Geographical Items on East Greenland: Encyclopedia Arctica 14: Greenland, Svalbard, Etc. Geography and General

Author Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962

Geographical Items on East Greenland (in alphabetical order) *



Felizia Seyd

Greenland ^ 141 ^

Cape Adelaer

(61° 48′N., 42° 02′W.), in southern East Greenland, is the more northerly of the two headlands that project eastward from the island-like peninsula north of Napasorsuak Fjord; the more southerly projection, CAPE RANTZAU, form ^ s ^ Napasorsuak's northern entrance point.
Cape Adelaer rises to about 2,315 ft. and is fronted by the small Umanarsuak Islet. Bangsboll Havn, a bight immediately under the cape, served as an emergency harbor to the M ? B Dagmar of the Sixth Thule Expedition. A larger bay to the southward, which opens out between Cape Adelaer and Cape Rantzau, has a well-protected and spacious ship harbor on its southern side.
The cape was named after the Danish-Norwegian merchant Cort Adelaer, who around 1660 held a concession for the sailing of the Greenland waters. Graah, Holm, and in more recent times, Bögvad of the Sixth Thule Expedition, have collected plants here. In World-War II the U.S. Army Air Forces maintained pers ^ o ^ nnel at Cape Adelaer.
H.O. 75, 86 Greenland I, 17 MG 106 III 26 Friis, History of Sc. Explor. since the days of flying mss E.A. files. p. 70
Indexer: list Cape Rantzau; Bangsboll Havn;

Greenland ^ 275 ^


(65° 36′N., 37° 38′W.) the colony and main settlement of East Greenland lies within King Oscar Harbor, at the southern end of Angmagssalik Island. Founded in 1894, as a Danish mission and trading-statio [: ] by G.F. Holm, who found less than 300 Greenlanders living here, Angmagssalik has since developed into the main trade center of the East Coast and the foremost port of call of expedition vessels to this coast. In 1944, the population was 1075, scattered over about 55 miles of the coast line of the region. In addition to the natives ^ about 125 greenlanders at Angmagssalik [: ] the colony ^ there were at Angmagssalik a Danish storekeeper with magisterial powers, a nurse, an ordained Greenlander missionary and a Danish radio operator with their families. Public buildings include an administration building, a storehouse and warehouse, and an old people's home. The radio station has been in operation since 1925; an aircraft radio beacon operates on a beam that may be used b u ^ y ^ surface craft. There are about 70 to 80 houses at Angmagssalik. Trade-in-production figures for 1944 (after deduction for local consumption) were as follows: blubber 41 kg; liver 4,195 kg; [: ] bearskins 17; blue fox skins 2; white fox skins 29; sealskins 5195. Danish government vessels call twice a year at Angmagssalik.
The land surrounding the station is low, with levels not exceeding 1,000 ft.; the vegetation, for Greenland, is good. There are salmon in the small river that flows through the settlement. An overland passage, that connects Angmagssalik with points on the southwest coast, leads through a valley which lies between the coastal mountains in the southwest and a mountain chain to the northeastward. (For climate, topography and history of scientific explorations see Angmagssalik Island; King Oscar Harbor.)
H.O. 75, 117 MG 106 II, 30 Grønlands Styrelse Nr. 4, 1946

Greenland ^ 456 ^

Angmagssalik Fjord,

a small but intricate fjord system in southern East Greenland, is entered between the southeastern extremity of Angmagssalik Island (65° 36′N., 37° 30′W.) and Cape Dan, the south ^ ^ point of the small Kulusuk Is ; ^ l ^ and to the eastward. From this entrance, which is about 10 miles wide, the fjord extends north-northeastward and then northward, quickly narrowing to a width of about 3 miles At about 30 miles from the mouth, the fjord bifurcates, sending Kingorsuak northwestward f r ^ o ^ r about 12 miles , and Tassissarsik northward f ^ o ^ r about 6 miles; both branches are narrow and hemmed in by very high mountains.
Several shorter branch ^ ^ fjords issue from the western side of Angmagssalik Fjord, including a narrow sound, about 20 miles long, which leads westward to Egede and Rothe Fjord, curving around the northern end of Angmagssalik Island. The eastern side of the main fjord is bounded by a number of larger and smaller islands, separated by narrow sounds. About 22 miles within the entrance, at a point where the main fjord turns northward to indent the mainland, a narrow channel, named Ikerasak, leads northeastward to Ikatek Sound, which, in turn, connects with Sermiligak Fjord, to the eastward. A ship harbor is indicated ^ There is an anchorage ^ near the eastern end of Ikatek, off a small landing field built by the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1942. Several beacons mark the approach. Another anchorage is available inside the main fjord, above the entrance to Ikerasak channel, off the settlement Kungmiut.
Depths in midchannel are great from the entrance of Angmagssalik Fjord to the approach of Ikerasak. Inside Ikatek they range from 200 to 15 fathoms, the waters shoaling off close to the harbor, making it difficult for ship's boats to land. Large bergs from Sermiligak drift into Ikatek's northeastern end.
Altitudes in the vicinity of Angmagssalik Fjord range between 1,000 and 5, - ^ 0 ^ 00 ft. The vegetation is often luxuriant, especially near the head ^ s ^ of the

Angmagssalik Fjord cont.

various branches, and many birds breed in the area. Fish are plentiful, particularly in Siorak, one of the west arms, where the small fish Angmagssak (from which the district takes its name) congregate in May and June. A number of settlements lie scattered about the shores, ^ of Angmagssalik Fjord, ^ the largest being Kungmiut (65° 52′N., 37° 01′W.), with a population, in 1913, of over 100 Greenlanders.
Many expeditions have called at this fjord, foremost among them the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition (1931-33) which carried out surveys and magnetic measurements here and made large botanical, zoological and ethnographical collections. The Swiss Alpine Club (Zurich) had a camp at Sieralik Glacier, above a bay at the confluence of Ikerasak and Ikatek sounds, whe ^ n ^ c n e Roch and other members started their ascent of Mount Forel in 1938. During World-War II the U.S. Army Air Forces maintained a base station a ^ i ^ nside Ikatek; meteorological observations were carried out and flight surveys were made from here.
(See also Angmagssalik Island.)
H.O. 75, 117 ff. Guidebook 902 MG 106,I, 18, 161
Indexer: list Kingorsuak; Tassissarsik; Ikerasek Sound; Ikatek Sound;
Siorak; Sieralik Glacier; Kungmiut

Greenland ^ 660 ^

Angmagssalik Island

(southern extremity 65° 35′N., 37° 40′W.) lies off the coast of southern East Greenland, flanked on the west by Egede and Rothe Fjord (Ser– milike), and on the east by Angmagssalik Fjord. The northern end is se– parated from the mainland by a narrow, 20-mile sound which connects Sermilik with Angmagssalik Fjord. The island is about 23 miles long, north and south, and about 18 miles wide at its broadest, with many and deep fjords, branches of Angmagssalik Fjord, cutting inland on its eastern side. The southern end is indented by King Oscar Harbor (Tasiusak Bay) where Angmagssalik Colony is located. A number of islets fringe the southwestern end of the island, among them Ikatek ^ , ^ which has a large settlement. Anchorages are available in King Oscar Harbor and at various points inside Angmagssalik Fjord. Two lakes in the vicinity of Angmagssalik Colony are suitable for the landing and taking off of aircraft.
Elevations in the interior of Angmagssalik Island rarely rise above t j ^ h ^ e 3,500 ft. level, and there are few glaciers. Large stretches of low land, rich in lakes and watercourses, alternate with mountain country, where snow-patched peaks stand sharply outlined against the sky. The vegetation is often luxuriant; cassiope, willow scrub,tall grasses and herbs occur even at relatively high levels. Many species of landbirds breed in the fjord zone. The climate, in general, is pleasant; winter and summer are usually calm; storms occur chiefly in November and December. There is little snow and no fog, and the temperature on the coast rarely falls below 0° F. Winter ice, i.e. firm, ^ solid ^ ice, forms in the inner fjords and bays during January, and the sledge routes across it remain passable until the end of February. The pack ice usually arrives off the southern coast o ^ i ^ n October, sometimes as late as December,

Angmagssalik Island cont.

and leaves in July. (For discussions of the movement of the pack ice see East Greenland Current, Storis.)
Explorations. - The Angmaggsalik area was probably visited by Icelandic navigators in the early Middle Ages and by Danish and other privateers in the 15th century. David Danell sighted the ^ bl ^ uish heights back of Angmagssalik in 1652 and 1653. However, precise information concerning the region became avai ^ l ^ able only in the latter part of the 19th century. In 1883, A.E. Nordenskiöld ^ , ^ accompanied by Nathorst and other, entered Tasiusak Bay and named it King Oscar Harbor, and a year later G.F. Holm and V. Garde made a topographical survey of this coast. Holm, who mingled freely with the natives, made anthropometric observations, procured a large ethnographical collection and wrote a brilliant account of Eskimo life. In 1894, the mission and trading-station Angmagssalik was established by him in King Oscar Harbor. Since then the district has been investigated by a number of scientific expeditions, among them the Amdrup and Kruuse expeditions. 1898-1902, the Thalbitzer Expedition, 1905-06, the British Arctic Air Route Expedition, 1930-31, the Einar Mikkelsen Sökongen Expedition, 1932, the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expeditions, 1931-33, the Watkin's East Greenland Expedition, 1932-33, Charcot's Pourquoi-Pas Expeditions, 1933, [: ] the Lindsay Trans-Greenland Expedition, 1934, the P - ^ . ^ E. Victor Expeditions,1934-37, the Anglo-Danish East Greenland Expedition, 1935, the Arne Hoygaard Expedition 1936-37, and the Swiss Alpine Club (Zurich) Expedition, 1938. During the International Polar Year, 1932-33 Denmark and Holland maintained meteorological stations at Angmagssalik Colony. Among the early transatlantic flyers, who called at Angmagssalik during their east-west or west-east flights were W.v. Gronau,1931, Colonel and Mrs. Lindbergh, 1933, John Grierson,1934, and Thor Solberg, 1935. Good recent maps of the region have also resulted

Angmagssalik Island cont.

from continued systematic Danish and Norwegian surveys, and from surveys made by the U.S. Army Air Forces during and since World War II. (See also Angmagssalik Colony; Angmagssalik Fjord; King Oscar Harbor; Egede and Roteh Fjord.
H.O. 75, 111 Guidebook 891 Greenland I,16 III 648 ff. MG 106, II, 30 MG 130, III, 301. Wade, Greenland Weather and Ice Stations. Friis, History of the scientific exploration of the Arctic since the days of flying (E.A. files) Salmondsen, Konv. Leksikon, X, 287
Indexer: list Ikatek

Greenland ^ 144 ^

Antarctic Sound,

a 20-miles passage in the King Oscars Archipelago of northeastern Greenland, leads from [: F ] aiser Franz Joseph Fjord east- w ^ s ^ outheastward to the head of King Oscars Fjord and the western entrance of Sofia Sound. At its western end the sound is entered between Cape Mohn (73° 11′N., 25° 45′W.), the southeastern extremity of Ymers Island, and the coast of Suess Land, about 2 miles to the southwestward. The eastern end opens out on the low Ruth Island. The banks of Antarctic Sound are steep almost everywhere , except in the southeast where a broad stretch of lowland cuts deeply into the mountain ranges of Ymers Island. A Nor ^ w ^ egian hunting hut stands close to the the mouth of a river, off the sound's southeastern entrance point. The small bay to the westward is named Karl Jakobsen Bay. Reefs occur about 5 miles west northwestward of the hunting hut. (See also Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord).
H.O. 75, 190 Skrifter om Svalbard, 63, p. 14
Indexer: list Karl Jakobsen Bay. Cape Mohn

Greenland ^ 77 ^

Ardencaple Fjord,

an extension of Hochstetter Bay in northeast Greenland, separates C.H. Ostenfeld Land from Hochstetter Foreland. From its entrance between Cape Reinhardt (75° 17′N., 20° 55′W.) and Cape Klinkerfuss, about 5 miles west-northwestward, the fjord trends about 16 miles northwestward where it forks into Narrow Fjord and Broad Fjord. The steep coastal mountains rise to elevations of over 4,000 and 5,000 ft. Fairway depths throughout the fjord are great. Several hunting huts are located on the shores.
H. O. 75, 220
Indexer: list Cape Reinhardt; Cape Klinkerfuss; Narrow Fjord; Broad Fjord. C. H. Ostenfeld Land.

Greenland ^ 101 ^

Bernstorff Fjord or Kangerdlugsuak,

in southern East Greenland, is entered between Sagiarusek Island (63° 37′N., 40° 41′W.) and Cape Mösting, about 7 miles northeastward. The fjord extends west-northwestward for 13 miles or more, its length being uncertain because the fjord is usually, if not always, blocked with heavy ice. The bold and precipitous inner shores are largely covered with glacier ice, that descends down to the sea; the outer shores are icefree and of moderate height. A sheltered position for motorboats is said to be available in the sound between Sagiarusek and the mainland.
H.O. 75, 97 Graah, Vo t ^ y ^ age to Greenland 92.
Indexer: list Cape Mösting; Sagiarusek Island.

Greenland ^ 90 ^

Bessel Fjord,

an indentation in the coast of northeast Greenland ^ , ^ is entered between Cape Möbius (75° 56′N., 20° W.), the northeast point of Hochstetter Foreland, and Cape Beurmann, about 9 miles north-northeastward. The fjord extends about 34 miles due westward to two small bays, of which the more southerly one affords good anchorage. A large island, called Troms Island, and several small islets occupy the mouth of the fjord; of the two passages thus formed only the northern one is used.
Bessel Fjord is frequented by trappers and several hunting huts are located on its shores. Troms Island has Eskimo ruins.
H. O. 75, 226
Indexer: list Cape Möbius; Cape Beurmann; Troms Island;

Greenland ^ 550 ^

Blosseville Coast,

in southern East Greenland, is the stretch between Cape Vedel (68° 30′N., 27° 36′W.) and Cape Dalton, a n ^ b ^ out 110 miles to the northeastward. Named after the French naval lieutenant Jules de Blosseville, who approached this coast in 1832, it was mapped and partially examined by Amdrup in 1900. Mikkelsen, cruising southwestward during the summer 1932 in the Søkongen ^ Søkongen ^ , was the first to take a ship along the coast inside the pack. Mikkelsen describes the land as being characterized by steep, rather narrow and very rough basaltic promontories, separating fjord , ^ s, ^ which he found longer and more branched than indicated on Amdrup's map. The Inland Ice reaches down to the heads of the fjords, producing a large number of icebergs. Back of the fjord heads, high mountains can be seen , projecting above the Inland Ice, among them Mount Rigny, rising to 7,823 ft.
Actually none of the indentations along this coast is very deep, with the exception of D'Aunay, Barclay, and Knighton Bays, which cut inland for about 10 to 14 miles. The shores of the fjords recede ^ ^ occasionally to form a bight, but are steep throughout. According to Mikkelsen, sheltered anchorage may always be found somewhere, either in one of the small, shallow n ^ b ^ ights or at the mouth of a stream, where the current forces away the drifting ice. A characteristic of the coast are the lagoons, which are found at Cape Dalton and farther southward, and are described by Mikkelsen as follows: "The walls between the sea and the lagoon were formed by large rolled fragments, which seemed to indicate that at certain times of the year there must be violent breakers along the coast; in other words, that the pack ^ ^ ice disappears in autumn, so that the strong waves from the Denmark Strait reach the land." Farther southward Mikkelsen found the [: ] pack ^ ^ ice pressed closer and closer to the shore, until the vicinity of Cape Stephenson (68° 25′N.) farther progress became impossible.
Botanical investigations, made by the Mikkelsen Expedition, proved that the Blosseville Coast, except for the area imme iately facing the sea, is less

Blosseville Coast cont.

barren than previously supposed. The expedition's botanis, T. Böcher, reported strips of rich mountain vegetation even at ^ relatively ^ high er altitudes. Slopes in D'Aunay Bay showed a luxuriant growth of heath and mosses. A hot spring was discovered in Knighton Bay. Animal life was found to be sparse along the coast; traces of foxes, [: ] hares and lemmings were seen, and a fair number of birds were found nesting on the mountainsides or on the shores of a lagoon or some small lake. Three species of butterflies were discovered. Hunting conditions at sea were relatively favorable; everywhere ringed seals lay scattered on the ice, and the bearded seal was seen in isolated specimens.
Mikkelsen's first scientific investigation of the Blosseville Coast was followed up by land and air surveys of the Seventh Thule Expedition in 1933. The Kivioq , with Rasmussen on board, cruised along the Blosseville Coast in calm weather in the latter part of August. Very little ice was met with, so that the vessel could sail close to the shores. On the return journey, Amdrup's depot was inspected at Cape Dalton, and a day was spent in D'Aunay Bay, to wait for better weat er. Other surveys of the coast include those made by the Danish Three Year Expedition, 1931-34, and Charcot's Pourq u ^ o ^ i-Pas expeditions between 1933 and 1936.
H.O. 75, 146 Geogr. Journ. May 1933,p. 385; midem, July 1935, p. 45 Polar [: ] ecord Nr. 31, 1946, p. 342 MG 104, IV, 4 ff XIX, 24
Indexer: list D'Aunay Bay; Knighton Bay; Barclay Bay; Cape Dalton; Cape Vedel.

