swan was seen. Hawks and owls also live in the Kokolik region.
Many different kinds of fish, especially tomcod along the coast and grayling in the smaller inland streams, were reported, as well as some whitefish in the same streams as contained the grayling.
The so-called 'incidental' wild life of these regions are ^ is ^ often more apparent to the traveller than the larger animals considered above. For instance, in the summer the air is alive with swarms of mosquitoes and flies as well as with less troublesome and much more beautiful dragon– flies and butterflies. Arthur Gibson, of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, listed thirteen families, 62 genera, and 114 species of Lepidoptera alone, for almost exactly the same kind of country as [: ] ^ is ^

KOKOLIK RIVER, ALASKA

presently under consideration. From the middle of July to the middle of August, unless the [: ] weather is stormy, mosquitoes range over this coastal plain in such ^ h ^ ordes that outdoor work is maddening. Veils and gloves are essential for it. Even the caribon ^ reindeer, rubbing their heads against the brush and ^ are tormented so badly that they cannot graze in peace, and ^ but ^ wander about looking for a breeze which might blow the insects away. By the end of this mosquitoe-ridden month they are noticeably thinner from interrupted grazing and loss of sleep. Mosquitoes are apt ^ not ^ to be ^ so ^ numerous along the coast where there is almost always a breeze off the water, which drives the insects to take shelter in the vegetation inland. However, an offshore breeze will bring them back in swarms.
All along the coast the beaches are strewn with the remains of crabs, starfish, jelly fish, and many different kinds of molluses--proof enough of the abundance of marine life in these waters.
There are no named settlements along the Kokolik River except for Kokolik itself at the mouth. This small Eskimo village was not reported in the 1939 Census, so that [: ] its present size is unknown.
The long winter trail which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska, lead s ^ ing ^ southward to Kotzebue and Seward Peninsula and northwa ^ rd ^ to Barrow, ^ runs ^ passes along the narrow sandspit which forms the seaward side of Kasegaluk Lagoon, thereby passing within a mile or two of the mouth of the Kokolik.

KOKOLIK RIVER, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern ^ Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska ^
Aeronautical Chart ^ Aeronautical Chart ^ No.64
^ 40 wds ^

Ruby Collins January, 1950 Konganevik Point, Alaska

^ K ^ ONGANEVIK POINT (70° 02′ N.Lat., 145° 10′ W.Long.) on the north coast of Alaska projects into the west side of Camden Bay about midway between the mouth of the Tamayariak and Katakturuk Rivers. The name sometimes appears as Kanganeyik ^ Kanganeyik ^ , but Konganevik is more generally accepted.
^ 90 wds ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 KUGRUA ^ ^ RIVER, ALASKA

KUGRUA RIVER empties into Peard Bay, an extension of the Polar Sea on the arctic coast of Alaska, about midway between Icy Cape and Point Barrow.
The [: ] Kugrua heads in a low divide westward from the head– waters of the Inaru River (q.v.) and flows in a generally northwesterly direction for about thirty miles (airline) to the head of Peard Bay. The entire course of this river lies on the lake-strewn, coastal plain which borders all of northern Alaska. It receives several small tributaries, but none of these is named on recent maps.
^ 1730 wds. ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 KUK RIVER, ALASKA

KUK RIVER (meaning River River!) is the name given to the lower segment of a system of waterways formed by the ^ j ^ oining of several long rivers which may be considered as tributaries to Wainwright Inlet (q.v.) on the arctic coast of Alaska, at about 70° 30′ N. Lat., 160° W.Long.
The Kuk itself is only about thirty-four miles long, but it is between four and five miles wide in places. Its two major affluents, the Kaolak and Avalik Rivers (q.v.) , join to form the Kuk at about 70° 08′ N.Lat., 159° 41′ W.Long., after which the Kuk proceeds in a northwesterly direction to the Inlet. About thirteen miles below this junction, the Kuk receives the Omalik from the east. A few miles farther downstream the Ivisaruk and the Altakrok come in from the west and the Kungok from the east. Karmuk Point marks the southern side of the entrance into Waiwright Inlet, and, although there is a small promontory on the north side of the entrance, it is not named on recent charts.
The Avalik rises on the north side of a relatively low divide north of the B ^ r ^ ooks Range, from the other side of which drain the headwaters of the Meade River. The entire course of the Avalik may be said to lie on the [: ] broad coastal plain which skirts this part of Alaska. The Geological Survey party of 1924 ascended this river in canoes to about 69° 55′ N. Lat., 157°55′ W.Long. In this vicinity the highest land was about 250 feet above sea level. Throughout this distance the river was so shallow that the bottoms were prac– tically worn out of the boats from scraping over bars.
This same Geological Survey party found a great deal of bone and mammoth ivory on these bars in the Avalik. The tusks ranged from five feet to only a few inches in length and most of the teeth were small. Even more interesting were the skulls of horses, one in ^ an ^ almost perfect state of preservation ^ , ^ which

