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Harald Ulrik Sverdrup: Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962

Harald Ulrik Sverdrup


Expert on Arctic exploration and conditions, particularly oceanography,
meteorology, terrestrial magnetism and aurora borealis . , was Chief scientist on
MAUD and NAUTILUS Expeditions . and is (1949) Director of the Norwegian Polar Institute
Biographical Outline - Herald U. Sverdrup was born in Sogndal, Norway on
15 November 1888, the son of Johan Edvard and Maria (Vollan) Sverdrup. He
was educated at home until he was 14 and then was sent to school in Stavanger.
After a year at the University of Oslo, during which he passed his preliminary
college examinations, he spent 1907-08 as a cadet at the Academy of War
specializing in physics and mathematics. He graduated from the University
of Oslo in 1911. At that time he was appointed as an Assistant to Professor
V. Bjerknes to work on the application of hydrodynamics to oceanography and
meteorology. Sverdrup had planned to major in astronomy but the inspiring
teaching of Bjerknes switched his interest to the earth sciences. In 1914
he received his M.A. degree , having submitted a thesis in meteorology. In
the fall of 1912, Prof. Bjerknes accepted a Professorship and the Director–
ship of the Geophysical Institute at the University of Leipzig. Sverdrup
spent the period 1913-17 with him at Leipzig and there continued his meteoro–
logical work. His thesis on the trade wind system of the North Atlantic
Ocean (1) was published in 1917 and won him the Ph.D. degree from the Univer–
sity of Oslo the same year.
In 1928 he married Gudrun Bronn and adopted his step-daughter Anna
Margrethe Bronn.


During World War II, while in the United States, he applied for citizen–
ship that was granted in 1944.
Employment - During the period 1911-17 Sverdrup was employed as an Assistant
to Prof. Bjerknes. On his return to Norway in 1917 he was offered the post
of Chief Scientist for the MAUD Expedition, then being organized by Roald
Amundsen. To this Sverdrup agreed enth o usiastically , as he felt that he had
spent enough time on theoretical studies and that he needed close contact
with events in nature and an understanding of the means for studying them.
The expedition left Norway on 18 July 1918 and the next three years were spent
in making the Northeast Passage. While repairs were being made to the MAUD
in Seattle, Washington, during the winter of 1921-22, Sverdrup worked at
the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity of the Carnegie
Institution of Washington. There he analysed his recently-collected obser–
vations. After three more years on the MAUD in the Arctic, he returned to
Norway on 22 December 1925 and was appointed Research Professor of Dynamical
Meteorology at the Geophysical Institute at Bergen. In 1926, and during the
period 1928 to 1940, Sverdrup was a Research Associate of the Carnegie Insti–
tution. Under this arrangement, he visited Washington in 1926 to work on
MAUD material and , in 1930, to analyze and prepare a discussion of oceanogra–
phic material collected by the non-magnetic vessel CARNEGIE upon her last
cruise (1928-29). In 1931 Sverdrup was appointed Research Professor of
Geophysics at the newly-established C hr. Michelsen Institute (Bergen). After
completing the discussion of the MAUD data , he was free to turn to new problems.
In the summer of 1931 he accompanied the Wilkins-Ellsworth North Polar Sub-


marine Expedition on the NAUTILUS as Chief Scientist. The summer of 1934 was
spent on the high altitude snow fields of Spit z s bergen. In the spring of 1936
Sverdrup was invited to become Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceano–
graphy (La Jolla, California) and Professor of Oceanography in the University
of California. He accepted this position and assumed his new duties on
1 September 1936. Sverdrup was on leave from the Chr. Michelsen Institute in–
tending to return to Norway after only a few years. However, the outbreak of
World War II made this impossible and he stayed in California until February
29, 1948 when he returned to Norway to assume the Directorship of the Norwegian
Polar Institute (Oslo).
Character of his work . Sverdrup's work is characterized by its tremendous
variety. He has written some 165 papers covering virtually every phase of
the earth's sciences. His work is hard to characterize because he is virtually
unique among Arctic investigators. He has actively participated in instrument
development, field measurement and Arctic investigations by ship, sledge and
submarine. His analyses have always been characterized by a keen imagination
and a fine respect for phenomena as they exist in nature. Even his valuable
theoretical researches in oceanography and meteorology are a m i rror of nature
and reflect his deep-rooted respect for the "system" of nature. The MAUD
expedition, failing as it did in its original purpose of drifting with the
pack ice across the Polar Basin , has never received popular acclaim as a
geographical or exploring expedition, yet, due to Sverdrup's contributions,
this expedition set unequaled standards for the scientific study of the earth
sciences in the Arctic. Writing in several languages, and always interestingly,