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Carlsberg Fjord,

on the east coast of Greenland ^ , ^ is entered between Cape Gladstone (71° 32′N., 21° 55′W.) and Cape Wardlaw ^ , ^ about 14 miles to the northward. The fjord extends first westward and then southward for about 26 miles, narrowing toward the head. Anchorage may be obtained on the western side, about midway into the fjord. Depths in the fairway are generally great until the head is approached. There are stretches of lowland along the western shore of the fjord, especially in the central part, where the chart indicates a rather wide river delta. Several glaciers, flowing down from a local ice-cap up to 4,000 ft. high, debouch on the eastern side of Carlsberg Fjord.
H.O. 75, 165 AAF Aer. Ch 55, 1944
Indexer: list Cape Gladstone and Cape Wardlaw

Greenland ^ 556 ^

Clavering Island,

one of the best known and most frequently visited places on the East Coast of Greenland, is bounded on the south by Gael Hamke Bay and Godthaab Gulf, on the west by Copeland Fjord and Rudi Bay, and on the north and east by Tiroler Fjord and Young Sound. Cape Mary (74° 10′N., 20° 11′W.),probably the Cape Brisbane of Scoresby, about 1,800 ft. high, forms its southeastern extremity. The island, which is about 35 miles long, east and west, and about 25 miles broad, cannot be circumnavigated because of shoal waters at the head of Copeland Fjord . ^ ; ^ ^ t ^ strait here, called Revet, can be crossed dry-shod at low tide.
Clavering Island is mountainous, mostly sandstone interspersed with basalt and gneiss, and attains elevations of nearly 5,000 ft. The inner part is occupied by the large Lars Christensen Glacier and the more easterly Vintergata Glacier, both of which extend in a north-south direction, but are interconnected by innumerable tributaries. Rugged mountains In most places ^ the ^ rugged mountain masses ^ of the interior seem ^ extend all the way to the shores. However, along much of the outer coast is a narrow strip of foreland, where vegetation is abundant and there a numerous small sheltered bays. ^The southern coast rises evenly^ from the sea to heights of from 2,000 to 4,000 ft. ^ about 5 to 8 miles ^ farther inland, with broad terraces and long green slopes winding up far between the mountains. In the northeast terraces lead up to the barren Theodolit Plateau, about 2,300 ft. high; the flat, gravel-covered ^ top of the plateau ^ is considered a serviceable landing-field for aircraft.
There are no regular settlements on Clavering Island,but a permanent Danish scientific station is located at Eskimonaes (q.v.) a salient point on the southern shore. The two harbors off this point are usually open from August 1 to September 15, and landing facilities for aircraft are available on a beach close to the westward. Several Danish and Norwegian hunting huts

Clavering Island cont.

are located on the island's southeastern shore ^ , ^ and a Norwegian hunting station stands on Payer Land, cross the strait called Revet. Numerous Eskimo ruins on Clavering Island include remains of a large colony around Deadman's Bay on the southeast coast. Clavering,in 1823, still encountered 12 Eskimos in this c ^ v ^ icinity; it was the only time, however, that living Eskimos have been met with anywhere along the East Coast of Greenland, above the Arctic Circle.
Clavering Island, which forms part of the larger area first explored by Clavering and the German Arctic Expedition, 1869-1870, was remapped by 1926 Cambridge Expedition and surveyed as to suitable airbases by the Norwegian Svalbard Expedition,1932. During the winter 1932-33, the Danish Three Year Expedition maintained a station, equipped with wireless, at Eskimonaes, adding botanical, zoological and archeological research to its land- and air-surveying program. Still more recent expeditions to the area include the Sw i ^ e ^ dish-Norwegian Expedition ^ 1939-40 ^ under Kaare Rodahl and H. W. Ahlmann, 1939-40 which carried out glaciological, geological and meteorological research. Complete meteorological observations were made at the main base at Revet, and additional ^ meteorological ^ observations and continued glaciological measurements were carried out on the glacial plateau at levels of from 1,600 to 3,2000 ft. K.Rodahl also worked on problems of nutrition, investi– gating the vitamin contents in Arctic foodstuffs. During World-War II the U.S. Army Air-Force had a weather base at Eskimonaes.
H.O. 75, 198 Guidebook 1070 [: ] Geogr. Journ. Jan 1943, 33ff; idem,Sept. 1943, 97 ffl id. Jan-Febr. 1946, llff. Polar Record,July 1933, 98 ff. Nat. Geogr. Mag. Oct. 1946 p. 458 Indexer: list Cape Mary; Lars Christensen Glacier. Vintergata Glacier; Revet; Deadman's Bay; Theodolit Plateau; Cape Brisbane.

Greenland ^ 920 ^

Clavering Strait,

in northeast Greenland, the Kator Bay of Scoresby, separates Wollaston Foreland from the off-lying Sabine Island, the larger of the Pendulum Island. Its eastern entrance, between Cape Wynn (74° 29′N., 18° 58′W.) and the southern coast of Sabine Island ^ , ^ is about 5 miles wide. From here Clavering Strait trends west-northwestward for about 7 miles to the western end of Sabine Island, and then northward for about 8 miles to an opening on Hochstetter Bay. Its inner portion, north of the bend, narrows to about 2 miles and then widens to about 10 miles near ots northern entrance. Walrus Island lies in the southern approach to the strait ^ , ^ and a number of islets are found along its inner shores. Soundings along the fairway indicate depths of from 19 to 80 fathoms, with the best waters on the Sabine Island side. The shores here consist of low rounded hills in contrast to the higher, more rugged and precipitous western coast.
Harbors. - Germania Harbor (74° 32′N., 18° 50 W.), a small, almost i ^ c ^ ircular harbor at the southeastern end of Sabine Island, c ol ^ lo ^ se to the sound's eastern entrance, has depths of 2 fathoms or less across its entrance. At the head the ground is low and marshy. The Germania of the German Arctic Expeditio j ^ n ^ wintered in this harbor; a hut, formerly the quarters of the expedition was reported in poor state of repairs in 1941. Huts, stored with provisions in 1901, were reported in good condition in 1930.
Griper Roadstead, Clavering's anchorage in 1823, lies close westward of Germania Harbor, but it is exposed and lacks protection from storms.
Heimland Harbor (74° 34′N., 19° 11′W.), a triangular shaped bay at the southwestern end of Sabine Island, north of La s ^ r ^ s Jakobsen Point, affords secure and sheltered anchorage in 24 fathoms.
Falske Bay, an indentation in the northeastern shore of Wollaston Foreland, almost opposite Heimland Harbor, is a very shoal area except near the narrow

Clavering Strait cont.

entrance. A Norwegian trapper's hut stand close to its northern entrance point.
Ice. - It is reported that the roads are sometimes dangerous on account of ice, but on August 20 and 21,1941, the ^ U.S.C.G.Cutter ^ Northland found the roadstead entirely clear of ice. Considering northeast Greenland in general, this region is normally one of the most favorable approaches to the coast from offshore through the ocean pack ice. For vessels equipped for ice navigation, Griper Roadstead and Heimland Harbor are normally open from July 15 to October 1.
H.O. 75, 207 ff.
Indexer: list Cape Wynn; Germania Harbor; Griper Roadstead; Heimland Harbor; Falske Bay.

Greenland ^ 90 ^

Colberger Heide, or Kangerajup-apunisia

(eastern extremity 64° 04′N., 40°v34′W.) is a large, glacier-covered promontory in southern East Greenland, off the southern entrance of Gyldenlöve Fjord. Graah describes it as an enormous ice-blin g ^ k ^ , many miles long, which rises perpendicularly out of the sea. Some peaks near the headland's northwestern end (off a large bay which indents the southern side of Gyldenlöve Fjord) attain elevations of 3,200 ft. or more. An islet, called Nigsiagik, lies close southward of the promontory.
H.O. 75, 98 Graah. Voyage to Greenland,93, AAF Aer. Ch. ^ 85 ^ 1943.

Greenland ^ 290 ^

Comanohe Bay,

an indentation in the northeastern shore of Pikiutdlek Bay (q.v.), in southern East Greenland, is entered between the mainland projection Putulik and an unnamed island, about 3 miles westward. The fjord-like bay trends north-northwestward for about 8 miles, sending short branches northeastward and southwestward at its head. Anchorage is afforded in Comanche Bay Harbor (65° 03′N., 40° 18′W.), a cove on the eastern side of the bay, about 4 miles within its entrance. The chart shows depths of more than 25 fathoms at the anchorage, and the 10-fathom curve lies nowhere more than 175 yards from the shore. A beacon marks the northern entrance of the harbor, and a second small beacon stands on a small westward projection inside the head.
From August 1942 to April 1943, and again from June 1943 to October 1944, the U.S. Army had a beachhead station in Comanche Bay, from which inland ice operations where undertaken. Li ^ n ^ ked to the base was a weather reporting station on Atterbury Dome (1,200 ft.), about 2 1/2 miles to the southward. Here weather observations were taken from October 1942 to April 1943, and from October 1943 to October 1944. During the earlier part of the occupation a marginal station at the 16-mile point (edge of the inland ice) was established, but not used, as a weather reporting station. In the summer of 1944, convoys equipped with T-15 Vehicles (Light Cargo Carriers) proceeded to a point 53 miles out on the inland ice, to which cargo was moved to the amount of 31,500 lbs. Loads up to 10,000 lbs. were cached on the way. A weather reporting station, temporarily located at 65° 36′N., 41° 15′W., radiod weather reports every 6 hours. (See also Greenland In e ^ l ^ and Ice Weather Stations by F.Alton Wade).
The bay itself takes its name from the U.S. C.G. Cutter Comanche

Comanche Bay continued

the crew of which helped establish the original beachhead station.
H.O. 75, 102 Report on the operation of Task Force 4998-A and the Ice Cap Detachment in Greenland, 1942-44 AFCTR, ADT Branch, Orlando,Fla. 1945
Indexer: list Atterbury Dome; Comanche Bay Harbor. Putulik

Greenland ^ 420 ^

Crown Prince Christian Land,

is the name given the northeastern part of East Greenland between Ingolf Sound and the large Danmark Fjord. From Ingolf Sound (80° 37′N., 16° W.), the outer coast trends northwestward for about 70 miles to Northeast Foreland (Nordost– rundingen) and thence northwestward and westward for about 75 miles to Princess Dagmar Peninsula (81° 44′N., 18° W.), a small projection on the eastern side of the approach to Danmark Fjord. The large peninsula thus formed is said by Trolle not merely to narrow the gateway of the polar sea between Spitsbergen and Greenland, but it appears to be a lifting above sea level of that submarine ridge, Nansen, Ridge, which runs westward from Spitsbergen.
Crown Prince Christian Land has only two major indentations: Antarctic Bay on the southeast side, and an unnamed bay southwest of Princess Dagmar Peninsula. The broad north ^ eastern ^ end is occupied by the Flade Isblink, which reaches the sea westward and southwestward ^ of Nakkehoved, ^ a small mountainous area [: ] at the peninsula's northeastern extremity. Stretches of ice-free coast occur on Amdrup Land in the southeast, b t ^ e ^ tween Ingolf Sound and Antarctic Bay and about 7 miles to the northward of that bay, where Kilen, a long strip of land cuts northwestward into Flade Isblink. Nakkehoved and Princess Dagmar Peninsula are also icefree. A long narrow north-south depression at the western end of Crown Prince Christian Land is occupied in its northern part by Römer Lake; the southern portion forms a river valley which connects with the head of Ingolf Sound.
Ice. - According to Nielsen of the Danish North- East Greenland Expedition, 1938-39, the belt of land-fast winter ice off the outer coast of East Greenland between approximately 80° N. and Northeast Foreland is much narrower than it is along the coast southward of this area.In 1939 there was no land ice at all

Crown Prince Christian Land cont.

off the greater part of the eastern coast of Amdrup Land. Northward o g ^ f ^ Northeast Foreland a lane of open water close to [: ] shore extended at least 30 miles westward from the western point of Nakkehoved. Northwesterly gales are said by Lauge Koch to be frequent here, and even in winter the ice may break lose at any time, often close to the shore. Icebergs off this coast are relatively small, although there are many productive glaciers.
Explorations.- Crown Prince Christian Land was first traversed by the Danmark Expedition, 1906-08, and by the Alabama Expedition, 1909-12. Lauge Koch made airplane surveys of the area in 1933 and 1938, and Nielsen, of the mentioned Danish Northeast Greenland Expedition, sledged to Nakkehoved in the spring of 1939.
H.O. 75, 253 Guidebook 1183 Polar Rec. Jan. 1944 p.100
Indexer: List Northeast Foreland; Nakkehoved; Princess Dagmar Peninsula; Nansen Ridge; Flade Isblink; Amdrup Land; Kilen; Antarctic Bay; Romer Lake

Greenland ^ 130 ^

Danell Fjord (Ilivilik),

the Kangerdlek Fjord of Graah, enters the coast of southern East Greenland north of Kasingortok (60° 48′N., 42° 43′W.), whence it extends west-north– westward for about 30 miles. The 8-mile wide entrance is occupied by the large Ilivilik Island ( Q.V. ^ q.v. ^ ), which has Cape Discord at its eastern end. The inner part of the fjord, which narrows to about 2 miles, is nearly always blocked by a chaos of frozen calf ice, winter ice and pack ice and is difficult to reach by boat. Along the shores are signs of old Eskimo habitations.
The fjord derives its names from the Dutchman David Danell, a captain in the Danish Navy, who sailed the Greenla ^ n ^ d Sea in 1652/53. Its Eskimo name, Ilivilik (Ilivileq) means the ^ indicates a ^ place where there are many graves from olden times.
H.O. 75, 82 Greenland I., 17 III 452

Greenland ^ 360 ^

Danmark Fjord

in northeast Greenland, is entered between Princess Thyra Island (82° 04′N., 19° W.), off the northwestern end of Crown Prince Christian Land, and Cape Rigsdagen, the northeast point of Valdemar Glückstadt Land, about 25 miles westward. The fjord, which narrows considerably in its inner course, extends about 125 miles southwestward to a shoal head, close north of Lake Fyen, with which it is connected by way of a narrow passage.
[: ] The foreshore, on either side of Danmark Fjord, is icefree, and with few exceptions low and undulating. The southeastern shore is fairly straight, and in its outer part is backed, at a distance of about 14 miles inland, by the Alexandrine Mountains. Farther southward the Sjaelland Mountains rise steeply from the shore to heights of 1,000 ft. The fjord's northwestern side is less regular and near its middle portion, is indented by a large bay where a river debouches through a broad delta. The river drains a chain of glacial lakes in the steep-walled Zig-Zag Valley which leads westward through high mountain land to the edge of the Inland Ice. Willow, heather and grasses are plentiful in the lower parts of the valley, which to all evidence is well– stocked with game and wild-life. Musk-oxen, hares and ptarmigans have been reported here, and the fox and wolf appear to be present. Farther southward the fjord is lined by a 12-mile stretch of unbroken basalt wall, rising to heights of from 1,300 to 1,600 ft. The land near the head of the fjord is low, and to the southward, in the vicinity of Lake Fyen, supports a rather luxuriant V ^ v ^ egetation.
In Lauge Koch's opinion the whole inner part of Danmark Fjord should be free of ice in August of a normal summer. No icebergs were reported in the interior, but bergs from the glaciers at the head of Independence Fjord

Danmark Fjord cont.

may become grounded near its entrance.
Explorations. - Danmark Fjord, discovered and named ^ in 1907 ^ by Mylius-Erichsen of the Danmark ^ Danmark ^ Expedition, was reached in 1910 by Mikkelsen of the Alabama ^ Alabama ^ Expedition and in 1912 by members of Rasmussen's First Thule Expedition. Lauge Koch, in 1938, ^ confirmed ^ the corrections made earlier by Mikkelsen that the fjord trends southwestward for its entire length, and not westward, as reported by the Danmark Expedition. (See also Valdemar Glückstadt Land; Independence Fjord.)
H.O. 75, 256 Guidebook 1 2 ^ 3 ^ 22.
Indexer: listPrincess Thyra Island; Cape Rigsdagen; Lake Fyen; Zig-Zag Valley; Alexandrine Mountains; Sjaelland Mountains.