KUK RIVER, ALASKA

were found in the bars. Upon later examination these were reported to be [: ] he remains of a Pleistocene horse. Musk ox skulls were also found in this neighborhood, some of them lying unburied on the surface of the ground, in a bleached but perfect condition.
The Survey also observed the living fauna of the region. Some caribou were seen, even though the party passed th [: ] ough the region in the summer when the large herds break up into smaller family groups. Red, cross, and black foxes were seen in almost all parts of the interior, but no white foxes. Rabbits were numerous throughout the lowland areas, and some lynx, marten, muskrat, and squirrel were seen, A ^ a ^ lthough these were more numerous south of the Range, along the Kobuk, Alatna, and Noatak Rivers, than they were in the region presently under consideration. A great many kinds of birds inhabit this section including ptarmigan, ducks, geese, and swans.
With the arrival of spring several kinds of land birds appear. Canadian jays or camp robbins, snow birds, ravens, crows, and many other species were the constant companions of the 1924 Geological Survey party. Next most common were the hawks, owls, and eagles.
Grayling is the principal fish to be found in the smaller inland streams, and are everywhere numerous enough to be relied on for food.
In almost every respect the country surrounding the entire course of the Avalik is similar to the lowland sections of the Kokolik, to which article the reader is referred for more information on the vegetation and climate of the ^ this ^ Avalik region.
The 1924 expedition covered only thirty or so miles of the Avalik, but the river measures about fifty (airline) miles in length. Its actual length is probably considerably more than this. A great many streams, all unnamed in present-day maps, enter the Avalik both from the north and the south. The only named tributary is the Ketik River, which enters from the south only a

KUK RIVER, ALASKA

few miles above the mouth of the Kaolik, the other main fork of the Kuk River.
The Ketik is much longer than is indicated on Smith and Mertie's map of 1924. It rises across the low divide which sends tributaries southward into Carbon Creek, one of the early affluents of the Utukok. From this point the Ketik flows northward for about fifty-five (ailine) miles to the Avalik.
The Kaolak rises in a relatively low divide only a few miles from the Utukok at a point several miles below Elusive Creek, on that river. The Kaolak then continues with remarkable directness, considering the flatness of the surrounding country, in a northeasterly direction to the Kuk. This river is somewhat shorter than the Avalik, being perhaps forty (airline) miles long.
As has already been mentioned, these three rivers are almost completely contained in the broad, flat, lake-studded marsh and grassland which is the coastal plain of this part of Alaska. This entire area is well above the spruce line; and only small scrub willow grow along the banks of these streams, ^ and ^ E ^ e ^ ven this [: ] growth is so scanty as to be unreliable as a source of fuel. In winter the streams are completely frozen over, the smaller ones being solid ice to the very bottom. In the summer, on the other hand, the frost in the ground thaws to a depth of from one to two feet, turning the entire country– side into an enormous bog, hundreds of square miles in extent. Hoardes of flies and mosquitoes bread in this mammoth bog, making the life of the summer visitor to this region a misery. Strong, tightly-fitting head nets, gloves, long sleeves and pants legs are indispensible to traveling across this terrain in the summer. Wherever possible, it is advisable to keep to the waterways, since travel by boat is much more comfortable and much faster than it is overland by foot.
It should be added that from the earliest days of spring, this same enormous marshland is covered with a brightly-colored carpet of gaudy, short-stemmed blossoms. These do a great deal toward relieving the monotony

KUK RIVER, ALASKA

of the landscape and toward diverting the visitor's attention from whatever troubles he may meet in his travels.
The Geological Survey party of 1924 found broad tracks of sandstone and shale containing numerous thick beds of coal bordering almost the entire course of the Kaolik and Avalik Rivers. The only places where this condition was found not to exist was for a distance of about ten miles up from their junction with the Kuk River.
Kuk River was first reported by the Coast Survey in 1869 as the Kook . Since then, it has also been written Kok and Koo . On a Hydrographic Chart dated 1892, there were two rivers, the Koo and the Kee , and, near [: ] Point Collie at their mouths, a village called Koogmute , "river people." Kuk is now the generally accepted spelling for the name.
The two small villages of Kangik, at the junction of the Avalik and the Kaolak, and Anaktuk, just a few miles below this point, appear on recent maps but not in Baker's Geographic Dictionary of Alaska . It would appear, there– fore, that these two settlements have grown up since 1906 when the second edition of the Dictionary appeared. Neither of these towns was included in the 1939 Census, so that there is no way of estimating their presents size.
There are no settlements on the Kuk itself, probably because of its proximity to Wainwright (q.v.), one of the major towns on the arctic coast of Alaska, just above Wainwright Inlet.
However, the main landing strip for Wainwright lies on Karmuk Point, the southern entrance point to the Inlet.
Of the coal in this region, Smith and Mertie wrote: "Coal beds in the vicinity of Wainwright are said to have been known to the whites in 1889, and since that time they ^ ^ have been mined in a small way and in primitive fashion to supply local needs. The coal beds are more or less continuous from a locality a short distance southeast of ^ K ^ armuk Point throughout the valleys of