he aroused international enthusiasm and respect. As far as the development
of our understanding of the Arctic is concerned, it is unfortunate that cir–
cumstances took him in the mid-1930's into other fields and that he was
unable to train others in this field of endeavor. His return to Norway in
1948 placed him in a position where he once more exercised an international
influence upon the scientific study of the high latitudes. Although small
and wiry, his excellent physical stamina is well-known to those who have
tried to keep pace with him. No less arduous is the pace he set in his work.
Probably in no small part due to the mental discipline he evolved during his
years on the MAUD, Sverdrup is capable of a prodigious amount of work. His
lengthy list of scientific publications, however, represent only a part of
his activities. His administrative responsibilities, his teaching, his numer–
ous friends, and his many social and civic activities have all found a full
place in his life. His association with Bjerknes, Nansen, Amundsen and Helland–
Hansen has been reflected in his life and wide interests. Sverdrup has always
shown a great sense of social responsibility and hope for international goodwill
and understanding.
Honors - For his contributions to the earth sciences, Sverdrup has received
many awards: Knight of the first order of St. Olav, Vega Medal in Gold
(Swedish Geographical Society), Bruce Memorial Medal, Carl Ritter Medal in
Silver (Geographical Society of Berlin), Meteor Medal and Agassiz Medal. In
1947 he received an Ll.D. from the University of California. He is a Member
of the Academy of Science, Oslo, Norway, and of the National Academy of
Sciences, Washington. He holds honorary memberships in the Royal Meteorologi cal


Society, the Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellsch af t, Geographical Societies
of Oslo, Hamburg, Leipzig and in the New York Academy of Science. He is a
corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, the State Russian
Geographical Society (Leningrad), Geographical Societies of Copenhagen and
Stockholm and the California Academy of Sciences. Sverdrup is also a Fellow
or Member of the following organizations: American Geophysical Union (Presi–
dent of the Section on Oceanography, 1944-47 and vice-president of the Union,
1947- --); American Meteorological Society; American Association for the
Advancement of Science (President, Pacific Division, 1940-41); San Diego
Society of Natural History (President of Fellows, 1938-39); Oceanographic
Society of the Pacific (President 1939-40); International Association of
Oceanography (President 1946- --); International Meteorological Organization
(President of the International Commission on Polar Meteorology, 1947 - --);
Deutsche Geophysische Gesellschaft; Norway Geophysical Association.
Maud Expedition - First Phase, 1917-1921 .
The fact that the MAUD was fitted out during World War I made it very
difficult to procure adequate scientific equipment. Furthermore, with the
exception of Amundsen who made most of the magnetic observations, Sverdrup
carried the entire burden of the scientific program. As the journey to the
north of Russia and Siberia was essentially just a step towards the real
objective of the expedition, the drift across the Polar Basin, the emphasis
on the scientific program was not very great. The first winter (1918-19)