Greenland ^ 170 ^

Davy Sound

is the most southerly of the deep incisions in the King Oscar Archipelago of East Greenland. It is entered between Cape Biot (71° 54′N., 22° 32′W.) and Cape Simpson, about 15 miles to the north-northeastward, and thence extends about 14 miles to Antarctic Harbor, from which point it is known as King Oscar Fjord. Antarctic Harbor (72° 02′N., 23° 05′W.), a small bay on the southwestern side of Davy Sound, affords anchorage to vessels of any draft, with shelter from all directions except north to northeast and, W ^ w ^ hen free of ice, it is said to be one of the best harbors in the King Oscar Archipelago. A Norwegian hunting station is located on its shore, and traces of ancient Eskimo hab t ^ i ^ tations have been found in the vicinity. Behind the harbor the mountains rise to nearly 3,000 ft., and the Pictet Mountains to the northwestward attain elevations of nearly 3,600 ft. Cape Syenit, the northwestern entrance point of the harbor, is a well-defined, sharply sloping headland, forming a good landmark.
The sound was partly explored by Scoresby in 1822. Nathorst first mapped it in 1899.
Indexer: list Cape Simpson; Cape Biot; Antarctic Harbor; Cape Syneit;
Pictet Mountains.

Greenland ^ 120 ^

Dijmphna Sound,

with its continuation HEKLA SOUND, enters the northeast coast of Greenland in about lat. 80° 05′N.,long. 17° 05′W., between Cape H.N. Andersen, the northeast point of Hovgaard Island, and Mount Mallemuk, the southeastern end of Holm Land. From this entrance,which is about 16 miles wide, the sound trends westward for about 20 miles to the eastern side of the large Lynn Island, whence Hekla Sound, an extension, curves northwestward and southwestward around the island's northern end , ^ ; ^ while Dijmphna Sound proper continues over 20 miles south– westward to a glacier at its head. The entrance of Dijmphna Sound was found to be shallow near Mount Mallemuk, and large icebergs from the interior may become grounded here. Between the early part of July and mid-October lanes of open water may occur in Dijmphna Sound.
H.O. 75,251
Indexer: list Hekla Sound; Cape H.N. Andersen; Mount Mallemuk; Lynn Island

Greenland ^ 500 ^

Dove Bay,

a wide bay in northeast Greenland, indents the coast between Ad. S. Jensen Land and Germania Land. Cape Peschel (76° 15′N., 20° 04′W.) forms its southern entrance point, and Cape Bismarck, a rocky prominence at the south– eastern extremity of Germania Land, about 38 miles northeastward, is its outer,northern end. From this entrance Dove Bay extends westward for over 40 miles to a broad,irregular head at the confluence of two huge ice streams, Great Stream (Storströmmen) Glacier and L. Bistrup Glacier. High nunataks tower above the wide glacier front, westward of which rises Dronning Louise Land. The inner, southern portion of the bay is a maze i ^ o ^ f islands and islets, separated by sounds and channels, from which short, fjord-like extensions lead in westerly or southerly directions. Larger fjords, which cut inland from the northwestern end of the bay are Borg Fjord, and the more northerly Helle and Mörke Fjords. Across the entrance of Dove Bay extends the long narrow Koldewey Island, with navigable passages leading past its northern and southern end.
The bay, which has depths sufficient for vessels of any draft, has several good harbors. In the northern end of the bay anchorage is obtained in the spacious Danmark Harbor, north-northwestward of Cape Bismarck, and in a bay of Hvalrosoden, a Danish hunting station, about 25 miles west-north– westward of Danmark Harbor; also off Mörke fjord Station, just outside Mörke fjord entrance. [: ] ^ Inside the bay, ^ there is anchorage at Gefions Harbor (76° 23′N., 20° 58′W.), on the southern side of the large Godfred Hansen Island, and t ^ T ^ hree additional harbors are located on the eastern and western side of Koldewey Island (q.v.). Hunting is good in the bay, and several major hunting stations and numerous huts are located on its shores. The fjord ice nearly always breaks up in the summer, and occasionally disappears completely

Dove Bay cont.

in the latter part of August. In 1935, Dove Bay was not reached by ships ap– proaching from the southward, because of difficult ice conditions around Scoresby Sound.
Explorations. - Dove Bay was first approached by the Second German Arctic Expedition, which reached Cape Bismarck, its farthest north, o ^ i ^ n April 11, 1870, on a sledge journey from its base on Sabine Island. In 1905, the Belgica , under the command of Duke Phillippe of Orleans, set ashore at Cape Bismarck and the off-lying Maroussia Island, and from 1906-1908, the Danmark Expedition wintered at Danmark Harbor, whence Mörke Fjord and the interior of Dove Bay were explored ^ . ^ Additional material for maps of the regions were supplied by the Alabama Expedition, 1909-12, and by J.P. Koch and Alfred Wegener, who had a base on Great Stream Glacier in 1913 , and thence crossed the Inland in the spring of 1913. More recent expeditions to this coast included the Danish Three Year Expedition,1931-34, the Louise Boyd Expedition, 1938, and the Danish North-East Greenland Expedition, 1938-39. The latter established Mörkefjord Station, a privately owned Danish radio- and meteorological station, where full meteorological observations were maintained until 1942. (See also Koldewey Island; Dronning Louise Land; Germania Land.)
H.O. 75, 288ff. MG 41, 23, 88 Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland, 348 Polar Record, Jan 1944, p.100
Indexer: list Ad. S. Jensen Land; Cape Peschel; Cape Bismarck;
Maroussia Island; Great Stream Glacier; L. Bistrup Glacier; nHelle Fjord;
Mörkefjord; Borg Fjord; Godfred Hansen Island; Gefions Harbor;
Danmark Harbor, Hvalrosoden; Mörkefjord Station.

Greenland ^ 200 ^

Dronning Louise Land,

to all reports the most extensive nunatak area in all Greenland, lies between lat. 76° N. and 77° 30′N., at a distance of from 20 to 50 miles from the northeast coast. Altitudes in the central part are about 5,600 ft.; on its western side are the Gefions Tinder, estimated to be from 8,200 to 8,800 ft. high. Two huge icestreams, Great Stream (Storströmmen) Glacier, flowing from the northward, and L. Bistrup Glacier from the southwestward, separate the area from the various projections and islands which form the western part of Dove Bay.
Dronning Louise Land was investigated by ^ the ^ J.P. Koch and Alfred Wegener Expedition, 1912-13, which wintered at Borg (76° 41′N., 22° 25′W.), on Great Stream Glacier, where meteorological and glaciological observations were carried out. Koch states that the western end of Dronning Louise Land is very barren while the eastern end has stretches of luxuriant vegetation at relatively high levels; in several places grass formed a close cover, and arctic willow, saxifraga,poppies and other flower-bearing plants were met with. In the spring of 1913 the expedition, equipped with 5 ponies and 5 sledges, achieved a crossing from of the Inland Ice from their base on Great Stream Glacier to Upernivik on the West Coast. (See Dove Bay.)
H.O. 75, 231 MG 75, I, 27 MG 101, IV, 19 Guidebook 1112
Indexer: list Great Stream Glacier; L.Bistrup Glacier: Gefions Tinder; Borg Station.

Greenland ^ 90 ^

Duc d'Orleans Land,

in north-east Greenland, is the continental land northward of Germania Land and westward of Jökel Bay, and extends roughly between lat. 77° 50′N. and 79° N. and long. 21° W. and 24° W. It is covered with ^ by ^ huge ice streams, above which rise dark peaks and ranges up to 3,000 ft. high. Moltke Mountain, in the far northwest, attains an elevation of about 6,500 ft.
The Danish North-East Greenland Expedition carried out survey work in the area in the spring of 1939 and altered the position of some of the nunataks on Duc D'Orleans given by earlier expeditions.
H.O. 75, 247 Polar Record, Jan 1944, p.101
Indexer: List Moltke Mountain.

Greenland ^ 410 ^

Egede and Rothe Fjord (Sermilik)

a large fjord in the Angmagssalik area of southern East Greenland, has its 8-mile wide entrance immediately west of the southwestern extremity of Angmagssalik Island (65° 07′N., 37° 55′W.) From here the fjord outs inland in a northeasterly direction for a distance of about 42 miles, where it branches; the main arm continue ^ s ^ about 9 miles northeastward to the foot of the large Midgaard Glacier, while a second arm, called Helheim Fjord, trends about 14 miles west-northwestward. Sermilik's western side is further indented by Tasiussak Bay, close southward of Helheim Fjord, and by a larger branch, Johan Petersen Fjord, which leads from a point still farther southward, about 13 miles within the entrance. The eastern shoreline is relatively even, except for an indentation at 65° 51′N., off the northern end of Angmagssalik Island; here a narrow sound, about 20 miles long, leads in a general southwesterly direction to Angmagssalik Fjord, to the eastward , separating Angmagssalik Island from the mainland to the northward. Two boat harbors are reported in the inner main fjord, and a ship harbor is indicated close inside the mouth of Johan Petersen Fjord.
The coastal mountains surrounding Sermilik are massive and steep, rising to about 3,500 ft. Large glaciers discharge into the heads of the various branches, filling the main fjord with icebergs of all sizes. The t ^ v ^ egetation, in general, is poor, but heath and herb fields occur near some water-courses or on some south-exposed slope. A number of Greenlander settlements are scattered about the fjord.
Egede and Rothe Fjord, first surveyed by Holm and Gar ^ d ^ e in 1884, was named after two officers of the Royal Danish Navy, who attempted a landing in the district in 1785. Around 1900, Amdrup and Kruuse carried out botanical investigations in the fjord, and in 1912, Quervain made his notable descent to the head of Johan

Egede and Rothe Fjord cont.

Petersen Fjord, after crossing the Inland Ice from Jakobshavn. The British Arctic Air Route Expedition(1930/31), which was equipped with two moth-planes, had a base camp in Siportok-Kangerdlua, a bay close westward of the entrance to Sermilik, whence investigations of the Ice Cap where undertaken. Among other more recent expeditions which have carried out surveys and scientific investiga– tions in or around Sermilik, were the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition, the Watkins East Greenland Expedition, the Lindsay Trans-Greenland Expedition and the French Trans-Greenland Expedition under P.E. Victor.
Indexer: list Helheim Fjord; Johan Petersen Fjord; Tasiussak Bay; Midgaard Glacier; Siportok-Kangerdlua.
H.O. 75, 108 Guidebook 889 Greenland I. 30 II, 660 MG 106, II, 29

Greenland ^ 300 ^


(74° 05′N., 21° 16′W.), a salient point at the southernmost end of Clavering Island, is the site of one of the two permanent scientific stations maintained in East Greenland by the Danish Go– vernment. The other is at Ella Island, in the King Oscar Archi– pelago. Established in 1931, the station serves also as a base for expeditions studying the East Coat. It consists of four buildings, comprising the scientific station with adjoining storehouses and sheds and a separate building for the electric generator, three radio masts and a flagstaff. Weather reports are sent to Julianehaab for transmission to Copenhagen. The radio is open for public correspondence, but was suspended during Wo lr ^ rl ^ d War II.
Fronting the station is Eskimonaes East Harbor, where anchorage is obtained in depths of from 21 to 28 fathoms. A landing place for small boats is available in the inner and westernmost part of the harbor, south of the radio station. At times pack ice enters this harbor.
Another anchorage is at Eskimonaes West Harbor, on the western side of the mentioned salient point. The depths are about 35 fathoms in the entrance, but depths of 1 to 1/12 fathoms are found mores than a 100 yards from the sandy beach at the head of the harbor. West Harbor is almost always free of pack ice. Both harbors are no ^ rm ^ ally open from Augus ^ t ^ to September 15, but Eskimonaes has been reached as late as October 1. There are excellent streams at both harbors from which good water may be obtained by boat. (See also Clavering Island; Gael Hamke Bay.)
H.O. 75, 201 Guidebook 1001
Indexer: list ^ Eskimonaes ^ West Harbor; ^ Eskimonaes ^ East Harbor

Greenland ^ 140 ^

Fleming Fjord,

on the east coast of Greenland, cuts inland for about 20 miles from its entrance between Cape Brown (71° 47′N., 22° 28′W.) and Cape Biot, to the north-northwestward. The trend of the fjord is southeasterly, the width approximates 8 miles near the entrance, and 3 to 4 miles in the inner fjord. A bight, which indents the western shore, southwestward of Cape Biot, affords anchorage in depths of from 32 to 41 fathoms.
In many places the coastal mountains rise sheer from the sea, terminating in pyramidal peaks, but stretches of lowland leading up ^ in ^ to fertile valleys are found at the head of the fjord and along the shores of the aforementioned bight. There are six hunting huts inside Fleming ^ Fjord ^ , and a cabin is reported inland, about 16 miles southwestward of Cape Biot.
H.O. 75, 168
IndexerL list Cape Brown; Cape Biot.

Greenland ^ 310 ^

Mount Forel

(66° 58′N., 36° 47′W.), Greenland's second highest mountain, rises in the Angmagssalik District of the southeast coast, about 45 miles north-northeastward of the head of Egede and Rothe Fjord. The giant mountain, which forms the farthest point inland of a 40 to 60-mile belt of high coastal mountains, attains an elevation of 11,025 ft.; surrounding it are peaks from 9,000 to 10,000 ft. high. Croft describes Mount Forel as an ice dome which caps a rock wall rising up from a flat glacier below. Its outlet glaciers connect with a huge glacier system farther southward, whence a number of minor ice streams flow southwestward and southeastward in the direction of the outer coast.
The region, which is sometimes named Schweizerland, was quite inknown until the Swiss Quervain,in 1912, crossed the Inland Ice from Jakobshavn to Angmagssalik, descending through Egede and Rothe Fjord. Measuring the peaks surrounding Mount Forel from a distance of 70 to 100 miles, Quervain estimated their height to be 11,000 ft., at that time the highest known elevation in the Arctic. Mount Forel thus became known as Greenland's highest mountain, until Watkins, in 1930, dis– covered a higher range on the Blosseville Coast. The following year, members of the British Arctic Air Route Expedition attempted to climb Mount Forel from the west, but were turned back 700 ft. from the top. The crest was not reached until 1938, when Roch and other members of the Swiss Alpine Club (Zurich) climbed the mountain by the southern ridge.
Other expeditions to Schweizerland include the Watkins East Greenland Expedition, 1932/33, and the Lindsay G ^ T ^ rans-Greenland Expedition 1933/34, both of which carried out surveys in the region. The P.E. Victor Expedition,1936-37, brought back 350 photographs and many sketches.
H.O. 75, 130 Guidebook 909 ff. Geogr. Journ. Vol. 135, p. 364
Chapman, Northern Lights, p. 293 P.E. Victor, My Eskimo Life, 314


Mount Forel

(66° 58′N., 36° 47′W.), Greenland's second highest mountain, rises on the southeast coast,in the Angmagssalik Dirstrict,

Greenland ^ 180 ^

Foster Bay,

off the coast of northeastern Greenland, between Cape Mackenzie (72° 55′N., 21° 52′W.) and the southern coast of Hold with Hope, is a large body of water, from the head of which lead Sofia Sound, Dusén Fjord and Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord. The inner eastern end of the bay is formed by the southeastern coast of Gauss Peninsula, a 15-mile stretch of hilly country ^ broad and flat foreland, ^ between Cape Franklin and Cape Bennet, which is exceptionally rich in vegetation and animal life. Two Norvegian hunting huts are located on this shore.
Bontekoe Island, in about the middle of the entrance of Foster Bay, rises to a height of more than 1,1000 ft. Built of volcanic rock the island apparently has been separated from the mainland in recent times. In the interior are several small lakes, and there is some vegetation and birdlif . ^ e ^ . Eskimo remains have been found on the westernmost point of the island. Two groups of smaller islands occupy the western part of the bay.
On July 15, 1933, the Veslekari Expedition found the whole inner part of Foster Bay filled with shore ice.
H.O. 75, 179, 193 Skrifter om Svalbard, 63, p. 9
Indexer list: Bontekoe Island; Cape Mackenzie, Cape Franklin, Cape Bennet

Greenland ^ 120 ^

Franske Islands,

offly the northeast coast of Greenland between Paris Island, the northernmost of the Iles Francaises ^ , ^ and Norske Island, situated about 35 miles to the north-northeastward. Salient points of some of the islands are : Cape Koefoed (78° 29′N., 18° 32′W.), the eastern extremity of the southernmost of the islands, and Capes Bergendahl and Bourbon, the northern ends of two of the larger islands, about 11 and 21 miles to the northward of Cape Koefoed.
The islands form part of a larger archipelago first sighted in 1905 by the Belgica Expedition under Duke Philippe of Orleans. All three capes are now placed considerably eastward of the positions first given them by this expedition.
H.O. 75, 249
Indexer: list Cape Koefoed; V ^ C ^ ape Bergendahl; Cape Bourbon. Paris Island.