KUK RIVER, ALASKA

the Kuk River and its tributaries the Avalik and Kaolak Rivers. The thickest and most accessible beds seen, however, crop out along the east side of the Kuk River between points 8 miles and 20 miles south of Wainwright. The coal lies practically horizontal with very gentle [: ] warpings, so that apparently it is everywhere under a relatively thin cover. Openings to get out the coal have been made at three places in the shore bluffs...
"The coal is evidently of subbituminous rank and of less heating value than the other coals so far described. This lower quality is believed to be due to the lesser folding that the beds have undergone and not to an original differ– ence in the beds themselves.
"A few hundred tons of coal has been taken from these beds on the Kuk and used locally. The coal that has been taken is, of course, of the poorest quality, as it is more or less weathered and mixed with surface debris. No real mining has been practiced. The natives simply gopher out from the surface the coal within reach of their picks and shovels, so that nowhere are the ex– cavations more than 4 or 5 feet underground. The roof is a fairly heavy sand– stone, which disintegrates rather rapidly on exposed surface but probably is firmer underground. No timber is used, and the roof is strengthened by leaving a considerable thickness of coal next to the sandstone. The coal is sacked in bags containing 90 to 100 pounds of coal and is brought to Wainwright by the natives in their skin boats during the summer or by dog team in the winter...
^ " ^ The current price paid by the traders for this coal at Wainwright is about 75 cents a sack, but even at that price it does not supplant imported coal, which sells for more than twice as ^ ^ much.
"Farther south, toward the headwaters of the tributaries of the Kuk, no thick beds of coal were recognized. On the Kaolak River Foran found only thin beds exposed, though the presence of considerable amounts of coal on the bars suggested that there were probably other ^ ^ beds which were concealed by the

KUK RIVER, ALASKA

slumped banks or moss-covered stretches. On the Avalik River three small coal beds were seen a short distance above Kungik. Of these the lower two were less than 1 foot thick, but the upper one, which, however, was only poorly exposed, was at least 3 feet thick. Still farther up that stream other coal beds were recognized at a number of places, practically as far east as the stream was traversed, but none of them seemed to be of great enough thickness to be mined, and it was the geologist's impression that in the eastern part of the valley practically ^ n ^ one of the beds was more th ^ an ^ 1 foot thick."

[: ] KUK RIVER, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.

Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of North ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of North ^ western Alaska ^ western Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)

United States Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.

VS Guidebook for Alaska.

^ 195 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 KUPARUK RIVER, ALASKA

KUPARUK RIVER, northern Alaska, enters the Polar Sea by way of Gwydyr Bay (q.v.) forty or fifty miles east of the Colville River (q.v.). This is probably the same stream which Baker identifies as the Kupowra , which name he says was reported in 1903 by S.J. Marsh, a prospector. Marsh, himself, wrote it Koopowra . Leffingwell records this discovery as the joint work of Marsh and another prospector, F.G. Carter.
Leffingwell believes that the Kuparuk heads in a lake near the north front of the Brooks Range perhaps 120 (airline) miles from the sea. A recent map shows a large, unnamed tributary coming in from the southwest only about 30 miles from the mouth. The major portion of the Kuparuk lies on the broad, flat, lake-strewn coastal plain which borders all of this part of Alaska. Because of the inadequacy of the drainage, the river follows a braided, meandering course and would measure, in actual travelling distance, many miles longer than the airline distance from head to mouth.
Leffingwell reports that the Kuparuk delta is about equal in size to that of the Canning River (q.v.) and that the stream is navigable for only a very few miles. There is very little wood for fuel along its banks.
Sources:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, D.C., 1906.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 275 wds. ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 KUKPOWRUK RIVER, ALASKA

KUKPOWRUK RIVER, northern Alaska, flows into the south end of Kasegaluk Lagoon (q.v.) a few miles south of Point Lay, on the shores of the Polar Sea, at about 69° 36′ N.Lat., 163° W.Long. Its Eskimo name was first published in 1890 as Koopoowrook, but the present form is now generally used.
The headwaters of this river would seem to rise in the De Long Mountains somewhere between Mount Kelly (2,800 feet) and Tingmerkpuk Mountain (3,600 feet) near 68° N.Lat., 163° W.Long. The river then flows almost directly northward for some ninety or more miles to Kasegaluk Lagoon. For about two-thirds of its course the Kukpowruk works its way out of the mountains and the scattered foothills north of the De Long group, finally entering upon the lake-strewn coastal plain.
Although its course is direct when considered over-all, it is sinuous in detail. The Kukpowruk receives several tributaries, the more westerly of which seem to rise near the headwaters of the Kukpuk (q.v.), the main tributary to Marryatt Inlet, and the more easterly across divides in the vicinity of Tingmerkpuk and Poko Mountains which separate the Kukpowruk system from that of the next more northerly tributary to Kaegaluk Lagoon, the Kokolik (q.v. [: ] .
U.S. Geological Survey parties have found considerable quantities of coal near the mouth of the Kukpowruk where the bed-rock is folded. Farther upstream thirteen mineable beds were found, all three or more feet thick, and innumerable deposits three feet or less thick. It is felt that great quantities of coal ^ , which could be reavealed by excavation. ^ underlie this entire area, even where it is not now exposed

KUKPOWRUK RIVER, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.