was spent off the northern coast of Cape Chelyuskin. Besides systematic ob–
servations of upper air conditions, tides and magnetic conditions, Sverdrup,
among others of the party, made several sledge trips to explore the Taimy r
and Peninsula which is the most northerly of continental land masses. On
these and later sledge journeys systematic astronomical observations were
made, as well as magnetic and meteorological records.
In August the MAUD was freed from the ice but not until 12 September was
she able to proceed eastward. She ran into heavy ice on 23 September 1919
on the western side of Ayon Island and there was forced to spend a second
winter. During this winter Sverdrup had a unique experience. At Amundsen's
suggestion, he joined a tribe of nomad Chuckchi that had spent the summer on
the coast with their reindeer herds. These little-known natives depend upon
reindeer for their entire economy. Except for occasional contacts with
traders from whom they procured certain luxuries such as matches, tobacco
and tea they were, at that time at least, virtually unaffected by outside
cultures. Sverdrup spent seven and one half months with this group, accom–
panying them on their winter wanderings into the forest lands as they slowly
worked their herds to the south and finally westward to the tributaries of
the Kolima River. During this period Sverdrup, without dictionary or any
language guide, learned their tongue and recorded material for a unique ethnolo–
gical study that has not, however, ever been printed in its entirety in
English (2) (9), and (31). As usual, very complete geophysical records were
made throughout the winter. Sverdrup was deeply impressed by the essential
happiness of these primative people and the experience of his stay with them
must have played no small part in developing his deep-seated optimism


and imperturbable nature.
On 6 July 1920, the MAUD was free of the ice once more and proceeded to
Nome, Alaska, for a brief stay. Several of the party left the expedition that
was now to enter upon the principle phase of the voyage. Only Amundsen and
four Norwegians were left aboard and they sailed for Cape Serdze Kamen to
recruit a crew of natives. Heavy ice delayed the MAUD and when she reached
the Cape on 1 September the ice closed in and winter quarters had to be estab–
lished. This was a great disappointment to the party and it was doubly so as
in her last struggles with the ice the propeller had been broken and the shaft
damaged. It was realized that the following summer she must return to Alaska.
The winter of 1920-21 was a severe one and this, coupled with the small size
of the crew, further restricted the scientific program. However, during the
winter, Sverdrup and Wisting made a sledge journey along the coast of the
Chukotsk Peninsula to Holy Cross Bay to obtain further ethnological data and
to make magnetic observations. Later a short trip was made to Pitlekai to
obtain measurements at the location where the VEGA had wintered in 1878-79.
On 1 July the MAUD was freed and sailed to Seattle, Washington, where she
arrived on 31 August after a "very trying and strenuous" journey. Without
power and with her small crew, supplemented by a few natives, it was no small
task to sail through the stormy North Pacific.
Because of the interest of Amundsen in magnetic work, this phase of the
program had been stressed during the first three years. In addition, some
auroral observations were made but attempts to make atmospheric electricity
studies failed because of lack of proper insulating materials. Routine


surface meteorological data and valuable upper air observations, using kites
and balloons, were procured. A few oceanographic observations were made,
including tides, and biological and geological collections assembled from
the Taimyr Peninsula and Ayon Island.
MAUD Expedition - Second Phase, 1922-1925 .
For the various reasons given above the program had been rather limited
and the enforced visit to the United States in 1921-22 was, scientifically
speaking, a blessing in disguise. During this period, Sverdrup spent five
months at the Carnegie Institution working up the magnetic records. This
chance to examine and discuss the field data made it obvious that the scanty
equipment of the MAUD must be supplemented. Additional equipment for magnetic,
atmospheric electricity, solar radiation and meteorological observations were
procured. Even more important, among those who joined the expedition for
the second phase were two men who contributed very greatly to the later
scientific program. The s e were Finn Malmgren , and a young Swedish meteorolo–
gist who joined as assistant scientist, an d Odd Dahl, who was to pilot the
small plane Amundsen had procured for the MAUD. Dahl's genius in devising and
building scientific equipment from the limited resources to be found on the
MAUD, coupled with Sverdrup's keen imagination,produced many unique devices.
The presence of Malmgren relieved Sverdrup of much of the routine and during
the three years spent on the North Siberian Shelf the greatly expanded scienti–
fic program must in part be attributed to these two new men.
On 3 June 1922 MAUD left Seattle for East Cape to return some of the
natives and then headed for Pt. Barrow where Amundsen and Omdahl were to be