Greenland ^ 330 ^

Gael Hamke Bay,

a wide bay in northern East Greenland, between Hold with Hope and Clavering Island, is entered between Cape James (73° 53′N., 20° 20′W.), and Cape Mary, about 19 miles to the north-northeastward. The bay, which is called Godthaab Gulf in its inner portion, extends about 40 miles west-northwest– ward to the foot of the wide Wordie Glacier on Steno Land. The middle portion is only about 6 miles wide and occupied by the Finsch Islands, which lie close to its southern shore. Godthaab Gulf, its inner portion, widens to about 15 miles. Two branch fjords lead from the inner bay. Loch Fyne extends southward, almost severing Hold with Hope from Hudson Land to the westward. Copeland Fjord, and its extension Rudi Fjord, lead northward between Clavering Island and Steno Land to Tiroler and y ^ Y ^ oung Fjord, which bound V ^ C ^ lavering Island on the north and east, respectively. Young Sound has its eastern entrance less than 3 miles north of Cape Mary, and for that reason,both y ^ Y ^ oung Sound and Tiroler Fjord are usually considered an inte ^ g ^ ral part of the Gael Hamke Bay area. However, vessels cannot proceed from Godthaab Gulf to Tiroler Fjord by way of the inner passages, because of shoal waters in Copeland Fjord.
Gael Hamke Bay proper is deep, with few obstructions to navigation. The recommended anchorage is on the bay's northern side, in two harbors off Eskimonaes (q.v.) on Clavering Island. The harbors are normally open from August 1 to September 15. Hunting is good on land and at sea, the principal fjord game animals including fjord seal, harp seal, walrus, [: ] fox and polar bear. A number of hunting huts lie scattered along all coasts.
Gael Hamke Bay, probably the same as that seen by the Dutch skipper of that name, in 1654, was named by Scoresby and subsequently explored by Clavering, Koldewey and Nathorst. Additional surveys have since been made

Gael Hamke Bay cont.

by many of the more recent expeditions visiting or wintering on Clavering Island or Hold with Hope. (For discussions of the ^ movement of the ^ pack ice off the entrance of Gael Hamke Bay and neighboring areas see under East Greenland Current and Storis.)
H.O. 75, 197 Louise Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland 328 ff.
Geogr. J. Sept. 1943, p. 97 Polar Records, Jan. 1939 25 ff.

Greenland ^ 480 ^

Germania Land,

a large, island-like projection on the East Coast of Greenland, lies between lat. 76° 38′N. and 77° 58′N., bounded on the south by Dove Bay and on the north by the small Orleans Sound. Skaer Fjord, a large bay with several arms, indents its northeast coast and almost severs the larger southern portion from the northern one. The western side is separated from the mainland by huge ice streams, named Great Stream and Ko ^ e ^ foed Hansen Glaciers.
The large r ly ice-free peninsula is mainly gneiss, with the rounded landform prevailing in many of its parts. Its western portion forms a nearly level plateau, about 2,600 ft. above sea level, on which there are several lakes. In its northern and eastern parts are undulating mountain areas, rising from to from 1,000 to 2,000 ft. Some fertile stretches occur in the south and on the shores of some of the arms that lead from Skaer Fjord. The musk oxe and polar bear, the fox and the hare are present on Germania Land, and the fjord seal and walrus are hunted off shore. Three major hunting stations are located on the southern shore, with good anchorages available off these stations. (See Dove Bay). Temporary radio and meteorolo f ^ g ^ ical stations were established at Micardbu (approximately 77° N. 18° 15′W.), on the east coast, and in Mörkefjord Station (76° 55′N., 20° 27′W.), on the southern coast. Remains of a permanent Eskimo village have been found in the vicinity of Micardbu.
Ice. - In summer, pack ice in large fields is apt to drift down the outer coast of Germania Land, requiring a vessel to go out to sea in order to progress northward; in winter, the drift ice is said to be less, giving ships a good chance to approach, particularly during the period from February to May. During the summer of 1938, the En Avant was able to follow an open lead along the coast as far as 77° 10′N.; here further advance was impossible because of solid ice.
Explorations. - The region may have been visited by 17th century whalers.

Germania Land cont.

Edams Kulle, a conspicuous hill on the east coast, in about lat. 77° N., appears already on a Dutch map of 1718, where it is indicated as having been discovered in 1655. However, practically nothing was known of the region northward of Dove Bay until Duke Philippe of Orleans touched Germania Land in the course of oceanographical explorations in the Belgica , in 1905. Subsequent charts of this coast were furnished by the Dan i ^ m ^ ark Expedition (1906-08) ^ , ^ [: ] the Alaba ma Expedition (1909-1912), and [: ] the Danish Three Year Expedition (1931-34). In 1938, the Louise Boyd Expedition spent the whole month of August in the vicinity of Germania Land, and that same year Mörkefjord and Micardbu stations were established [: ] by the Danish East Greenland Expedition and [: ] by the Norwegian-French ( En Avant ) Expedition, ^ respectively. ^ Meteorological observations at Mörkefjord Station were maintained until 1942. Micardbu was dismantled in 1941.
H.O. 75, 243 cont. Guidebook ; ^ 1 ^ 129 Polar Record Jan. 1939 p. 25, p.36; idem, January 1944, p. 100. MG 41, p. 20 Boyd, the Fjord Region of East Greenland.
Indexer: list Skaer Fjord; Mörkefjord Station; Micardbu; Edams Kulle; Great Stream Glacier; Ko ^ e ^ foed Hansen Glacier; Orleans Sound.

Greenland ^ 120 ^

Graah's Islands

is the name given to the maze of islands and islets, fringing a 30-mile stretch of coast between the northern end of Pikiutdlek Bay in about lat. 65° N. 40° W. and the southern entrance of Ikersuak Bay to the northward. Among the larger of the islands are Orsted, Hornemann and Vendom Islands, which latter was a survey base of the British Arctic Air Route Expedition, 1930-31. Dannebrog Island or Kivdlak, the largest and most northerly of the islands, was Graah's farthest north in 1829. Its Eskimo name, meaning" t ^ T ^ he Shining" ^ , ^ points to the u ^ o ^ ccurrence here of mica.
The Seventh Thule Expedition reported a number of ship's harbors among the islands, the best being found on the western side of Hor en ^ ne ^ mann Island.
H.O. 75, 104 ff.
Indexer: list Danneborg Island or Kivdlak; Hornemann Island; Orsted Island; Vendom Island.

Greenland ^ 320 ^

Great Koldeway Island,

a long and narrow island, extends across the eastern entrance of Dove Bay, in northeast Greenland. Cape Alf Trolle (75° 57′N., 18° 38′W.) forms its southern extremity, and Cape Hel f ^ g ^ oland, over 50 miles to the north– northeastward, is its north point. The island, which is less than 7 miles wide at its broadest, is occupied by several uniform plateaux rising to altitudes of from 2,000 to over 3,100 ft. The highest of these lies in the northern portion, several miles south of Berg Fjord, which cuts into the island from the west and almost bisects it, except for a low isthmus near its head. A lower plateau in the southern part, about 2,300 ft. high, is cut through by two conspicuous ravines, the lower of which, Trekking Pass, is near sea level and looks like a cut for a highway or a railroad. A number of lakes are found on the islands.
Anchorage on the western side of Great Koldewey Island is obtained in Berg Fjord, north of an island group ^ , ^ which occupies the inner portion of this fjord. Ships can also anchor close off the southern entrance point where a good watering stream tumbles down a cliff. The fjord, however, is reported to be open only about 2 years out of every 3. Absalon Harbor (76° 40′N. 18° 53′W.), and the small Dagmar Harbor, about 1 mile to the north-northwest– ward, are safe and excellent harbors on the eastern side of the island. A Danish hunting hut stands near the head of Berg Fjord.
Great Koldewey Island was first encircled by the Danmark Expedition (1906-08), which reported it to be a single island, and not 3 islands, as indicated on a map of the Second German Arctic Expedition (1869-70). Lauge Koch visited the island on a sledge journey in 1927, and members of the Three Year Danish Expedition (1931-3 [: ] ) made plant collections here ^ in 1933. ^ In 1938-39, the Norwegian-French Expedition, in connection with the weather station at

Great Koldewey Island cont.

Micardbu, Germania Land, established two sub-stations on Koldewey Island. (See also Dove Bay.)
H.O. 75, 232 MG 101,IV,19 Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland, 338 Guidebook 1122 Friis, History of the Exploration of the Arctic by air.(Files)
Indexer: list Cape Alf Trolle; Cape Helgoland; Berg Fjord; Trekking Pass; Absalon Harbor; Dagmar Harbor.

Greenland ^ 156 ^

Griffenfeldt Island, or Umanak

(northern extremity 63° 00′N., 41° 26′W.) lies off the o ^ c ^ oast of south ern East ^ east ^ Greenland, within the southern approaches to Sehesteds Fjord. The longuis ^ t ^ , heavily indented island, about 11 miles by 3, is highest in its center, where Umanak (" the mountain in the shape of a heart ") rises to over 2,200 ft. Nansen, in 1882, discovered some Eskimo ruins at the foot of this mountain, which has given name to the entire district. The southern end of Griffenfeldt Island is deep deeply indented by a fjord which opens into a circular basin, with banks green- and beown-clad by vegetation. The Seventh Thule Expedition (1932) reports a ship's harbor inside the fjord and several boat harbors in its short inner branches. Ella's Havn, at the northern side of Griffen e feldt Island, affords anchorage to small boats, but is subject to swells and often packed with ice. Griffenfeldt Sound, a channel off the island's western side was found by the Veslekari ^ Veslekari ^ to be d d ^ e ^ ep and clean in August 1932.
H.O. 75,90 MG 106, 209 Greenland III, 457
Indexer: List G ir ^ ri ^ ffenfeldt Sound; Ella's Havn.

Greenland ^ 80 ^

Cape Gustav Holm

(66° 34′N., 34° 21′W.), on King Christian IX Land in southern East Greenland, is the southern extremity of a long, narrow mainland projection east of East Tasissaq Bay, a branch of Ikerssuaq Bay. The cape rises to over 3,100 ft. and is noted for its extremely varied vegetation. Plant collections, made in this vicinity by Kruuse, in 1900, included 22 particularly hardy and widespread species from this part of the coast; Bögvad, in 1933, also reported several rare southern species.
H.O. 75, 133 MG 106, II, p. 31
Indexer: list Ikerssuaq Bay; East Tasissaq Bay.

Greenland ^ 156 ^

Gyldenlöve Fjord, or Umivip-kangerdlua,

a channel in southern East Greenland, ^ forms part of the larger Umivik Bay area (q.v.) where it ^ is entered between the northern tip of Colberger Heide (64° 0 ^ 9 ^ ′N., 40° ^ 50′ ^ W.) and Upernagsivik (Upernarsuak) Island, about 2 miles to the northward. The fjord trends northwestward and then north– northwestward for about 24 miles, flanked on the south by glacier-covered shores and on the north by several small ice-free islands. A narrow sound curves northeastward around the innermost of the islands and connects Gyldenlöve Fjord with Torsukatak Channel on the northern side of the island chain. Upernagsivik Island, at the northern entrance of the fjord, was reported a peninsula by the Heimen Expedition of 1931, but U.S. Aer. Chart, edition 1945, indicates that the island is separated from the mainland by a small sound and a bri ^ d ^ ge of islets. Altitudes along the inner shores ^ ^ of the fjord are comparatively low ^ , ^ except near the mouth ^ , ^ where some peaks on Colberger Heide rise to over 3,200 ft. (See also Umivik Bay).
H.O. 75, 98 AAF Aer. Ch. ^ 85 ^ 1943(1945)
Indexer: list Torsukatak (Umivik Area); Upernagsivik(Upernarsuak).

Greenland ^ 400 ^

Hochstetter Bay,

an extensive body of water off the East Coast of Greenland, extends between Wollaston Foreland and the Pendulum Islands on the south, and Shannon Island and Hochstetter Foreland on the north. The principal entrance is from the eastward between Bass Rock (74° 43′N., 18° 15′W.), off Little Pendulum Island, and Cape Philip Broke, the southeastern end of Shannon Island, about 18 miles northeastward. In addition to this entrance, Hochstetter Bay may be entered from the southward through Clavering Strait and Pendulum Strait, and from the northward through Shannon Sound, between Shannon Island and Hochstetter Foreland.
A large portion of the southern part of the head of the bay is occupied by Kuhn Island, north and south of which Hochstetter Bay branches. Lindemann and Fligely Fjords extend from its southwestern end ^ , ^ and Grandjean and Ardencaple Fjords from its northwestern end, the two latter fjords penetrating far westward and northwestward into King Wilhelm Land.
The region surrounding the bay is frequented by Norwegian and Danish t ^ T ^ rappers and a number of hunting huts and one major Danish station (Hochstetter Station) are found on the shores. Hochstetter Station (75° 09′N., 19° 47′W.),near Cape Rink, the southeast point of Hochstetter Foreland, affords anchorage off shore in an open roadstead; the station, which consists of a one-story living house, and two outbuildings, is equipped with radio. Farther westward, Peter Bay, a large indentation north of the entrance to Ardencaple Fjord, has anchorage o ^ i ^ n 25 fathoms of J u ^ o ^ nsbu Station, on its western side. A third anchorage is indicated off Cape Maurer, the eastern extremity of Kuhn Island. The ^ U.S.C.G. Cutter ^ Northland anchored here on September 13,1941, in 22 fathoms.
Ice. - The bay is likely to be congested, largely due to the continual movement of pack ice southward through Shannon Sound. It is not uncommon

Hochstetter Bay cont.

for a summer to pass without a ship being able to reach the Hochstetter Station. The most favorable approach to the bay is through Clavering Strait, although large fields of landfast ice may encircle the Pendulum Islands as late as end of July. In normal years, the best months to reach the bay are August and possibly early September, as there is tendency for the sea to be open along the coast from Shannon Island southward past Wollaston Foreland.
H.O. 75, 198,209, 206, 213 ff.
Indexer: list Bass Rock; Cape Philip Broke; Cape Busch; Cape Maurer; Grandjean Fjord; Fligely Fjord; Lindemann Fjord; Hochstetter Station. Peter Bay;

Greenland ^ 430 ^

Hochstetter Foreland,

a large promontory in northeast Greenland, extends northward for about 55 miles between Hochstetter Bay and Bessel Fjord. Cape Rink (75° 08′N., 19° 37′W.) forms its southeastern extremity. From here to a point about 20 miles northward, the outer coast is bounded by Shannon Sound, which separates Hochstetter Foreland from the large Shannon Island to the south– eastward.
The major portion of Hochstetter Foreland consists of a wide, flat peneplain, dotted with lakes and watercourses. Farther westward are table lands from 1,000 to 2,000 ft. high, which ultimately lead up to the high Barth Mountain ^ s ^ of King Wilhelm Land. The ground at the northern end of the peninsula, off Bessel Fjord, is higher, and to the westward attains elevations of over 4,500 ft. The coastline, with few exceptions, is smooth, broken only by the mouths of numerous, small streams. On the outer coast, about 40 miles north of Cape Rink, Roseneath Bay is formed by a small peninsula, the high outer point of which was named Haystack by Clavering. Roseneath Bay affords anchorage, but it is known ^ occasionally ^ to remain frozen over during the summer : ^ ; ^ Mönstedhus, a Danish station, is located on its western shore. Peter Bay, a wide indentation on the southwestern coast, has anchorage off Jonsbu, on its western shore. Jonsbu, a Norwegian radio and hunting station, was dismantled in 1941. A number of hunting huts are scattered about the outer coast, and a major Danish station, the radio-equipped Hochstetter Station, is located about 3 miles west of Cape Rink. There is no harbor in this vicinity, only an open roadstead ^ , ^ and the coast, as such, is difficult of approach, because of ice conditions (see Hochstetter Bay.) About 6 miles northwest of the station is an abandoned coal mine with deposits reaching down to the beach.
Accurate topographical data of Hochstetter Foreland were first supplied by the Danmark Expedition, 1906-08, although some preliminary

Hochstetter Foreland cont.

charting had been done by Clavering and the Second German Arctic Expedition. Other more recent surveys of this coast included those made by the Danish Three Year Expedition, 1931-34, which had a temporary base on Hochstetter Foreland ^ and by the Lauga Koch East Greenland Expedition ^ . The expedition, in addition to other scientific work, also carried out extensive archeological investigations. ^ 1936-38. ^ Large botanical and zoological collection were made by C.G. Bird of the British Ornithological Expedition, who spent the summer of 1938 at Peter Bay and other points of the peninsula.
H.O. 75, 224 ff. Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland.
Polar Record, Jan. 1939 p. 27 MG 44.
Indexer: list Cape Rink; Roseneath bay; Haystack; Peter Bay; Jonsby;
Mönstedhus; Hochstetter Station; Barth Mountains; King Wilhelm Land.