Paige, Sidney, & Foran, W.T. Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska

Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region, Alaska
. Washington, 1925. (U.S. Geological S^s^urvey. Bulletin 772)

Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of North– western Alaska.

Geology and Mineral Resources of North– western Alaska.
Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)

^ 125 words ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 LAY ^ , ^ POINT, ALASKA

^ LAY, ^ POINT on the arctic coast of Alaska about midway between Cape Beaufort and Icy Cape, opposite the mouth of the Kokolik River, is a slight bend in the narrow sandspit forming the seaward side of Kasegaluk Lagoon. Beechey named this Point in 1826 after his naturalist, George Tradescant Lay.
The Eskimo village at Point Lay had a population of 117 in 1939, a general store run cooperatively by the natives, and an Alaska Native Service school. The school had an enrollment of 44, in 1940, It has been reported that good coal is available about three miles up the Kokolik River.
The long winter trail which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska passes through Point Lay on its way southward to Kotzebue and Seward Peninsula and northward to Barrow.
^ 215 wds ^

Ruby Collins May, 1949 LISBURNE, CAPE, ALASKA

LISBURNE, CAPE (68° 52′ N.Lat., 166° 17′ W.Long.) is a bare, dark mountain, 849 feet high, on the arctic coast of Alaska, north of Point Hope (q.v.) and south of Icy Cape (q.v.). The Cape is rugged, rising steeply from the water ^ , ^ and ^ is ^ easily recognized by the many pinnacles and scattered rocks near the summit.
The coastline turns abruptly eastward at Cape Lisburne, and, although there are no outlying rocks, a ridge extends perhaps six miles northeastward from the Cape. Thirty feet of water will be found over this ridge for several mi [: ] es offshore. Violent and gusty winds spill off this Cape, so that, [: ] with an offshore wind, vessels should keep clear of the Cape. Birds nest in great numbers in the rocks forming Cape Lisburne, and sailors, travelling this route in the summer, have reported the air dark with their wings.
Eastward from the Cape, the coast becomes lower losing [: ] ll of its rugged character, the hills becoming regular and rounded and sloping gradually down to the sea. Approaching Cape Sabine (q.v.), the next named promontory, the land is a series of ridges with valleys running inland from the water's edge.
Cook discovered and named Cape Lisburne on August 21, 1778. It has erroneously been called Lisburn, or Lisbon. The Eskimo name Wevok (q.v.) is still used for the small ^ ^ native village on the Cape.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.

EA-Geography: Alaska (Stefansson Library Research Staff)

NORTHERN ALASKA GEOGRAPHICAL ITEMS
Icy Cape to Int [: ] rnational Boundary (Place names arranged geographically)
Folder (1): A - B Folder (2): C - L ✓ Folder (3): M - Y
^ 200 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 MCCLURE ISLANDS, ALASKA

THE MCCLURE ISLANDS, in the Polar Sea off the arctic coast of Alaska, just northeast of Foggy Island Bay and the mouth of the Sagavanirktok River, are composed of five small, low, sandy islands hardly more than thirty or forty feet above the level of the water.
Leffingwell named these islands after Captain Robert McClure, R.N., of whom Leffingwell writes: "The shoals he met off Yarborough Inlet were un– doubtedly the Midways. He was thus the discoverer of the long chain of islands that extend from the Midways to Flaxman Island, and his name has been given by the writer to ^ ^ the first group east of Cross Island, as those first seen by him have already been named the Midways."
Yarborough, or as it is now called, Yarboro Inlet, one of the important entrances into the lagoon formed by this island chain, runs between the McClure group and Cross Island.
Reading Leffingwall's map from west to east the McClure group is made up of Narwhal, Jeanette, and Karluk Islands, and Islands No.20 and 19.
Leffingwell named the first three islands after the famous whaling ^ ships ^ whipas which helped him during his exploration of the Canning River region, 1906-1914. At that time Capt. George Leavitt commanded the Narwhal , Capt. John Bertoncini the K Jeannette , and Capt. Steven Cottle the Karluk.
Sources: Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 50 wds ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 MACKAY INLET, ALASKA

MACKAY INLET, Polar Sea, indents the north coast of Alaska immediately east of Dease Inlet and behind Tanget Point. During their trip westward along the coast to Barrow in 1837, Dease and Simpson named this small, shallow inlet after ^ James M'Kay, ^ one of their guides, M'Kay had, three years previously, served with Sir George Back (q.v.).
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America; ^ Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America; ^ effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the ^ effected by the Officers of the Hudson's Bay Company during the ^ years 1836-39. ^ years 1836-39. ^ London, Bentley, 1843.
^ 310 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 MAGUIRE ISLANDS, ALASKA