landed with their plane with which they intended to attempt to fly across the
Polar Basin. Ice conditions kept the MAUD in Kotzebue Sound for three weeks
and then Amundsen, Omdahl and their equipment were transferred to another
ship. Finally, on 28 July, the MAUD left Pt. Hope to undertake the primary
objective of the expedition. Although the pack was heavy the MAUD was able
to proceed as far as Herald Island before she was beset. For one year follow–
ing, the MAUD drifted with the ice towards the westnorthwest following a zig–
zag course dependent largely upon the wind. In September 1923, the MAUD
was to the east of the De Long 's Islands and hopes were high that she would follow
a course towards Spit z s bergen that would be to the north of the track of the
FRAM. However, strong northerly winds set in that drove them about 100 miles
to the south and the winter of 1923-24 was spent drifting back and forth in
latitude 75° to the south of the De Long 's Islands. In February 1944, word was
received from Amundsen that the MAUD should attempt to free herself from the
ice and return via Bering Strait to the United States. However, during the
spring and summer of 1924 the ice carried the MAUD between the De Long 's Islands
and the New Siberian Islands but by 9 August she was free. An attempt was
made to pass to the east of the New Siberian Islands but the ice was too
heavy and finally she proceeded to the west of them and on 20 August transited
Laptew v Strait. Ice again stopped the MAUD and she was forced to winter off
the mouth of the Kolima River just to the east of Four Pillar Island. Late
in July the ice broke up and the MAUD proceeded to Seattle via Nome, arriving
on 5 October 1925.
The MAUD "had failed in drifting across the Polar Sea and in studying
the oceanography of this sea, but had accumulated a great number of scientific


observations from other fields of geophysics". The general scope of the pro–
gram had remained the same but the wealth of data obtained during the second
phase of the expedition was amaxing. Sverdrup, Malmgen and Dahl had devised
many new recording instruments to meet the needs of Arctic operations. Among
them were a recording device for atmospheric potential, a recording "wet
bulb", and an automatic means for recording hoar frost. A special current
meter was designed and built and the routine measurements were made in virtu–
ally all phases of the geophysical sciences. Experience brought a more sophis–
ticated approach to many problems. The program [: was ] integrated and great
strides were made in explaining and evaluating the processes controlling the
conditions in the atmosphere, snow, ice and water. A few of the notable
scientific contributions are outlined below.
In Sverdrup's own estimation his most important contribution arising
from the MAUD Expedition was his study of "Dynamics of Tides on the North–
Siberian Shelf". (6) in which the effects of the rotation of the earth and
friction on tidal currents and the dissipation of tidal energy were fully
discussed for the first time. This discovery arose from the careful measure–
ments made from the MAUD that for the first time made it possible to delineate
the form of the tide wave and its change in amplitude with distance from the
coast, and the observations with the Sverdrup-Dahl current meter that revealed
the change in direction and speed with depth of the tidal currents on the
shelf. Other discoveries of importance were in the general field of heat
energy budgets and the transfer of heat between the atmosphere, ice and water.
Sverdrup and Malmgren were able to show, on the basis of their observations,
that surface air temperatures over the ice in winter reached a general minimum


of –40°C. , T t his representing the balance established between the back radia–
tion to space and the conduction of heat through the ice from the water. As
in all his work, this analysis represents a fine blend of observation, imagina–
tion and theory. These two workers also established the heat budget for
the ice, showing that approximately 120 cm. of polar pack are melted each
summer and that under equilibrium conditions when the ice remains of uniform
thickness, the same amount must form each winter. This process throws doubt
on the idea of "paleocrystic" ice of many years age. As the ice is renewed
from the bottom and melted away from the surface, this process accounts for
the sedimentary debris sometimes found on or near the ice surface in summer.
Unfortunately, the MAUD never operated in deep water so that Sverdrup was
unable to add anything to the material collected by the FRAM. However, his
analysis of the oceanographic data from the North Siberian Shelf is a masterly
undertaking going far beyond the routine presentation of data. The effects
of summer runoff, formation, movement and melting of the ice, and mixing due
to the tidal currents are all carefully integrated. The wide scope of his
scientific training, as well as Sverdrup's own abilities, are revealed in the
scientific reports of the expedition through the frequent cross references
and the use of data and theories from a variety of sciences to help develop
a dynamic picture of Arctic conditions. It is indeed for tunate that Sverdrup
was able to act as editor for all of the MAUD reports to which he contributed
such a large share. (7 [: ] , 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22).
New Fields to Conquer - 1930 - 1936 .
By 1930 the MAUD reports were virtually completed and Sverdrup turned