Greenland ^ 510 ^

Hold with Hope

was the name given by Henry Hudson to a group of prominent hills, sighted by him in latitude 73° 30′N., on his voyage in 1607 along the East Greenland Coast. The name now applies to all of the broad East Greenland peninsula which projects between latitudes 73° 27′N. and 74° 03 N., and longitudes 20° 20′W. and 21° 55′W., flanked on the east by the Greenland Sea, and on the south and north by Foster Bay and Gael Hamke Bay, respectively. To the westward Hold with Hope is bounded by Loch Fyne, an arm of Gael Hamke Bay, and farther southward by the broad Badland Valley, which leads from the head of Loch Fyne to Mackenzie and Foster bays.
The hills viewed by Hudson lie in the southeastern portion of the penin– sula, south of Cape Roer Bruys, a low projection on the east coast, about 7 miles northeastward of its southern end. To the westward and northwestward are wide stretches of low land, yielding in the far northwest to an extensive plateau, from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. high. North of this plateau is the wide Tobias Valley, which cuts through Hold with Hope in a west-east direction, dividing the peninsula into a northern and southern part. The valley, which is drained by a large river, was found on recent investigation to have a number of well-developed mud volcanoes, among them the largest ever seen in Greenland (length c. 1,640 ft.; breadth c. 984 ft.; height c. 131 ft.) The northern half of Hold with Hope is fairly mountainous throughout. Its hilly eastern portion, named Home Foreland by Scoresby, rises to over 2,000 ft.; the glacier-covered Spaths Plateau in the west attains elevations of nearly 5,000 ft.
The vegetation in the low-level areas of Hold with Hope is exceptionally well-developed, especially in the tundra country adjoining Mackenzie Bay (q.v. in the southwest. Game is abundant on land and off-shore. Two hunting stations and a number of huts are located on the shores of Hold with Hope,

Hold with Hope cont.

and an additional hunting y ^ h ^ ut is on the small, fertile Jackson Island which lies off Cape James, the northeast point of the peninsula. Remains of old Eskimo habitations and graves have been found on Hold with Hope as well as on some of the outlying islands.
The coast of the peninsula forms part of the larger area of the East Greenland Coast which was rediscovered by Scoresby in 1822, and subse– quently surveyed by Clavering, Koldewey and Nathorst. Among more recent expeditions to this part of the coast are ^ were ^ the Second and Thir s ^ d ^ Cambridge Expeditions, 1926 and 1929, the Louise Boyd Veslekari Expeditions, 1931 and 1933, several Norwegian Svalbard Expeditions, notably Orvin's in 1932, the Danish Three Year Expedition 1931-34, and the British Ornithological Expedition in 1936. The mud-volcanoes of Tobias Valley were investigated by the Danish Geolo ^ g ^ ical Expedition to East Greenland,in 1945. In connection with the International Polar Year,1932-33, the Norwegians carried out systematic meteorological observations at Myggbukta Station, at the head of Mackenzie Bay.
H.O. 75, 179 Guidebook 1057 The Polar Record Jan. 1946, 326 Skrifter om Svalbard, No. 63, p. 9 Louise Boyd, The f h ^ j ^ ord region of East Greenland 332 ff.
Indexer: list Loch Fyne; Badland Valley; Cape Broer Ruys; Cape James; Jackson Island; Home Foreland; Spaths Plateau; Tobias Valley

Greenland ^ 180 ^

Holm Land,

a large promontory between lat. 80° 10′N. and 80° 33′N. in northeast Greenland, is bounded on the south by Dijmphna and Hekla Sounds, and on the north by Ingolf Fjord. Its southeast point is marked by the conspicuous ^ glacier- encircled indented ^ Mount Mallemuk, the most precipitous part of a series of steep coastal cliffs which extend westward along Dijmphna Sound. The eastern extremity ^ of Holm Land ^ is Eskimonaesset, a small projection in lat. 80° 28′N. long. 15° 30′W., where extensive Eskimo remains have been found. Between these two points lies a stretch of broad foreshore which to the westward slopes up to a low plateau and thence to glacier-covered mountain land with maximum elevations of 3,400 and 3,900 ft. Carboniferous deposits with many seams of excellent coal have been found in some hills close to the southern shore. In summer the land in the vicinity of Mallemuk Mountain is green, with large flocks of gulls, mallemuks and glaucous gulls soaring above. Seals are numerous offshore.
H.O. 75, 252 Guidebook 1179
Indexer: list Hekla Sound; Mount Mallemuk; Eskimonaesset (Holm Land)

Greenland ^ 170 ^

Hovgaard Island,

one of the subdivisions of King Frederik VIII Land in northwest Greenland, lies between Nioghalvfjerds (Seventy-nine) Fjord and Dijmphna Sound, which latter sepa t ^ r ^ ates it from Holm Land to the northward. Cape Anna Bistrup (79° 40′N., 18° 12′W.) is a basalt cliff at its southeastern extremity, while Cape H.N. Andersen, about 25 miles north-northeastward forms a salient point at its northeastern end. Southward of Cape Anna Bistrup are some islets called Bagatellerne.
E. Mikkelsen of the Alabama Expedition (1909-12) describes Hovgaard Island as having a low foreland, bounded by an apparently fer ^ t ^ ile slope. From there the land rises toward mountains from 1,600 to 2,300 ft. high, while in the ice-capped interior elevations of over 3,000 and 4,000 ft. are indicated. The bear seems to be present on Hovgaard Island, and traces of seals were observed among the innumerable rifts in the sea ice.
H.O. 75, 251
Indexer: list Nioghalvfjerds (Seventy-nine)Fjord; Cape Anna Bistrup;
Cape H.N. Andersen; Bagatellerne

Greenland ^ 90 ^

Cape Huitfeldt (Kangerujuk)

(60° 15′N., 43° 04′W.) is a steep, pyramidal headland on the coast of southern East Greenland, about 42 miles northeast of Cape Farewell. The cape, which rises to over 1,300 ft., is blackish, with slanting yellowish strata. Southward from this cape the mountains are said to have the color of melted copper.
The cape was named after Peter Huitfeldt, Chancellor of Norway during the reign of Christian III (1533-1559). who, together with Christopher Walkendorff, held a Royal G ^ g ^ rant, authorizing him to search for and exploit Greenland.
H.O. 75,76 Greenland I. 5

Greenland ^ 70 ^


the Ingiteit Fjord of Graah, enters the coast of southern East Greenland, between two lofty and precipitous promontories: Cape Fischer (61° 05′N., 42° 35′W.), and Cape Trolle, about 7 miles northeastward. The fjord trends about 17 miles west-northwestward, narrowing gradually to a width of 3 miles and than to about 1-1/2 miles. [: ] A small bay indents the middle of the northern side of Igutsat, extending northwestward to a very narrow head. Several miles east of this bay, close to she ^ Igutsat's ^ northern shore, are two skerries, each about two miles long, about which the pack ice is likely to gather. G. Holm, the first to enter the fjord in 1884, discovered several old Eskimo house ruins on fairly fertile land on its inner shores. The mountains surrounding the fjord are of moderate height.
H.O. 75, 83 Graah, Voyage to Greenland 73
Indexer: list Cape Fischer; Cape Trolle

Greenland ^ 160 ^

Ikersuak (Ikerssuaq),

a large fjord or bay in southern East Greenland, is entered between Dannebrog Island (northeastern extremity 65° 19′N., 39° 30′W.), and a mainland projection, off Sujunikajik Island, about 14 miles northeastward. The bay extends about 14 miles northwestward, widening somewhat near its much indented head. A number of small fjord and bays here border directly on the inland ice, which discharges calf ice into the main bay, making it one of the most dangerous icefjords in the whole of the southern part of the east coast. However, the projections between the side-fjords and bays, as well as the islands off shore are icefree. Altitudes are low. The vegetation along the inner shores is ^ s ^ parse ^ , ^ but a luxuriant, manured vegetation is reported by Bøgvad (1933) around a settlement on Sujunikajik Island. The Seventh Thule Expedition reported a ship harbor on the southwestern side of Dannebrog Island, and good anchorage on the eastern side of Sujunikajik.
H.O. 75, 105 MG 106,II 28
Indexer: list Dannebrog Island; Sujunikajik

Greenland ^ 190 ^

Ile de France,

the largest and southernmost of the islands off the coast of Duc d'Orleans Land, in northeast Greenland, is about 18 miles long, north and south, and about 6 miles wide at its broad [: ] southern end; the northern portion tapers to a width of about 3 miles. Cape Saint Jacques (77° 35′N., 18° 12′W.) forms its southwestern extremity, and Cape Philippe, about 8 miles east-northeastward its southeast point. The low island, which rises to less than 700 ft., is ice ^ - ^ covered except for its southern and northern end. Vegetation and animal-life seem to be fairly abundant on the foreland, and evidence of former Eskimo occupations has been found here.
The most nearly ice-free anchorage off Ile de France, in early August 1941, was found about 2 miles east-southeastward of Cape Saint Jacques. The U.S.C.G. Cutter Northland anchored here in 30 fathoms. Open water in the vicinity of Cape Philippe was reported by the Danmark Expedition, on April 23, 1907. Early in August 1938, the Veslekari of the Louise Boyd Expedition anchored to a field of heavy polar ice, which was pressed up against the island's northern shore. End of July and the first week in August are reported to be the best season for a vessel to get this far north.
H.O. 75, 247 ff.
Indexer: list Cape Saint Jacques; Cape Philippe.

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Iles Francaises,

a group of islands, offlying the East Coast of Greenland between lat. 78° N. and 78° n 30′N., form part of the larger archipelago first sighted in 1905 by the Belgica Expedition under Duke Philippe of Orleans. The salient points of some of these islands were named from south to north: Cape Albert de Belgique, Cape Duc des Abruzzes, Cape Mërite and Cape Princess Maud. Only Cape Mërite, the ^ (78° 15′N. 18° 55′W.) ^ the northeastern extremity of the largest and most centrally located of the islands, has since been identified, although the group has been repeatedly surveyed. The Danish North-East Greenland Expedition, 1938/39, altered the ^ given ^ position of some of the islands.
H.). 75, 248
Indexer: list Cape Albert de Belgique; Cape Duc des Abruzzes; Cape Mërite; Cape Princess Maud.


Ilivilik ^ ^ or Iluileq ^ , ^

("the place where there are many graves from the olden times") ^ , ^ , ^ is ^ a medium-sized island off the coast of southern East Greenland, where it occupies the entrance of Danell Fjord, at about Lat. 60° 46′N., Long. 42° 42′W. [: ] Cape Discord forms [: ] its eastern extremity. The island, which is about 12 miles long, east and west, and 4 miles broad, rises to over 2,700 ft. On the southeastern side is a small bay, surrounded by high rocks, which, in 1870, was called Hansa Haven by the shipwrecked crew of the vessel Hansa of Koldeway's Germania Expedition. A group of islets lies off the southeastern end of Ilivilik.
H.O. 75, 82 Greely, Handbook 246 Greenland III 452 Lo6,III, 452
Indexer: list Cape Discord; Hansa Haven.

Greenland ^ 130 ^

Imaersivik (Imarsivik)

is a medium-sized island off the coast of southern East Greenland, about 9 miles north of Cape Juel (63°, 12′N., 41° 05′W.). The island, which is identical with the Nukarfik** ) of Graah, who wintered here in 1829-30, is low and has some fertile stretches. Anchorage is available in a beautiful small harbor on its eastern shore and in the western part of Flo Sound, a strait between Imaersivik and the mainland . ^ , ^ T ^ t ^ he Seventh Thule Expedition ( 1931-32 ) ^ 1932/33, ^ lists the latter anchorage as a natural ship's harbor, free from ice and swell. ** ) Graah's latitude for Nukarfi ^ k ^ [: ] is 63° 31′38′N. which corresponds to that of Imaersivik's southern end. The place-name Nukarfik ^ (Nukarbik) ^ indicates a region where one gets spoiled or dulled and probably refers to good and constant hunting conditions. (Ostermann).
H.O. 75, 95 MG 106, 210 Graah, Voyage to Greenland, 131 Greenland III, 454
Indexer: list Nukarfik (Nukarbik)

Greenland ^ 300 ^

Ingolf Sound,

a large fjord in northeast Greenland, separates Holm Land from Amdrup Land. From its entrance between Eskimonaesset (80° 28′N, 15° 30′W.) and Cape Jungersen, about 12 miles northwestward, the wide outer portion of the sound curves n ^ o ^ rthwestward and then southwestward for over 25 miles to a floating glacier tongue (Spaerre Glacier), which projects from the southern shore and appears the ^ [: to ] ^ entirely close the fjord. Actually the sound continues beyond Spaerre Glacier for a considerable distance ^ , ^ terminating in two small heads in about lat. 80° 32′N., long. 18° 40′W. (AAF Aer. Ch. (9), 1943) ^ . ^ At the head of the north– western terminal branch two long narrow valleys open out from the west and north, the former connecting with the head of Trold ^ ^ Lake and the latter extending to the large Romer Lake. The interior of Ingolf Sound is flanked by a markedly alpine landscape, with the glaciers of Amdrup Land calving extensively into the interior portion of the sound. The bergs, however, never drift beyond Spaerre Glacier. Several small islands, named Wegener Islands, occupy the middle of the outer sound. The ice near the fjord's mouth appears to break up in summer.
Explorations. - Sledge parties of the Danmark Expedition first visited the outer part of Ingolf Sound in the spring of 1907, and additional material for maps of the region was supplied, among others, by Lauge Koch, on two flights in 1933. The first party to visit the interior portion i^o^f Ingolf Sound and regions to the westward as far as long. 22° W. was the Danish North-East Greenland Expedition ^ , ^ in 193 7 ^ 9 ^ . The expedition made a number of geological and geographical observations and named numerous ranges and salient points.
H.O. 75, 252 Guidebook 11 76 ff. MG 126,II var.pp. Indexer: list Eskimonaesset, Cape Jungersen; Spaerre Glacier; Romer Lake; Amdrup Land; Wegener Islands; Trold Lake

Greenland ^ 170 ^

Jökel Bay,

is the wide ice-filled area in about lat. 78° N. in northeast Greenland, which offlies the greater part of Duc d'Orleans Land ^ , ^ It is bounded on the east by a rim of islands, ^ the ^ Iles Françaises and Franske Islands, first sighted in 1905 by the Belgica Expedition. Schnauder Island, northwestward of Franske Islands, lies at its northern end, abreast of Zacharia ^ e ^ s Glacier, which separates Duc d'Orleans Land from Lambert Land to the northward.
The Danmark Expedition (1906-08) which traversed the bay 9 times, found it ^ the bay ^ covered with a continuous mass of Inland Ice, which to a large extent was afloat. Lauge Koch, from ice-observations made in 1933, concludes that no bergs are produced on Jökel Bay, that the glacier ice floats on the water and is bounded on the east by skerries. The Danish North-East Greenland Expedition altered some of the ^ given ^ positions of the islands in Jökel Bay.
H.O. 75 248 MG 130 No. 3, p.80, 110 Polar Record Jan.44, p. 100
Indexer: list Schnauder Island; Zacharias Glacier.