THE MAGUIRE ISLANDS, in the Polar Sea northwest of the mouth of the Canning River, are part of the chain of low, sand and gravel islands which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska all the way from the mouth of the Canning westward to the mouth of the Colville River, a distance of over 100 miles. Other members of this chain are the Jones, Return, Midway, McClure, and Stockton Islands west of the Maguires, and Mary Sachs and Flaxman Island, east of the Maguires. Challenge Entrance separates the Maguire group from Stockton Islands, and Mary Sachs Entrance separates the Maguires from tiny Mary Sachs Island. These two channels lead from the Polar Sea into ^ Simpson ^ the inland passage or l ^ L ^ agoon ^ , which ^ separat ^ es ^ ing this long island chain from the mainland.
Reading Leffingwell's map from west to east, the Maguire group con– tains Challenge, Alaska, Duchess, North Star, and Islands No.6 and 3. Four prominences on the mainland correspond almost exactly with the position of the first four of these islands, namely: Points Gordon, Hopson, Sweeney, and Thomson. Depths in the l [: ] goon vary from twelve to six feet. Slight as these ^ ^ depths are, they have for centuries proved sufficient for the extremely light-draft skin boats in which the Eskimos sail these waters.
The first four islands in the group were named by Leffingwell, during his 1906-1914 reconnaissance of the Canning River region, after whalers and other types of vessels which had sailed this part of the Polar Sea.
According to Stefansson and Leffingwell, all these islands are rapidly being eroded and cut up by the action of the waves and the gouging and piling effects of grounded ice. (See Jones Islands and Flaxman Island articles.) Some of the islands mentioned and located by earlier explorers ^ have ^ now been reduced to reefs and shoals or have disappeared entirely. Boulder Island, mentioned by Franklin in 1826, has since been completely submerged.

MAGUIRE ISLANDS, ALASKA

Sources
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Washington, D.C., [: ] 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Guidebook for Arctic Alaska. ^ Guidebook for Arctic Alaska. ^
^ 120 ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 MARY SACHS ISLAND, ALASKA

MARY SACHS ISLAND, in the Polar Sea, is, except for Flaxman Island, the most easterly of the chain of low, sand and gravel islands which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska all the way from the mouth of the Canning westward to the mouth of the Colville River, a distance of over 100 miles. This island chain includes the Jones, Return, Midway, McClure, Stockton, and Maguire Islands west of Mary Sachs Island, and Flaxman Island at the eastern end of the chain.
Mary Sachs Entrance separates that island from the Maguire group, but there is no boat channel between Mary Sachs and Flaxman Island. Mary Sachs Entrance leads from the Polar Sea into ^ Simpson ^ [: ] l ^ L ^ agoon which separates this long island chain from the mainland. Mary Sachs Island is named for the tender on Stefansson's Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913-1918.
Sources:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska. ^ Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Guidebook for Arctic Alaska ^ Guidebook for Arctic Alaska ^ .
^ 140 wds ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 MAUDHEIM, ALASKA

MAUDHEIM, ALASKA, northern Alaska, on the coast of the Polar Sea, was established about three miles southeast of Wainwright (q.v.) by Dr. Roald Amundsen, during ^ 1922 and 1923. ^ Amundsen, who was then investigating northern flying conditions, needed such a base while preparing for his proposed flight over the North Pole in a heavier than air machine. The site of this camp, near the entrance to Wainwright Inlet, had certain advantage over the situation of Wainwright itself.
Small boats could take shelter in the Inlet and still be near Maudheim, where– as the roadstead at Wainwright is completely unprotected. The site was, in general, less swampy than that of Wainwright, and it was nearer the coal beds on the north side of the Inlet, as well as to the route into the interior by way of the Kuk River.
After Amundsen's departure, the ^ buildings were ^ [: ] taken over by a trading company for [: ] a warehouse.

^ 1,045 words ^ Ruby Collins July, 1949 MEADE RIVER, ALASKA

MEADE RIVER, one of the longest and most important rivers in [: ] northern Alaska, flows into the head of Admiralty Bay, an extension of Dease Inlet and the Polar Sea. Three other rivers, the Inaru, Topagoruk, and Chipp, also enter the head of this Bay.
The Meade would appear to rise in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range at about 69° 30′ N.Lat., 157° 30′ W.Long, across the divide from the headwaters of the Colville (q.v.), which in this part of its course flows eastward and parallel with the Range. For about fifty-five (airline) miles the Meade flows almost directly northward. Having achieved the broad, flat coastal plain which borders all of this part of Alaska, the Meade then veers first northwestward and then northeastward for a final seventy (airline) miles to its many-channeled entrance into Admiralty Bay. The lower Meade is [: ] meandering and [: ] ortuous. No exact record of the length of this river has ever been made, but it could easily, because of the numberless bends and twists in its ^ ^ lower section, be as much as twice the airline length. The Geological Survey party of 1926 turned back several miles north of 70° N.Lat. after covering 125 measured miles of the Meade R ^ r ^ iver. [: ] [: ]
A few miles above the mouth of the Meade, the Inaru River (q.v.) enters from the west. The only other named tributary is the Nigiaktuvik, which also flows in from the west at about the point where the Meade turns northeastward.
Throughout its length during periods of low water, the Meade occupies only about one-half of its channel. About one hundred miles up from the mouth the channel is between five and six hundred feet wide and the current averages between three and five miles per hour. Forty miles from the delta the channel has widened to between 1200 and 1500 feet, and at the delta the main channel is 2,000 feet wide in som e places and the distributaries