his attention to other matters. For about six months he visited Washington,
D. C. to work at the Carnegie Institution on the physical oceanographic data
collected by the non-magnetic vessel CARNEGIE on her last cruise (1928-29).
(15, 36). This was his first opportunity to deal with deep water problems.
He was able to show for the first time a logical explanation for the origin
of the deep water of the Pacific Ocean, namely, that it was a mixture of
Atlantic and Indian Ocean waters formed in the Antarctic. This lead led to an
interest in the Antarctic which made it logical for him to analyze and des [: ] ribe
certain oceanographic results of the Discovery Committee (24) and the BANZ
Antarctic Research Expedition (32). In 1931, Sverdrup participated in the
discussion of the observations of the ill-fated Andrèe expedition (16) and
during the same year he acted as chief scientist for the Wilkins-Ellsworth
North Polar Submarine Expedition on the NAUTILUS (18, 23). Once more, despite
the failure to accomplish the primary mission of crossing the Polar Basin,
Sverdrup was able to make notable contributions to the bathymetry and oceano–
graphy of the waters to the north of Spit z s bergen. This operation, besides
being the first time a submarine had been employed in the Arctic, was also
unique for establishing a record of reaching 82° North before being stopped
by the ice and also bec ua au se it was the first time that oceanography had been
carried on under water. A special diving chamber had been installed on the on
NAUTILUS that could be closed off and the internal pressure increased so that
when a hatch in the bottom of the submarine was opened no water entered the
compartment. Through the hatch, instruments could be lowered on wire from a
winch in the compartment. Sverdrup often commented on the convenience and
comfort of this arrangement where "one could work in a closed room, protected


against wind and weather", instead of on the open pack or wind-swept deck of
the MAUD.
During the MAUD cruise and his subsequent work, Sverdrup had developed
an increasing interest in the processes of heat, water and energy exchange
between the atmosphere and the water and the actual mechanism s of mixing that
occur in the two media. This le a d to his participation, with his friend
Ahlman, in an expedition to the high-lying snowfields of Spit z s bergen during
the summer of 1934 (25, 26, 28, 29). Careful measurements were made at
fixed levels over the snow and within the snow itself to determine the flux
of heat and water. These studies le a d ultimately to a general theory for
turbulence in the atmosphere and means for calculating evaporation from
measurements of wind speed and humidity (34).
To warmer climes - 1936-1948 .
In 1936 Sverdrup was appointed Director of the Scripps Institution of
Oceanography (La Jolla, California). This removed him both physically and
professionally from high latitudes and he agreed to take the position for only
three years. However, it became obvious that little could be accomplished
in such a short period and he asked for an extension of his leave from the
Chr. Michelsen Inst. Before this period was over, Norway was invaded and
Sverdrup felt that he could best serve by remaining at his post in the United
States. He threw himself into various phases of applied research with even
more than his usual vigor and made notable contributions to programs concerned
with underwater sound and other projects of immediate concern to the military
services. For several years Sverdrup had been engaged with two collaborators
in writing "The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry and General Biology" (35).
This volume appeared late in 1942 and in it Sverdrup synthesised for the first