Greenland ^ 780 ^

Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord,

a vast fjordsystem in the King Oscar Archipelago of northeastern Greenland, is entered between Cape Graah (73° 14′N., 23° 13 W.), the eastern end of Ymer Island, and Cape Franklin, the southeast point of Gauss Peninsula, about 20 miles to the eastward. The main fjord terminates more than a hundred miles to the westward at the foot of the productive Nordenskiöld Glacier (73° 08′N., 27° 57′W.); its branches reach northward to lat. 73° 57′N. and southward to lat. 72° N. Tracts of land along its northern side are from east to west: Gauss Peninsula, Strind– berg Land, Andrée Land and Fraenkel Land; along the southern shore extend Ymer Island, Suess Land and Goodenough Land.
From Cape Graah the wide outer portion of Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord trends west-northwestward for about 40 miles, with North Fjord (and its tributary Muskox Fjord) and the more westerly Geologist Fjord branching to the northward. The main fjord then narrows to about 4 miles and trends about 20 miles southwestward to the mouth of Antarctic Sound ^ (q.v.) ^ a small branch on its southern side, which connects Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord with the head of King Oscar Fjord. About 10 miles west of Antarctic Sound entrance, Icefjord, a fourth arm, branches to the northward, terminating at the foot of the Gerard de Géer and Jaette G ^ g ^ laciers. The inner ^ most ^ portion of Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord, west of Icefjord entrance, curves southwestward, then northwestward and finally westward to Nordenskiöld Glacier, issuing ^ a southward trending ^ a fifth arm, the small Kjerulf Fjord [: ] about 7 miles from the head. [: ] Nordenskiöld Glacier, practically an extension of the head, leads westward to the foot of Mount Petermann, a huge ice-covered pyramid, about 9,650 ft. high. Little Petermann to the southwestward, and Nathorst Peak, to the northeastward, rise to 7,900 ft. and 7,780 ft., respectively.
^^ The land north and south of the inner and central portions of the fjord

Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord cont.

attains great elevations throughout, with many of its peaks and local ice-caps rising to 6,000 and 7,000 ft. In many places vividly colered, canyon-like walls rise steeply from the sea and there are some spectacular rock formations along the ^ fjord's ^ northern side, including the Devil's Castle, a huge cubic rock about 4,400 ft. high, about 10 miles west of Geologist Fjord entrance, and Attestupan, a tremendous cliff, rising to 6,000 ft. west of Icefjord entrance. Glaciers pour over the summits of some of these walls and cliffs; or else cut through them, debouching directly into the fjord. The outer portion of Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord is largely flanked by hilly terrain, intersected at intervals by wide valleys, often rich in vegetation and well-stocked with game. Hunting is good in the outer parts of the fjord. Ringed and bearded seals are numerous in the sea near the mouth, and occasionally walrus and narwhal are encountered as far westward as North Fjord and Muskox Fjord. Hunting stations are located [: ] inside North and Muskoxe Fjords, and a hut [: ] is in Blomster bay, an indentation close to the northwest point of Ymer Peninsula, about 40 miles west of Cape Graah. The interior of the western section is little known. Vegetation along the outer shore of Kjerulf Fjord is poor; near its head Louise Boyd saw dwarf willows, 2 or 3 ft. high, the largest that she had seen anywhere in East Greenland.
Depths, ice, navigation. - In some places a d ^ pe ^ ^ ep ^ pth of 100 fathoms is found close to the shore, and in the middle of the fjord are depths from 400 to 500 fathoms. Many and large icebergs fill the fjord, but navigation is possible in August and September, and anchorage may be obtained as far westward as Kjerulf Fjord. Ideal shelter from easterly winds is available in the mentioned Blomster Bay. During the summer of 1941, this harbor was used on several occasions by the U.S. C.G.S. North Star , and at one time, three vessels, the Northland , the North Star

Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord cont.

and the Bear anchored here together.
Explorations. - Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord, discovered by Koldewey in 1870, and made fully known by Nathorst in 1899, has since been visited by many expeditions, among them the Second and Third Cambridge Expedition of 1926 and 1929, several Norwegian Svalbard Expedition between 1929 and 1932, Louise Boyd's Veslekari Veslekari Expeditions, 1931 and 1933, and the Danish Three Year Expedition, 1931-34. An outstanding achievement of the Third Cambridge Expedition was the ascent of Mount Petermann. Extensive archeological research in the region, initiated by Koldewey and Nathorst, was followed up in the 1930's by V.C. Glob and Sören Richter.
H.O. 75, 186 Skrifter om Svalbard No. 63, 8ff. Louise Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland, 331 ff. MG 130 III, p. 300
Indexer: list Gauss Peninsula, Andrée Land, Fraenkel Land, Strindberg Land, Suess Land; Goodenough Land; Ymer Island; Blomster Bay; Cape Graah; Cape Franklin; North Fjord; Muskoxe Fjord; Geologist Fjord; Ice Fjord; Antarctic Sound; Kjerulf Fjord; Nordenskiöld Glacier; Gerard de Geer Glacier; Jaette Glacier; Mount Petermann; Little Petermann; Nathorst Peak; Devild's Castle; Attestupan.

Greenland ^ 87 ^

Kangerdluarak (Mortens Fjord)

indents the coast of southern East Greenland at ^ about ^ lat. 60° 34′N. The narrow fjord trends almost due west for about 12 miles from the northern side of Cape Wallöe. A submarine ridge across its entrance does not hinder navigation, but does keep icebergs out of the bay. The shores are mountainous and increase in height in the interior where several glaciers are visible. Vegetation about the fjord is rich, and there are numerous seabirds and some eider ducks. The winters are mild and rainy.
H.O. 75, 81
Indexer: list Cape Wallöe

Greenland ^ 96 ^


a fjord in southern East Greenland, about 24 miles long and from 1 to 3 miles wide, enters the coast south of Cape Fisher (61 i 05′N., 42° 35′W.), a lofty promontory projecting between Kangerdlugluk and Igutsat Fjord to the northward. Kangerdlugluk extends northwestward to a head circled by a number of peaks, the highest of which rises to over 5,000 ft. Holm, in 1884, found an old Eskimo dwelling on the northern side of the fjord, close to a small bay. The steep Kangerdlugluk Mountains ^ b ^ eyond had an abundance of crowberries and blueberries.
H.O. 75, 83 Graah, Voyage to Greenland 73 Greenland III, 452
Indexer: list Cape Fisher.

Greenland ^ 510 ^

Kangerdlugssuak (Stor Fjord),

the second largest fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast between Cape Deichmann (68° 03′N., 32° 05′W.) and Cape Hammer, the southern tip of Rocky Reef Peninsula (Skaergaardshalvø), about 12 miles to the east– northeastward. Its length is about 45 miles; the trend is northwesterly. Several arms branch eastward and northwestward, with Amdrup Fjord leading from the western side ^ , ^ and Watkins Fjord, and the more northerly Courtauld Fjord extending from the eastern side. The inner fjord, after narrowing down to a width of about 5 miles, widens out into a large basin which issues a final arm, the short North Fjord, at its northeastern end.
Brightly colored mountains with peaks up to 8,000 ft. high, rise on either side of the fjord, the sombre basaltic rock of the coast to the northward here changing to gneiss and gabbro, interspersed with broad basaltic dykes; deposits of the interesting Nepheline syenite occur on the western side of Kangerdlugssuak and around the bottom of Amdrup Fjord. Many glacir glacier tongues flow from the inland ice, filling the fjord with a mass of icebergs. The vegetation is scarce, but animal life is richer than elsewhere along this coast. Greenland seals occur in large flocks; common seals and narwhal are fairly general, and many bears and foxes have been reported. Birds observed included waders and eiderducks ^ , ^ and among landbirds were ravens and turnstiles. The fjord is difficult to enter, however, because of its large amount of ice, and because of its great depths and strong currents. Vessels may anchor in Uttental Sound which leads from the outer part of the eastern side, south of the small Kramer Island.
Kangerdlugssuak was roughly charted by Amdrup in 1900, but detailed surveys of the fjord area were first carried out in 1930, by the British Arctic Air Route Expedition. In 1932, the Einar Mikkelsen Søkongen Expedition entered the fjord to examine the geology, fauna and flora of the country, and in the same year a meteorological station was set up at Kangerdlugssuak by the

Kangerdlugssuak cont.

Norwegian Polaris Expedition, which carried out observations within the schedule of the Second International Polar Year. In 1933 and 1935, respectively, the Seventh Thule Expedition and the Anglo-Danish East Greenland Expedition came ^[: to]^ to ^ Kangerdlugssuak ^ for cartographical work and investigations in the meteorological, botanical zoological and archaeological field. Meteorological data, furnished by the Anglo Danish Expedition, and covering the period from August 1935 to August 1936, indicated a total precipitation of 25 inches, on 119 days, and a total depths of snow of 15 1/2 ft. Maximum temperatures of 62° F. were reported in May, June and July; a minimum of s-22° F. occurred in February.
All of these expeditions, including Amdrup's, brought back collections of archaeological objects originating from graves and house ruins on Rocky Reef Peninsula (Skaergaardshalvø). The old Eskimo settlement here, which is fairly extensive, is believed to date back to the fifteenth and sixteenth century.
H.O. 75, 136 Guidebook 926 MG 119, 8 MG 104,I Geogr. Journal Sept. 1936, p. 193 and May 1933, p. 385 Polar Record No. 11, Jan 1936 p. 32. Geogr. Journ. Mov. 1937, p. 420
Indexer: list Amdrup Gjord; Watkins Fjord; Courtauld Fjord; Uttental Sound; Kramer Island; North Fjord (Kanterdlugssuak); Rocky Reef Peninsula (Skaergaards– halvø).

Greenland ^ 330 ^


a narrow Fjord in the Angmagssalik district of southern East Greenland, is entered between the northeastern end of Stor Island (66° 15′N., 35° 26′W.), and a large, mountainous mainland projection, about 4 miles to the eastward, which has Cape Japetus Steenstrup at its eastern end. From here the fjord extends west– northwestward and northwestward for over 20 miles, terminating at the face of the very active de France Glacier, which connects with the vast glacier system surrounding Mt. Forel, about 40 miles to the northwestward. Short arms branch from the outer southern and northern sides of Kangerdlugsuatsiak, with North Fjord, the northern arm, leading to Sieralik Glacier.
In the interior Kangerdlugsuagtsiak is flanked by high, sharp pointed peaks, of which Ingolf Fjeld, a superb pinnacled mountain in the northeast, rises to 7,300 ft. (In the opinion of Nansen and Gustav Holm this mountain is identical with the Blåserk of the Norse accounts; other place Blåserk in the vicinity of Mt. Rigny.) Farther inland some peaks attain elevations of 8,000 to 9,000 ft. A number of glaciers enter the southwestern side of Kangerdlugsuatsiak; at other places along this side glacial ice is said to be balanced precariously on the steep hillsides. The vegetation, in general, is scattered and scarce except near the head; Bøgvad (1933) collected a number of plants here on the slope of a small gully.
Recent expeditions ^ , ^ wh ^ [: ] ^ have called at the fjord or had bases here ^ , ^ include the ^ B ^ ritish Arctic Air Route Expedit ^ i ^ on, the Watkins East ^ G ^ reenland Expedition, T ^ t ^ he Einar Mikkelson Søkongen Expedition and the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition. During the winter 1936/37 the French T ^ r ^ ans-Greenland Expedition under P.-E.Victor [: ] ^ had a base camp on Stor Island whence ^ surveys and ethnological investigations were carried out.
H.O. 75,130 Guidebook 909 Geogr.J. Vol. 135, 364 Chapman Northern Lights 293 MG 106 II,31 MG 56, 32-33
Indexer: list Cape Japetus Steenstrup; Ingolf Mtn. De France Glacier; Stor Island

Greenland ^ 108 ^

Kangikitsuak (Anoretok)

a 19-miles indentation in the coast of southern East Greenland, is entered just north of Nuk (61° 28′N., 42° 20′W.), the northeastern extremity of a narrow peninsula called Akia. The fjord trends west-northwestward to a head which is circled by peaks up to 4,600 ft. high; on the southern side of its entrance are several deep bays. A number of glaciers, some of which produce large bergs, flow into the fjord. On its northern shore, near the entrance is a considerable plain, at the foot of low mountains, where Holm (1884) found the ruins of the old Eskimo settlement of Anetorek ^ (meaning "the windy"), ^ , from which the entire area takes its name. [: ]
H.O. 75, 85 Greenland III 450
Indexer: list Anetorek settlement; Nuk; Akia.

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Kempe Fjord,

in the King Oscar Archipelago of northeastern Greenland, is entered west of the small Maria Island (72° 57′N., 24° 55′W.), off the northern end of King Oscars Fjord. The fjord runs nearly 50 miles inland, flanked on the south by Ella Island and Lyell Land, and on the north by Suess Land. Of its three branches the outer ones have extremely steep coasts ^ , ^ whereas the middle one runs through a narrow but pleasant strip of open country and thence continues into a long broad valley; a hunting hut stands on the southern shored of the middle fjord, about midway in its course; another hunting hut fronts the southern entrance of the southernmost of the three arms.
The fjord was named by the Nathorst Expedition in 1899.
H.O. 75, 174 Boyd. The Fjord Region of East Greenland, 335 Skrifter om Svalbard nr Nr. 63, p. 15
Indexer: list Marie IslandSuess Land; Lyell Land.

^ Fine! ^ Greenland ^ 750 ^

King Christian IX Land,

a stretch of coast in southern East Greenland, extends b ^ e ^ t ^ w ^ een the Ikersuak Fjord area (63° 50′N., 40° W.) and the southern shore of Scoresby Sound, over 600 miles to the northeastward. It was formally named on September 20, 1884, by the Holm and Garde Topographical Expedition.
The coast falls roughly into three subdivisions:
In the first section, between Ikersuak Fjord and Kangerdlugsuatsiak Fjord (66° 15′N.), numerous and often widely ramified fjords cut deeply into the land, producing a maze of peninsulas and islands, separated by narrow channels. The central portion, generally known as Angmagssalik district, is ice-free over large stretches and comparatively fertile, but the land everywhere is rocky and mountainous (gneiss and granite), with numerous peaks rising above 5,000 ft. Mount Ingolf, the highest point on the outer coast, reaches 7,320 ft. Mount Forel, in the hinter– land of Angmagssalik district ^ , ^ rises to 11,000 ft.
Next is the stretch north- and southward of the great icefjord Kangerdlugssuak (68° N.), where the coast is formed by an alternation of steep promontories and of fjords, the interior of which are reached by productive glaciers that flow down from the Inland Ice. Here rises Gunnbjørn Mountain, likely the highest peak in all Greenland, with an ele e vation of nearly 12,200 ft. The rock is gneiss and gabbro, with intrusions, in the more northerly part, of basalt.
Finally there is the barren northernmost part of King Christian IX Land, a ^ 160-mile stretch 160-mile stretch ^ between Cape Vedel (68° 30′N.) and the southern shore of Scoresby Sound. It includes the ^ glacier-covered ^ Blosseville Coast and a somewhat more ice-free area to the northward. The shores here are only slightly indented ^ , ^ and there are few off-lying islands. Basalt is the predominating rock here.
Northeastward of Angmagssalik the pack - ice, generally, lies somewhat farther offshore than it does to the southward, but numerous icebergs are discharged by the fjords. Off the Blosseville Coast the pack-ice tends to set against the shore; currents are very

Christian IX Land cont.

strong and add to the hazards of navigation. The ice may vary,however; the coast, one year may be blocked and the next year prove to be almost free of ice, with corres– ponding differences in heat and precipitation.
The climate, on the whole, is milder in the south than in the north, as indicated approximately by temperature data furnished by the Mikkelsen Søkongen Expedition. In 1932, the monthly maximum mean for Angmagssalik and Scoresby Sound was 43,7° F. and 39.4° F., respectively; the monthly minimum mean was 14° F. and -3.3° F. Precipitation is nearly three times greater in Angmagssalik than in Scoresby Sound. Both climate and soil conditions favor a comparatively rich vegetation in the Angmagssalik area, while the coast north of Kangerdlugssuak is barren over large stretches. Only the polar fox is found throughout the ^ entire ^ coast; hares, lemmings and ermines occur in the northern part, while the polar bear is more frequent in the more southerly regions. Ringed and bearded seal are common inside the indentations ^ , ^ and narwhal and occasionally walrus ^ ^ are encountered off shore.
There are no settlements in the northern part of King Christian IX Land. The south– ern portion, notably the Angmagssalik district, is ^ , ^ on the contrary, well settled, with over 1,000 Greenlanders living at or around Angmagssalik Colony. Fairly exten– sive s ruins of former Eskimo ha ^ b ^ itations, some of which may date back to the 15th century, occur in the southern and central part of King Christian IX Land.
The coast, as shown by the older maps, was no doubt known to 17th and 18th century Dutch, Danish and English navigators, but the first white man , known to have set foot on this coast, was Nordenskiøld, who visited Angmagssalik Island in 1883. During the following year Holm and Garde made a survey of the coast as far north as Angmagssalik, and Amdrup, in 1900, drew a first rough chart of the stretch between Angmagssalik and Scoresby Sound. Detailed land and air surveys of coast were first made between 1930 and 1933 by the British Arctic Air Route, the Mikkelsen Søkongen , and the Seventh Thule Expedition ^ s ^ . In 1932 and 1933, M.Spender,

King Christian IX Land cont.

cartographer of the Mikkelsen and Thule Expeditions, mapped the entire coast from Scoresby Sound to Umivik (68° N.), using ^ the next recent ^ latest light equipment and newly developed techniques. By the extensive use of the short-base method and photo– grammetry, the whole mountainous area was mapped as far inland as the ice cap. Other recent expeditions to this coast include the Watkins East Greenland Expedition, the Lindsay East Greenland Expedition, the Anglo-Danish East Greenland Expedition and finally, Charcot's various E ^ e ^ xpedition in the Pourquoi-Pas . (See also Angmagssalik Island and Blosseville Coast; for trade-in-production figures see Angmagssalik Colony.)
Guidebook 872 cont. H.O. 75, 74 Polar Record Nr. 31,1946, p. 332 Geogr. Journal, May 1933, p. 385 Geogr. Journ. July 1935, p. 32