MEADE RIVER, ALASKA

about 500 feet wide. This part of the river flows at a rate of about 2 or 3 miles per hou ^ r ^ . Tides effect the Meade for 30 or more miles upstream.
In the course of their report, Paige and Foran give the following description of the Meade River country:
"The coastal plain rises gradually to the ^ ^ south and on Meade River 85 miles inland stands about 100 feet above sea. Here the river bottom is incised to a depth of 60 feet. Along the lower reaches of the river much of the land is swampy and is flooded during high-water stages. The plain is dotted by innumerable lakes. Farther inland the rivers are cut deeper and the swamps are not so abundant. The coastal swamps are not continuous but are separated by dry areas, affording hard ground. It is these dry areas that furnish the reindeer pastures so abundantly utilized in regions adjacent to Wainwright and Barrow."
March 28, 1883, Lieutenant P.H. Ray left the base of the U.S. Army Signal Corps expedition, which was then in its second winter at Cape Smyth, traveled by sledge and with Eskimo companions southwest along the coast 20 miles to the Sinaru and then struck inland directly south for his proposed exploration of the upper Meade River. He found the terrain s at first so flat that for miles there was no landmark at all and he gained the impression that most of the country was lakes. Gradually, however, the land assumed a rolling character, and when the party struck Meade River, apparently near 70° 35′ N.Lat., 157° 15′ W.Long., he found it flowing through a valley about one and one-half miles wide "with bold bluff on either hand from 40 to 60 feet high."
Tracing the river south, they found it meandering so that they could not afford the level and comaratively easy going of the ice but preferred to ascend the banks and travel parallel to the stream's general course, which was a little west of south. At 70° 37′ N.Lat., 157° 11′ W.Long., they passed "a big bluff which is a noted landmark among the natives and known as Nuasuknan." It rises from 50 to 75 feet and is visible for many miles around.

MEADE RIVER, ALASKA

After perhaps ten miles travel south from this landmark the country became more rolling and broken so that when they struck the river the banks were one hundred feet high and "showed excessive layers of turf and sand where the action of the river had cut them away during the freshets in the summer." They found some fossil ivory (no doubt mammoth). Arctic willows skirted the bank but no driftwood of any size was seen.
The Ray comments on the scarcity of drift willow shows that he had adopted the point of view of the local Eskimos. Usually when Eskimos traverse the rivers of northern Alaska, even where the local "willows" (the common northern name for willows, alders, etc.) are [: ] 15 or 20 feet high and abundant, they will depend for fuel mainly on the drift willows which have come from higher up and are lodged on sandbars. These are usually dry in winter and are less bother to find and use. It is possible to burn green willows in sheet-iron camping stoves and in camp fires but they are more trouble to work up and two or three times as many must be used. The very small ^ d ^ warf birch burns well if the twigs are twisted into bundles.
By Ray's map, his farthest south was about 69° 50′ N.Lat., 157° 45′ W.Long. Here he climbed from the Meade River to the summit of a bluff which was 175 feet above the river and could see on the sky line mountains running nearly east and west about fifty miles away. From the break of the country, he concluded that Meade River has its source in that range so he named them Meade Mountains, evidently part of the Brooks Range.
Along the route, Ray found ruins of several winter huts and the natives told him that three generations before the region was inhabited by a people who lived by hunting and fishing and did not come to the coast. By 1927 Smith and Mertie found no traces of this settlement.
The only village on the Meade River now is the small Eskimo settlement of Atkasuk, near 70° 30′ N.Lat., 157° 30′ W.Long. Near this site the

MEADE RIVER, ALASKA

1926 Geological Survey party found an outcrop of coal indicating a large, nearby horizontal ^ , ^ underground bed perhaps three feet thick. The coal of the Meade region, however, although similar to that on Wainwright Inlet (q.v.), proved on analysis to be of subbituminous rank.
Paige and Foran felt that, although these deposits were of considerable use to the local Eskimos, they would not warrant removal by barge to the coast, [: ] lying as they did over thirty miles upriver from Admiralty Bay, a body of water not much frequented by coal-burning vessels. Equally large and higher-grade deposits had already been located on the northwest coast of Alaska between Cape Lisburne and Barrow. These deposits have been used for centuries by the Eskimos and ^ , ^ since ^ ^ the mid-nineteenth century ^ , ^ by whaling vessels sailing these waters.

MEADE RIVER, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Paige, Sidney (and others) Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region ^ Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow Region ^ , Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Washington, G.P.O., 1925. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 772)
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Part II. 5th (1947) ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^ .