time the previously unrelated information about the distribution of properties
and currents in the ocean. Throughout the volume there is evidence of Sverd–
rup's basic philosophy of the importance of studying natural phenomena and of
the coherence of all the manifold aspects of the oceans. This volume served
as a starting point for much of his research and training of personnel during
the years of World War II. The need for methods for forecasting sea and swell
conditions in the open sea and for surf on exposed beaches le a d Sverdrup into
a complete re-analysis of this field of knowledge. Even under the pressure
for immediate results he never swerved from a sound scientific approach.
Later, when his work could be published , it required but minor revisions to
meet his exacting standards for a scientific publication (37). The research
and instruction of military personnel during the period 1942-1945 produced
a great revival of interest in oceanography in the United States. This, in one
aspect, was shown by the much greater number of graduate students under his
instruction during the years immediately following World War II. Despite his
ever-increasing administrative and teaching responsibilities, Sverdrup con–
tinued to produce original research, including a general theory concerning
the interaction of the winds and ocean in maintaining the Equatorial Current
System (38). In the summer of 1946 Sverdrup visited Norway and was offered
the directorship of the proposed Norsk e Polarinstit tu ut t. This he accepted
only after stipulating that he be allowed to remain in California long enough
to complete his committments to the University of California. He has said
"one of the reasons for accepting this job is that I shall return to Arctic
work, in which I have spent so many years of my life, at a time when interna-


tional work in the Polar regions is more important than ever".
The twelve years in the United States were Oceanography's gain for he
wrote relatively little about the Arctic during this period. But from the
quotation given above, and from his love of speaking about his experiences
on the MAUD and other expeditions, it was obvious that the Arctic was never
far from Sverdrup's his thoughts. The broadened experience, his international friend–
ships and recognition made his return to Arctic problems an important milestone
in the development of our understanding of the high latitudes.
Prepared by Dr. Richard H. Fleming
Chief. Division of Oceanography
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office
Washington 25, D. C.
1 July 1948

1. Der nordatlantische Passat. Geophys. Inst., Leipzig, Veröff., Ser. 2,
v. 2, no. 1, 94 pp., 19 tables, 1917.

2. Customs of the Chukchi natives of northeastern Siberia. Wash. Acad. Sci.,
Jour., v. 12, pp. 208-212, 1922.

3. Scientific work of the MAUD Expedition, 1922-1925. Scientific Monthly,
v. 22, pp. 400-410, 1926.

4. The tides on the North Siberian shelf: Their bearing on the existence of
land in the Arctic Sea, and their dynamics. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour.,
v. 16, pp. 529-540, 1926.

5. Tre ar i isen med "Maud". Gyldendal, Oslo, 285 pp., 1926.

6. Dynamics of tides on the North-Siberian Shelf. Geofysiske Publikasjoner,
v. 4, no. 5. 75 pp., 1927.

7. Magnetic, atmospheric-electric, and auroral results, MAUD expedition,
1928-1925. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Pubn. no. 175. pp. 309-524, 1927.
(Also in MAUD, Scientific Results, v. lb.)

8. Die Eistrift im Weddelmeer. Annalen d. Hydrogr. u. Marit. Meteorologie,
pp. 265-274, 1928.

9. Die Renntier-Tachuktschen. Geograph. Gesellschaft in Hamburg, Mitteil.,
Bd. 39, pp.87-135, 1928.

10. Results of astronomical observations. Norwegian North Polar Exped. with
the "Maud" 1918-2 5, Scientific Results, v. 1, no. 3, 24 pp., 1928.
Hereafter referred to as MAUD, Scientific Results .

11. The wind-drift of the ice on the North-Siberian Shelf. MAUD, Scientific
Results, v. 4, no. 1, 46 pp., 1928.

12. The waters on the North-Siberian Shelf. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 4,
no. 2, 131 [: ] 75 pp., 1929.

13. Meteorology, part 2, Tables. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 3, 527 pp., 1930.

14. Diurnal variation of temperature at polar stations in the spring. Gerlands
Beiträ ge zur Geophysik, v. 32, pp. 1-14, (Köppen-Band I), 1931.

15. The origin of the deep-water of the Pacific Ocean as indicated by the
oceanographic work of the CARNEGIE. Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, v. 29,
pp. 95-105,1931.