Greenland ^ 720 ^

King Christian X Land,

an area on the East Coast of Greenland, between and including the southern side of Scoresby Sound (70° 09′N. 22° 30′W.) and the northern side of Dove Bay (76° 42′N., 18° 36′W.), belongs among the most diversified and ^ , ^ in some ways ^ , ^ among the most favored of the East Greenland coastal tracts. Much of the region, except for local glaciers, is ice-free, the strip of ice-free land back of the coast reaching a maximum width of 175 miles in the vivinity of Scoresby Sound. Across it cut large and widely ramified fjords, such as King Oscar Fjord and the Kaiser Franz Joseph system, or wide bays with numerous, fjord-like extensions, such as Gael Hamke, H ^ o ^ chstter and Dove Bays. Range and groups of mountains, over 6,000 and 7,000 ft. high, alternate with low-level areas, dotted with lakes and watercourses; shallow [: ] inlets are flanked by steep walls of rock. On some of the outer projections and islands, where altitudes, in general, are more moderate than in the interior, plants grow with a luxuriance seldom matched anywhere in the Arctic, and there is an abundance of animal-life. The musk-oxe, and ^ polar ^ bear, the wolf, fox, hare, ermine and lemming live s on this coast, and game, hunted off-shore includes ringed and other seal, walrus and narhwal. Seabirds occur over a wide area, and of landbirds, the raven, hawk, snowy owl and ptarmigan are seen. The whole coast is much frequented by Danish and Norwegian trappers, and unnumerable hunting huts and more than 20 major hunting stations lie scattered over the region. Many remains of ancient house-sites and grave ^ s ^ give evidence of former Eskimo occupation of the area, although Eskimos were encountered here only once, in 1823, by Clavering.
Climate. - Rain is a rare phenomenon in summer in King Christian Land, and precipitation is slight throughout the year. In winter, however, the region is a repos t itory of deep snow of the worst order, due to heavy storms which sweep together masses of dry [: ] snow from the Inland Ice. Warm föhn winds

King Christian X Land cont.

from the northwest are frequent. Annual mean temperatures are around 12° F. At Scoresby Sound Colony, during the coldest months, the temperature may average - 5° F., and occasionally may drop to an absolute minimum of - 33° F. During the warmest months the temperat ^ u ^ re may average 40° F., and may reach an absolute maximum of nearly 60° F. In Danmark Harbor, Dove Bay, temperatures are slightly lower, and according to data available, may average - 12° F. during January and February, and 36° F. during July and August.
Ice. - The fjord region is considered to be the most easily accessible portion of the East Greenland Coast, for the pack ice usually lies farther offshore than its does to the southward. It has long been believed that the pack ice is usually more scattered between the parallels of 73° N. and 75° N., and that vessels approaching from the east had best penetrate the ice belt in these latitudes. However, since 1924, there have been a number of years when ice conditions have permitted ships from Denmark to proceed directly to Scoresby Sound instead of taking the longer route.
Explorations. - Scoresby, in 1822, and Clavering, in 1823, tentatively sketched this coast from 69° 15′N. to 75° N., and from 73° N. to 75° 20′N. respectively. More definite information concerning the fjord region was acquired by the Second German Arctic Expedition, in 1869-70, which discovered Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord, and sledge ^ d ^ to Cape Bismarck, at the northern end of Dove Bay. Addi n tional investigations, covering the period from 1891 to 1924, were made by C. Ryder, A.G. Nathorst, Mylius-Erichsen, J.P. Koch. A. Wegener and Einar Mikkelsen; the latter, in 1924, laid the foundation of Scoresby Sound Colony. Since that date Danish, Norwegian, British, American

King Christian X Land cont.

and French Expeditions have come to this coast in close succession, the most notable ones including those under Wordie, Hoel, Orvin, Lauge Koch, Charcot and Louise Boyd.
H.O. 75, 154 Guidebook 941 cont. MG 75, 480 MG 41, 19 ff Louise Boyd, the Fjord Region of East Greenland.

Greenland ^ 750 ^

King Frederik VI Land

is the southernmost tract of land in the area known as East Greenland and extends between Prince Christian Sound (60° 02′N., 43° 05′W.) and [: ] Dannebrog Island (65° 19′N., 39° 30′W.) ^ , ^ near the southern entrance of Ikersuak Bay. Graah, who claimed possession of this coast for the Danish Crown in 1829, named it after the then reigning King Frederik VI.
The general aspect of this coast is one of wild grandeur and majesty. The landforms are generally alpine, the mountains high and massive in outline. Farther inland the Inland Ice quickly attains great elevations, with ice-cap levels close to the 9,000 ft. mark about 60 to 70 miles from the shore. The coast, too, is largely covered by ice, except in its middle portion, north and south of the Skjoldungen area, where the snow-free outer land attains a maximum breadth of about 40 miles. A number of small fjords, running inland almost at right angles, indent the coast's more southerly portion. Between them are large penin– sulas, many of them covered by lobes from the Inland Ice or local nėvės. In the northern portion, the incisions widen and form bays such as Umivik, Pikiutdlek and Ikersuak Bays. A number of glaciers flow into the fjords and bays, the most productive ones occurring in the north ^ er ^ n portion of the coast, where the Inland Ice reaches the sea along a broad front. The bordering ice pack along this part of the east coast of Greenland is not of great width, but it nearly always lies fairly close to the coast, and even a heavy off-shore storm is able to move it only a mile or two farther out to sea.
The land consists of old coastal cliffs (gneiss, granite and other rock). Complex signs of land rise are to be seen in various places, raised terraces sometimes occuring at several levels. The vegetation inside the numerous incisions is often rich, including willow, dwarf birch, angelica and several kinds of berry-producing plants. Of mammals

King Frederik VI Land cont.

only the polar bear and fox occur in addition to various types of seals. Cod, halibut and shark are reported in the more southerly fjords, and some of the rivers are rich in salmon. Land and seabirds nest in the coastal cliffs.
Few continued meteorological observations are available from King Frederik VI Land. The Norwegian station Torgilsbu, situated at 60° 33′N., 43° 13′W., showed the following average temperatures (C o ) for the year 1936: Jan. - 0.7°; Feb.: -0.3°; March: -2.2°; April: 1.4°; May:3.7°; June:6.9°; July: 9.6°; August: 8.6°; Sept.:6.3°; Oct.: 3.1°; Nov.: 0.3°; Dec.: -4.0° A minimum temperature of -26.2° was recorded in February 1933; a maximum of 21.6° in August 1936.
History. - In the Icelandic sagas there is mention of several people reaching the East Coast of Greenland and wintering there, but no reference is made to a permanent settlement. However, ruins of Icelandic settlements, dating back to the early Middle Ages, have been found in the southern part of this coast, notably in Lindenow Fjord and Prince Christian Sound. Late medieval sources indicate that some freebooting was carried on along this coast. In the seventeenth century, enterprising Dutch whalers hunting in Denmark Strait may have effected a landing in some of the fjords, and it is known that David Danell skirted the coast in 1652. In 1723, the Danish missionary, Hans Egede, visited the East Coast of Greenland from West Greenland by umiak, reaching the 60th parallel, and in 1752, Peter O.Walløe, a West Greenland skipper, traveled northward to Lindenow Fjord, furn– ishing the first certain information about the East Greenland Eskimos. In 1806, the German mineralogist Giesecke inspected the coast as far northward as 60° 09′N. Finally, Graah, in 1829-30, explored the whole of the coast up to lat. 65° 16′N., with Holm and Garde amplifying his early observations during their topographical expedition, in 1883-35. Surveys have since been made by a number of expeditions

King Frederik VI Coast cont.

from Norway, Denmark and Great Britian, foremost among them the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition (1931-33). Good recent charts have also resulted from air surveys of the U.S. Army Air Forces during World-War II.
The coast was relatively well settled up to about 1829, when Graah reported about 13 dwelling places with a total population of 550 Greenlanders [: ] on King Frederik VI Coast. Holm, in 1884, found only about 135 people living here. Since 1900, the coast ^ has been ^ is uninhabited, the last of its people having em ^ i ^ grated to the West Coast where European trade - goods are available.
Guidebook 814,129, 792. H.O. 75, 74. Greenland I. 30 Breitfuss, The Arctic MG 107, Nr. 3 Salmonsen's Konversations Leksikon (1923) XIV, 410

Greenland ^ 430 ^

King Frederik VIII Land,

a broad stretch of coast in northeast Greenland, extends from the northern side of Bessel Fjord, in about lat. 76° N., to Northeast Foreland (Nordostrundingen), in lat. 81° 22′N. Among its numerous subdivisions are Germania Land, Duc d'Orleans Land, Hovgaard Island, Holm Land and the southern part of Crown Prince Christian Land.
^^ The coast trends north– northeastward for almost 350 miles and is less deeply indented than that of the Fjord Region farther south. The islands, which lie offshore, are smaller than those to the southward. In places the Inland Ice comes down to the sea, and the icefree land consists mainly of isolated promontories and nunataks. In many instances it has not been ascertained whether these promontories are connected with the mainland or whether they are islands separated from the mainland by glacier-filled channels. Altitudes along the outer coast are moderate with only a few peaks attaining elevation of over 3,000 ft. In the ice-covered hinterland some nunataks rise to over 6,000 ft. The vegetation, in general, is sparse but a southexposed hill or some sheltered valley occasionally supports a luxuriant growth of grasses, herbs and dwarf shrubs. In the southern part of Frederik VIII Land, the musk-oxe, fox and hare are present, while animal life, in the northern portion, appears to be limited to seals and polar bears. Various specious of sea-birds visit the coast in summer, and of land birds the snow bunting has been reported as far north as 80° 10′N. Of the more southerly incisions only Dove Bay (q.v.) is open in summer. In the fjords and sounds of the northern portion lanes of open water appear near the mouths in July. (For the discussions of the moving pack ice off this coast see GREENLAND CURRENT, STORIS, or under individual headings such as Dove Bay, Germania Land, ect.)
Foremost among the expeditions which have furnished material for maps of King Frederik VIII Land were the Danmark Expedition, 1906-08, and the Alabama

King Christian VIII Land cont.

Expedition, 1909-12, and in more r ^ ecen ^ t years, the Danish Three Year Expedition, 1931-34, and the Danish North-East Greenland Expedition, 1938-39. Among ships which succeeded to reach the southern coast of King Frederik VIII Land, were the Belgica , in 1905, under the command of Duke Philippe of Orleans, the Gustav Holm , of the Danish Three Year Expedition, the Veslekari of the Louise Boyd Expedition, 1938, the En Avant of the French Norwegian Expedition, likewise, in 1938, and the U.S. C.G. cutter Northland , in 1941. The more nort ^ h ^ erly part of the coast has not as yet (1948) been reached by ships, but has been explored and mapped by some of the mention a ed expedition ^ s ^ , traveling on foot, and by airplane surveys.
H.O. 75, 243 Guidebook 1108 ff. MG 101, IV var.pp. Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland.

Greenland ^ 360 ^

King Oscar Archipelago

is in many respects one of the most varied and interesting archipelagos along the eastern coast of Greenland. It consists of a great number of islands and peninsulas between Carlsberg Fjord (71° 30′N.) on the southward and Hold with Hope (73° 30′N.) on the northward. These islands and peninsulas are separated from eachother by the greatly ramified sounds and fjords that make up the two vast fjord systems, King Oscars Fjord and Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord. Most of the passages are navigable, and shelter may be obtained in many places. The land portions close to the outer coast are often fertile, hilly and well supplied with game; bird life is varied during the summer. Farther westward the land gains in elevation;, attaining levels of over 7,000 ft.; a number of lo cal ice-caps discharge glaciers into the sea. There are no permanent Greenlander settlements in this area, but a number of ^ Nor^w^egian and Danish [: ] ^ hunting huts are found along the shores. A Danish scientific station, equipped with radio, is on the northern side of Ella Island, I ^ i ^ n ^ side ^ King Oscars Fjord. Graves and houseruins, presumably remains of older Eskimo settlements, are numerous [: ] in the region.
King Oscar Archipelago was discovered and named by the German expedition under Koldewey and Payer in 1869-70, and explored by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition under Nathorst (1899) and under Hartz (1900). Later expeditions to this stretch of the Greenland coast include Wordie's Heimland Expeditions, Louise Boyd's Veslekari Expeditions, the Nor^w^egian Svalbard Expeditions under Orvin and Hoel ^ , ^ and a series of Danish expeditions under Lauge Koch. Captain R. Bartlett repeatedly visited the coast during his archaeological and zoological cruises. Intensive archaeological research, [: ] initiated by Koldewey and Nathorst, was continued, in the 1930ies, by Sören Richter and P.V. Glob. Up to

King Oscar Archipelago cont.

[: ] world-war II, the hunters and scientists stationed in the region were relieved by Norwegian Svalbard expeditions, which called here once a year.
H.O. 75, 169 Skrifter om Svalbard Nr. 63, Oslo 1934, Nr. 88, Oslo 1945
MG 130, No. 3, p. 300 Louise A. Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland.

Greenland ^ 380 ^

King Oscar [: ] Fjord,

on the east coast of Greenland, is the continuation of Davy Sound above Antarctic Harbor (72° 02′N., 23° 05′W.). The fjord, which is about 55 miles long and from 8 to 14 miles wide, curves northwestward between the southwestern side of Traill Island and the northern shore of Scoresby Land, and then north-northwestward between the western end of Traill Island and Lyell Land, a large mainland promontory. About midway in its course, it issues Segelsallskäpets Fjord, which extends from its western side and cuts inland for about 14 miles; Alps Fjord and Forsblads Fjord lead from the inner end of this arm. The head of King Oscar s Fjord is occupied by the triangular-shaped Ella Island, beyond which other channels and fjords extend in a northern ^ lys ^ western ^ ly ^ and eastern ^ ly ^ direction ^ s ^ . A number of smaller islands and skerries front the more southerly shores of the main fjord.
Anchorage in 26 fathoms, good holding ground, in obtained in Mester s Cove (72° 10′N., 23° 40′W.), a small bay on the southwestern side of King Oscar s Fjord. Solitaer Bay, on the northwestern side of Ella Island, affords good anchorage in 24 to 31 fathoms. About 10 Norvegian hunting hut ^ s ^ lie scattered over ^ about ^ the land to the west of the fjord. On Ella Island, off ^ ad ^ Solitaer Bay, is a Danish scientific station, consisting of one larger ^ main house ^ and two smaller buildings; a radio station, a radio tower and a flagstaff are in the vicinity.
The mountains surrounding King ^ O ^ scar s Fjord attain elevations of over 6,000 ft.; but there are stretches of low foreshore, and several deltas are formed by rivers which enter from the east and west. A number of glaciers fill the valleys on the fjord's western side, some of which flow into Segelsallkäpets Fjord and it its tributaries, and into Narwhal Sound, a channel west of Ella Island, at the head of the main fjord. Ella Island, which rises to over 4,000 ft., has some fertile spots on its northern side ^ , ^ and game is plentiful here; Sör ^ e ^ n Richter reports several ancient graves and Eskimo sites along its eastern shore.
King ^ O ^ scar Fjord was discovered and named by Nathorst in 1899 and has since been

King Oscars Fjord cont.

investigated by a number of Danish, Nor ^ w ^ egian, British and American Expeditions. Colonel and Mrs. Lindbergh flew over the fjord in 1933, landing on Ella Island after their flight across the Inland Ice from Holsteinsborg on the West Coast. (See also King Oscar Archipelago; Davy Sound).
H.O. 75,170 ff. Skrifter om Svalbard Nr. 63, Oslo 1934. Louise Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland p. 335 355
Indexer: list Traill Island; Lyell Land; Ella Island; Scoresby Land; Segelsallskäpets Fjord; Narwhal Sound; Alps Fjord; Forsblads Fjord; Mesters Cove; Solitaer Bay.