^ 55 wds ^ Ruby Collins January, 1950 MICHELSON, MOUNT, ALASKA

MICHELSON, MOUNT, a glacier-clad peak in the Romanzof Mountains of northern Alaska,rises to 9,239 feet. It is about midway between the upper reaches of the Hulahula and Okpilak Rivers in the vicinity of 69° 20′ N.Lat., 144° 20′ W.Long. During his 1906-1914 expedition, Leffingwell observed this peak. He reports that it was named after Professor A.A. Michelson.
Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. ^ The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska. ^ Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1919, p.97/ U.S.Geol.Surv., Prof.pa ^ Prof.pa ^ . 109.
U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey. Chart ^ Chart ^ 9400.
U.S. Army Air Forces. World Aeroanutical Chart ^ World Aeroanutical Chart ^ [: ] No.63.
^ 2 [: ] ^

Ruby Collins September, 1949 MIDWAY ISLANDS, ALASKA

THE MIDWAY ISLANDS, a group of three small islands in the Polar Sea off the arctic coast of Alaska, belong to a chain of low, sand islets and shoals stretching from about 146° to 150° W.Long., a distance of some 100 miles. These islands lie, in general, from 4 to 7 miles offshore and contain, from east to west, Flaxman Island, near the mouth of the Canning River, the Maguire, Stockton, and McClure Islands, Cross Island, ^ and ^ the Midway, Return, and Jones Islands. The most westerly of the Jones group. Thetis Island, lies off the mouth of the Colville River in Harrison Bay.
Simpson Lagoon, the "inland passage" formed by these islands, is extremely shoal but will accomodate the skin boats of the Eskimos in which a ton of load means only a few inches of draft. The Eskimos have ^ for centuries ^ used this lagoon for centuries for their spring and summer trading trips, since the outlying island chain and the shallowness of the water serve to protect the lagoon from the heaviest ice. Simpson Lagoon is only 3 to 5 miles wide at the ends, but widens in the middle in the vicinity of the Midways and Cross Island, to about 10 or 12 miles.
The most westerly and largest of the Midways is known as Reindeer Island, and the most easterly is Argo Island. The middle and smallest member is not named on Leffingwell's map.
Reindeer Island was named by Leffingwell after the whale ship of that name which was wrecked in the vicinity, and Argo Island was named for the yawl, Argo. Argo Shoals lie southest of the island.

MIDWAY ISLANDS, ALASKA

Sources:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Regions, Northern Alaska ^ Canning River Regions, Northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ Guidebook for Alaska ^

^ 240 ^ Ruby Collins September, 1949 MIKKELSEN BAY, ALASKA

MIKKELSEN BAY, an arm of the Polar Sea, indents the arctic coast of Alaska between Harrison and Camden Bays. Tigvariak Island and the mud flats at the mouth of the Shaviovik River may be said to separate this bay from Foggy Island Bay, immediately to the west. Reliance Point, on Tigvariak Island, and Point Bullen, on the mainland, are the western and eastern entrance points to Mikkelsen Bay. These two points are about seven miles apart,and the bay indents the shoreline to a depth of about four miles.
During his reconnaissance of the Canning River region, 1906-1914, Leffingwell named this bay after Captain Ejnar Mikkelsen, with whom he had shared command of the first year's work of the Anglo-American Polar Expedition.
Mikkelsen Bay is shoal throughout, having a greatest depth of per– haps 18 feet and carrying only 2 feet or less near shore on the southwestern side. Recent maps show three unnamed streams flowing into the bay. Across a shallow lagoon from the entrance to the bay lie the Stockton Islands (q.v.), one group in the chain of sand and gravel islands which stretches all the way from the mouth of the Canning to the Colville River. From east to west ^ some ^ other members of this island chain are Flaxman Island, the Maguire, McClure, Midway, and Jones Islands. Although these small, low islands are only a few feet above [: ] [: ] sea level, they serve to protect the lagoon between them and the mainland ^ (Simpson Lagoon) ^ from the worst attacks of the pack ice. The Eskimos, whose large skin boats will float several ton in a few inches of water, have used this inland waterway for centuries.
Sources:
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ Canning River Region, northern Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
^ 85 wds. ^

Ruby Collins July, 1949 MILNE POINT, ALASKA

MILNE POINT projects into the Polar Sea from the arctic coast of Alaska about midway between the mouths of the Colville and Kuparuk Rivers. Dease and Simpson named this promontory during their trip westward along the coast to Point Barrow, in July, 1837. Pingok Island, on ^ e ^ of the Jones group, stands several miles to sea and directly in front of Milne Point. The water off the Point is shoal, carrying only from one to one and one-quarter fathom, but this is sufficient for the extremely light-draft skin boats of the Eskimos.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska. ^ 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of the ^ Narrative of the discoveries on the north coast of the ^ Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827. ^ Polar Sea, in the years 1825, 1826, and 1827. ^ London, Murray, 1828.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II ^ Alaska. Part II ^ . 5th(1947)ed. Washington, 1927.
VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska ^ .
^ 130 wds ^

Ruby Collins June, 1949 MITLIKTAVIK, ALASKA

MITLIKTAVIK is a small Eskimo village a few miles below Wainwright (q.v.) on the arctic coast of Alaska. It lies on the unnamed promontory projecting into the northern part of Kasegaluk Lagoon just north of Pingorarok Hill. The entire region around this hill and up and down the coast on each side of it was reported by the Geological Survey in 1924 to contain numerous thick beds of coal. In this respect it is similar to the vicinity around Corwin Bluff and Thetis Creek (q.v.) many miles to the south. Mitliktavik did not appear on the 1939 Census so that no estimate can be made of its present size.
The long winter trail which skirts the arctic coast of Alaska passes through this settlement on its way southward to Kotzebue and Seward Peninsula and northward to Barrow.
References:
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resourcesof Northwestern ^ Geology and Mineral Resourcesof Northwestern ^ [: ] Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
Tewkesbury's Who's in Alaska ^ Tewkesbury's Who's in Alaska ^ . Juneau, Alaska, 1947.