16. Scientific resultsof the Andree-Expedition. I. Drift-ice and ice-drift.
Geografiska Annaler, H. 2/3, pp. 121-140, 1931.

17. Das Tier-und Vogelleben im Treibeis. Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen,
Heft 1/2, pp. 13-16, 1931.

18. Hvorledes og hvorfor med "Nautilus". Gylendal, Oslo. 183 pp., 1931.

19. Wärmeaushalt und Austauschgrösse auf Grund der Beobachtungen der "Maud"–
Expedition. Beiträge z. Physik d. freien Atmosphäre. (Bjerknes-Festschrift),
v. 19. pp. 276-290, 1932.

20. General report of the expedition. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 1, no. 1,
22 pp., 1933.

21. Pendulum observations near Cape Chelyuskin. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. la.
no. 8. 9 pp., 1933.

22. Meteorology, part 1, Discussion. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 2, 331 pp.

23. Narrative and oceanography of the Nautilus expedition, 1931. Papers in
Physical Oceanogr. and Meteorology (Mass. Inst. Tech. and Woods Hole Oceanogr.
Inst.), v. 2, no. 1, 63 pp., 1933.

24. On vertical circulation in the ocean due to the action of the wind with
application to conditions within the Antarctic circumpolar current.
Discovery Reports, v. 7, pp. 139-170, 1933.

25. The temperature of the firn o n Isachsen's Plateau, and general conclu–
sions regarding the temperature of the glaciers on West Spitzbergen.
Part III of the scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitzbergen
Expedition in 1934. Geografiska Annaler, H.1/2, PP. 53-88, 1935.

26. The ablation on Isachsen's Plateau, and on the Fourteenth of July Glacier
in relation to radiation and meteorological conditions. Part IV of the
scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitzbergen Expedition in
1934. Geografiska Annaler, H. 3/4, pp. 145-166, 1935.

27. [: ] bersicht [: ] das Klima des Polarmeeres und des Kanadischen Archipels.
Handbuch der Klimatologie Herausgegeben von Köppen und Geiger, Band II,
Teil K, 30 pp., 1935.

28. The eddy conductivity of the air over a smooth snow field. Geofysiske
Publikasjoner, v. 11, no. 7, 69 pp., 1936.

29. Results of the meteorological observations on Isachsen's Plateau. Part VI
of the scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Expedition in 1934.
Geografiska Annaler, Heft 1/2, 34-47 pp. 1936.

30. Notes on erosion by drifting snow and transport of solid material by sea
ice. Amer. Jour. Science, v. 35, pp. 370-373, 1938.

31. Hos Tundra-Folket, Gyldendal, Oslo, 175 pp., 1938.

32. Hydrology, Section II, Discussion, British Australian New Zealand Antarctic
Research Expedition, 1921-31, Reports, Ser. A, v. 3, Oceanography, pp. 88–
126, 1940.

33. The Arctic regions. Assoc. Oceanogr. Physique, Publ. Scientifique, no. 8,
pp. 50-53, 1940.

34. Oceanography for meteorologists. New York, Prentice-Hall. 250 pp., 1942.

35. (H.U.S., M. W.Johnson and R.H. Fleming) The Oceans: Their physics, chemistry,
and general biology. New York, Prentice-Hall. 1087 pp., 1942.

36. (H.U.S. et al ) Observations and results in physical oceanography. Scientific
Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928-1929. Oceanography, I-A,
156 pp., 1944.

37. (H.U.S. and W.H.Munk) Wind waves and swell: Theory of relations for fore–
casting. Pub. 601 of the U.S.Hydrographic Office, Washington. 44 pp. 1947.

38. Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean; with application to the equa–
torial currents of the eastern Pacific. Nat. Acad. Sci., Proc., v. 33,
pp. 318-36, 1947.

39. (H.U.S. and R.H.Fleming) Atlantic Ocean. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 5 pp.,
1947. (Includes Arctic Ocean).

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