^ 90 wds ^ Ruby Collins May, 1949 NIAK CREEK, ALASKA

NIAK CREEK enters the Polar Sea about five or six miles south of Cape Lisburne on the north coast of Alaska.
This short creek rises in the vicinity of Mount Hamlet (2,000 feet) and flows southwestward into the sea, dropping over several falls a mile or so up from the mouth. There is a small native camping place at ^ ^ the mouth, and the long winter trail which runs southward to Kotzebue and Seward Peninsula and northward to Barrow passes close nearby.
Collier first reported this name in 1904. It has also been written Neak .

^ 75 wds ^ Ruby Collins June, 1949 NOKOTLEK RIVER, ALASKA

NOKOTLEK RIVER is a small stream emptying into Kasegaluk Lagoon on the arctic coast of Alaska about midway between Wainwright and Icy Cape (q.v.). The headwaters of this stream have not yet been surveyed, but they would seem to rise ten or fifteen miles inland in the midst of the broad coastal plain which skirts this part of Alaska. The Nokotlek would appear to drain the section west of the Ivisaruk, which flows northeastward into Kuk River (q.v.).
References:
Smith, P.S. & Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern ^ Geology and Mineral Resources of Northwestern ^ Alaska ^ Alaska ^ . Washington, D.C., 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington,D.C.,1906.

^ 180 wds ^ Ruby Collins July, 1949 NUWUK, ALASKA

NUWUK, meaning the "tip" or "point", is an Eskimo settlement ^ village ^ at Point Barrow, the most northerly point of land in the territory of Alaska.
Nuwuk was once a very large Eskima ^ substantial ^ settlement of several thousand natives. Ever since the mid-nineteenth century, however, when white men first began to hunt ^ compete with the natives hunting ^ the whales and walrus in the nearby waters of the Polar Sea, the village has grown steadily smaller. The population was a little over three hundred in 1853, but only 94 in 1920.
By 1926, the number of natives to be found at Nuwuk fluctuated with the seasons, varying from fifty to about one hundred. Some of these Eskimos had prospered and built frame houses in imitation of the white man, but others still lived in sod houses in the winter and in tants in the summer.
The sea around Nuwuk is open to navigation perhaps one month out of every twelve. This is usually the month of August, although the first part of September often sees ice-free water in the vicinity. For conditions of navigation in this vicinity and the general characteristics of the surrounding countryside, see articles on Point Barrow and Barrow.

NUWUK, ALASKA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.

Paige, Sidney, & Foran, W.T. Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow ^ Reconnaissance of the Point Barrow ^ Region, Alaska ^ Region, Alaska ^ . Washington, 1925. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 772)

Smith, Philip S., and Mertie, J.B., Jr. Geology and Mineral Resources ^ Geology and Mineral Resources ^ of Northwestern Alaska ^ of Northwestern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1930. (U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin ^ Bulletin ^ 815)

^ 220 wds ^ Ruby Collins August, 1949 OLIKTOK POINT, ALASKA

OLIKTOK POINT, meaning "it shakes or trembles," or possibly, "to flood, to overflow," is an inconspicuous point on the arctic coast of Alaska at what is both the eastern limit of Harrison Bay and of the Colville delta. This is the Point Berens, which Dease and Simpson named after one of the directors of the Hudson's Bay Company, but this name did not become established.
Directly in front of and only a few miles off from the Point is Spy Island, one of the Jones group. Between is shoal water averaging from five to ten feet in depth. West of the Point, along the shores of Harrison Bay, the cutbanks are sometimes 15 or more feet high, but east of the Point the mainland shore is as high as the Jones Islands in places, and these have some hills and cutbanks 20 to 30 feet in elevation.
It is a general rule on this coast that driftwood is found on beaches that face north or west of north, with little on beaches that face east of north. That is ^ , ^ of course, because [: ] there are high "tides" which come with and just before westerly winds, while low "tides" result from easterly winds. So wood that has been deposited by an easterly gale will be carried away by a westerly; but the westerlies place their wood so high that it can not be reached by the waves caused by easterly winds. (Actual tides on this coast probably never have a gap of more than a foot or two between high and low water. Storm "tides" may rise 6 or possibly even 7 feet.)

OLIKTOK POINT, ALASKA

References
Baker, Marcus. Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ Geographic Dictionary of Alaska ^ . 2d ed. Washington, 1906.
Leffingwell, Ernest de K. Canning River region northern Alaska ^ Canning River region northern Alaska ^ . Washington, 1919. (U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper ^ Professional Paper ^ 109)
Simpson, Thomas. Narrative of the discoveries onthe north coast of America... ^ Narrative of the discoveries onthe north coast of America... ^ during the years 1836-39 ^ during the years 1836-39 ^ . London, Bentley, 1843.
U.S. Coast Pilot. Alaska. Part II. ^ Alaska. Part II. ^ [: ] 5th (1947)ed. Washington, 1947.
VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^ VS Guidebook for Alaska. ^