Greenland ^ 300 ^

King Oscar Harbor (Tasiusak) ^ , ^

a large bay in southern East Greenland, indents the middle of the southern coast of Angmagssalik i ^ I ^ sland. A [: ] ^ n ^ gmagssalik colony, the prin– cipal settlement of East Greenland ^ , ^ (65° 36′N., 37° 38′W.), lies on its western side, about 2 miles within its entrance.
The almost landlocked harbor is entered through a narrow channel which leads northward for about 1 mile and then broadens into a 3-mile wide bay, with three very short arms branching off at the head. The total length of the harbor is about 6 miles; the trend is north-northwesterly. Charted depths within the inner bay are from 40 to 100 fathoms, except in its southwestern part, off Angmagssalik settlement, where the waters shoal abruptly. Least charted depths in the southward leading channel are 8 to 10 fathoms near its northern end, and 38 fathoms elsewhere. Anchorage in about 28 fathoms, hard bottom rock, is available off the small islet that blocks the entrance to the settlement cove, and vessels up to 240-ton may find a sheltered berth in the western arm ^ , ^ at the head of the bay. The harbor as such can accommodate vessels of practically any size and draft.
The pack ^ - ^ ice usually arrives in the vicinity of King Oscar Harbor in mid– October and leaves in July; however, both in 1941 and 1942 ^ , ^ a vessel left Ang– maggsalik as late as mid-November.
Both the British Arctic Air Route Expedition and the Seventh Thule Ex– pedition report good anchoring ground for aircraft in the vicinity of Tasiusak. Stor Lake, several miles to the north, is ^ said to be ^ suitable for the landing and taking off of even the largest seaplanes; Basis Lake ^ , ^ about 3 miles southwest of Stor Lake, may be used by smaller planes.
H.O. 75, 113 MG 106, I. 226
Indexer: list Stor Lake; Basis Lake

Greenland ^ 200 ^

Kuhn Island,

a large island off the East Coast of Greenland, occupies the inner end of Hochstetter Bay, between Wollaston Foreland and Hochstetter Foreland. Cape Maurer (74° 52′N., 19° 44′W.) forms its eastern extremity. To the westward the island is bounded by Fligely Fjord, a 20-mile strait, which separates it from Th.Thomsen Land. The island, which is about 23 miles long, north and south, and about 18 miles wide at its broadest, is little indented except in the northeast, where the L-shaped Bastion Bay cuts inland between Cape Maurer and Cape Bremen. The outer coast israther steep, but a depression runs through Kuhn Island from north to south, and there are some long, hilly slopes here, rich in vegetation. Eastward of this depression the mountains rise to nearly 3,800 ft. Trappers frequent the island and both Danish and Norwegian hunting huts are located on its shores. A Norwegian hunting station, located about 2 miles outh of Cape Maurer, affords anchorage offshore. There is no harbor, merely an open roadstead. The Second German Arctic Expedition (1869-70) discovered coal seams west of Cape Hamburg, the southeastern extremity of Kuhn Island.
H.O. 75, 214 The Second German North- p ^ P ^ olar Expedition 1869-70 II., 358
Indexer: list Cape Maurer; Cape Bremen; Fligely Fjord; Bastan Bay; Cape Hamburg

Greenland ^ 120 ^


an island covering an area of about 5 miles by 4, lies off the coast of southern East Greenland, immediately east of the mouth of Angmagssalik Fjord. It is easily identified by a dome-like elevation (about 1,970 ft. high ^ ), ^ which rises at its eastern end. Cape Dan (65° 31 'N., 37° 10′W.) forms its southwestern extremity, with as large bay to the eastward opening out on the sea. Greenland ^ er ^ dwellings and settlements are scattered over the west coast and are found on the islets off this coast. However, t ^ T ^ he Islands principal settlement is the one at Kulusuk, close to the island's northwest point, where a mission was established in 1909. It is the largest permanently inhabited native settlement in the district outside of Angmagssalik colony, with a population, in 1931, of 173 Greenlanders. Fields of pack-ice often lie around Cpe Dan, sometimes extending southward for 20 or more miles.
The name of the island, meaning "the back of a bird", indicates a place or rock ^ , ^ which resembles the back of a bird.
H.O. 75, 125 Greenland III 455
Indexer list: [: ] ^ K ^ ulusuk settlement; Cape Dan



an island covering an area of about 5 miles by 4, lies offthe coast of southern East Greenland, immediately east of the mouth of Angmagssalik Fjord. [: ] The island, the name of which a place or rock

Greenland ^ 89 ^

Kutsit (Kutseq),

a fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast north of Ingerdlarsietit Point, (60° 41′N., 42° 33′W.), whence it trends about 7 miles southwestward and thence about 12 miles west-northwestward. At the bending point Kutsit issues a small sidearm which extends about 1-1/2 miles in a south-eastern direction. The land surrounding the head ^ of the main fjord ^ is largely covered with Highland Ice. above which rise a few prominent peaks. descends into the head. The entrance of the fjord is encumbered by a number of islets.
H.O. 75, 81

Greenland ^ 700 ^

Lake Fjord or Tugtilik,

the base of the Watkins East Greenland Expedition in 1932/33, is a short fjord in the Angmagssalik District of southeastern Greenland. Its 3-mile s wide entrance lies close westward of Cape Wandel (66° 18′N., 34° 54′W.), whence Lake Fjord extends northward for about 4 miles, bifurcating at its head. The east arm, which forms a more or less square bay, leads to a 100-foot wall of ice, the front of an active glacier, which comes down the steep valleys of the hinterland. The slightly longer west arm narrows gradually and ends in a flat expanse of marshy ground through which meanders a small salmon r [: ] ver, drain– ing the lake from which the fjord takes its name. Near the river mouth is a hut, usually stored with provisions for Greenlanders, which travel up and down this coast. A monument to Watkins, who lost his life while kayaking in the east branch, stands on the southern entrance point. Mountains rise precipi– tously on both sides of the main fjord, but the vegetation, especially in the vicinity of the mentioned lake, is extremely varied, with herbfield ^ s ^ occurring at levels of 1,800 ft. or more. Seals, fish and birds, including many species of land- and seabirds, are plentiful. Ruins of five Eskimo house-sites and several tentrings have been discovered in the fjord.
Lake Fjord was visited, at the turn of the century, by Amdrup and [: ] russe, who investigated some of the flora of the fjord, but the region was little known until surveyed from the air by the British Arctic Air Route Expedition ^ , ^ in 1930/31. Watkins, the leader of this expedition, re turned here for further investigation in 1932. The object of his second expedition, ^ the ^ Watkins' East Greenland Expedition of 1932/33, was to study flying conditions for Panamerican Airways,Inc., to carry out meteorological observations and to survey the whole of the region, including the neighboring Nigertusok Fjord.

Lake Fjord cont.

meteorological observations for a period of one year, and to make a detailed survey of the vicinity, including the neighboring Nigertusok Fjord. A camp was constructed on a dry piece of land at the head of the west branch of Tugtilik, Local surveys extended over an area of 225 square miles, while meteorological work was confined to fixed time observations at the base, the hours coinciding with those of the expeditions of the Second International Polar Year (q.v.) Complete observations covered a period from September 1932 to August 1933. Highest and lowest temperatures recor ^ d ^ ed were 63° F. in September 1932, and -14.5° in January 1933. There were no gales and the direction of the wind was largely regulated by the formation of the fjord (south and north and north and south). Precipitation occurred on 147 days . ^ during the period of observation. ^ 32 days of fog were recorded from April to August and 4 days of fog from September to March.
During the winter 1932-33 Tugtilik was open during September and October, except for local brash, the fjord having remained fairly full of its own ice until July. In 1932, the lake remained open and could have been used by pontoon aircraft until October; in 1933, it was clear of ice by June 28th. The pack-ice off the coast was thought to disappear by the end of August and to re-appear in December; however there had been no opportunity to observe autumn ice conditions, since it had been the practice for ships to leave this coast in August, when the pack-ice is still prevalent.
The expedition brought back 130 species of flowering plants, including including poppies, saxifrages orchids, gentians, dwarf birch and dwarf willows, dwarf azaleas and various kinds of ferns. 50 or more varieties of insects were collected, among them many different kind of flies, one buterfly, a weevil and four species of moths. different kinds of flies.
The sojourn of the Watkins Expedition in Lake Fjord coincided with visits of members of the Einar Mikkelsen Sökongen Expedition and of the Seventh Thule expedition. Bögvad ^ a member ^ , of the latter expedition, collected a large part of 82 known species of plants in the fjord.
Guidebook 916, H.O. 75,131 MG 106,II, 7,30. Geogr.J. Vol. 135, Nr. 5, 364 ff.

Greenland ^ 210 ^

Lambert Land,

apparently an island, forms one of the subdivisions of King Frederik VIII Land in northeast Greenland. Lying roughly between lat. 79° N. and 79° 30′N. and between long. 19° W. and 22 ° W., it is bounded on the south by Zachariaes Icestream, and on the north by Nioghalvfjerds (Seventy-nine) Fjord. Westward of Lambert Land is the Inland Ice; eastward is floating sea ice; two isolated land portions at the eastern end are separated from the main portion by a narrow icefjord. The island is steep and has elevations of from 2,300 to 3,200 ft. on its northeastern side. Its land ice is heavily fractured, with crevasses often 50 to 60 ft. wide. Aside from a few ptarmigan no animal life was observed here.
Lambert Land, so named on a Dutch map of 1718, which stated that it was "opened up" in 1670, was first charted by the ill-fated Danmark Expedition, 1906-08, which established a depot at its eastern end. Close by the depot is Brönlund' Grave, the last resting place of Jörgen Brönlund, a member of the expedition, who succeeded in reaching the depot in the autumn of 1907, although he later perished. E.Mikkelsen, of the Alabama Expedition, and members of the Danish North-East Greenland Expedition, reached lambert Land by sledge in 1909 and 1939, respectively. Lauge Koch, in 1933, surveyed the region from the air.
H.O. 75, 250 MG 130, III, 79
Indexer: list Brönlund's Grave; Zachariaes Icestrem; Seventy-Nine Fjord.

Greenland ^ 80 ^


a long narrow peninsula in southern East Greenland, at lat. 63° 17′N., separates North Fjord from Tidemann and Devolds Fjords to the northward. Heimen Harbor, a small bay on its northern side, is excellent for small ships and is said to provide a desirable place for wintering. Finnsbu, on the northern side of Heimen Harbor, was the temporary radio-meteorological station of the Devold Expedition of 1931-32.Langenaes terminates in peaks about 3,600 ft. high. Off its southeastern end lies a group of islets or rocks.
H.O. 75, 94
Indexer: list Heimen Harbor; Finnsbu.

Greenland ^ 450 ^

Lindenow Fjord or Kangerdlugsuatsiak

enters the coast of southern East Greenland at lat. 60° 25′N., long. 43° 13′W., close southward of the rugged Nanusek peninsula. The fjord trends west-northwestward for about 24 miles, narrowing from a width of about 3 miles near the entrance to about 2 miles at the had. About midway, arms branch southward and northward, and on the outer, eastern side are two small bays, Peersvig the more easterly Kangerdlurujik, which offer, ice-free well-protected harbors when the fjord can be navigated.
The land surrounding the fjord is wild alpine, with some of the peaks in the interior rising to over 7,000 ft. A number of glaciers debouch on either side of the fjord. Fertile stretches occur in a wide valley near the head, and along the outer northern shore, ^ back of ^ Narsak headland, a low, fertile projection close eastward of Peersvig Bay. Narsak has Eskimo ruins, and several expeditions had winter-quarters here. The fjord is frequented by Greenlanders, who come here in summer to hunt seal,or to fish. Some cod and halibut occur in the waters, and the shark is frequent. Land-mammals include polar bears and foxes.
Depths, ice. - The greatest charted depth os 452 fathoms, off the northern fjordarm, west of Narsak. At its head Lindenow Fjord has charted depths ranging from 216 to 164 fathoms. The strong outward going urrent and frequent storms are likely to keep the fjord o ^ f ^ reem from ice, especially in its outer part. The pack-ice from the north appears off the mouth toward the end of January and slacks up in July.
Explorations. - The fjord bears the name of the Danish nobleman, Godske Lindenow, who sailed the Greenland waters with the English ^n^Navigators Cunningham and Hall between 1605 and 1612. Peter O. Walløe, the first
white man

Linedenow Fjord cont.

definitely known to have visited the region, pitched his tent on Nanusek peninsula in 1752, but more accurate information about the region and the interior of the fjord was available only after Graah (1829) and Holm and Garde (1881-84 had visited the coast. An attempt made by the Herrenhut missionary Brodbeck,in 1881, to found a mission station at Narsak, came to nought. Among more recent expeditions, which visited the fjord or wintered at Narsak were a Danish ^ hunting ^ expedition under H.C. Christensen,in 1925, the British Arctic Air-Route Expedition, 1930-31, the Heimen Expedition,1931 and the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition, 1931-33. The latter extended its researches into the ethnographical and archeological field; the Christensen expedition, which spent a year in the fjord, brought back extensive plant collections.
H.O. 75, 76 ff. Guidebook 826 Greely, Handbook 253 Greenland I.9.11.30 Greenland III, 344452 MG 106 III 11, 14,18 Grønland 601
Indexer list Nanusek Peninsula; Narsak; Kangerdlurjik Bay; Peersvig Bay.

Greenland ^ 90 ^

Little Koldewey Island,

in reality two narrow islands with a combined length of approximately 9 miles, lies off the northeast coast of Greenland, eastward of the northern end of the Great Koldewey Island. When viewed from the distance it appears like a single, ernomrous reddish rock, rising out of the sea. Cape Christian (76° 37′N., 18° 40′W.) is its southern extremity, and Cape Bornholm forms its northernmost points. Anchorage is obtained in Sonja Harbor, a small cove close westward of Cape Christian.
The island was first visited by the Danmark Expedition which built a cairn here and made measurements. During World-War II,Little Koldewey Island served temporarily as a German weather base. A patrol from the U.S.C.G. Cutter Eastwind captured its staff.
H.O. 75, 235 Nat. Geogr. Mag. Oct. 1946, p. 463 MG 41, 80.
Indexer: list Cape Christian; Cape Bornholm; Sonja Harbor.

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Liverpool Coast (Liverpool Kyst),

on the east coast of Greenland, extends from Cape Swainson (70° 26′N., 30° 45′W.) to Cape Glaöstone, about 75 miles to the northward; the stretch of coast ^ ^ forms the eastern side of Liverpool Land. From the sea the land presents a rugged,alpine appearance, with peaks rising steeply from a shore that is often inaccessible although not very, high. The best landmarks northward of Cape Swainson are: Cape Lister, sharp and high; the Parker Islands, small and clearly defined islets due east of Cape Høegh; Cape Greg, T-shaped and just northward of a large glacier; Cape Topham, a sharp point of bare rock with a peculiar stratification ^ ; ^ and finally Reynolds Island and Murray Island, both small and sharply defined, lying off Cape Gladstone.
The coast was named by William Scoresby,jr.,in 1822. (See also Scoresby Sound).
H.O. 75, 163
Indexer: list Cape Lister; Parker Islands; Cape Høegh; Cape Greg; Cape Topham; Reynolds Island; Murray Island.

Greenland ^ 400 ^

Mackenzie Bay or Myggbukta,

a bay on the southern side of Hold with Hope in northeastern Greenland, about 7 miles long and 7 miles wide, has Cape Bennet (73° 23′N., 21° 35′W.) as its southwestern entrance point. The inner bay is very shallow, and vessels can approach only as far as the small Tern [: ] sland, which lies about 1 1/2 miles from the head. A number of streams empty into this inner end, whence the broad Badland Valley extends northward through Hold with Hope to the head of Loch Fyne and northwestward to Muskox Fjord, a branchfjord of the Kaiser Franz Joseph system. The The route, which leads through this valley, is used by trappers the year round. The land here is relatively fertile and dotted with lakes and watercourses. In summer luxuriant grass, dotted with clumps of willow, grow grows along the river courses and ranunculus, saxifrage, poppies, yellow papavers and many others occur in thick patches. Foxes, hares and lemmings occur, and the musk ox grazes here, singly or in herds. Birds include falcons and snowy owls, ptarmigan, wild geese, king eider, glaucous gulls and thousands of terns and long-tailed ducks.
Myggbukta Station (73° 30′N., 21° 35′W.) a Norwegian radio and Meteorological station at the head of the bay, first established in 1922, was dismantled in 1940. Meteorological data furnished by the station during the period 1926 to 1940, indicate a mean annual temperature of 13° F.; the absolute minimum was -49.9° F. (1927); the absolute maximum was 72° F. (july 1939). The total number of days with frost average 309. There is little precipitation, most of its being in the form of snow. The prevalent winds are from the southeast in summer, and from the north in winter; the latter, at times, are so strong that large tracts in Badland Valley are swept clear of snow.

Mackenzie Bay cont.

Anchorage. - The chart indicate anchorage in Mackenzie Bay in 11 to 20 fathoms well offshore. Ice, brought in by the wind or tide, often blocks the shallow inner end, but the shore near d the radio station is said to be ice-free and always accessible to boats during the ebb. The freeze-up usually begins early in October, and the break-up comes late in May. (See also Hold with Hope.)
H.O. 75, 195 Guidebook 1050 Skrifter om Svalbard 62, p. 8 Polar Record No. 17, Jan. 1929, p. 27
Indexer: list Cape Bennet; Badland Valley; Myggbukta Station; Tern Island.

Greenland ^ 200 ^

Miki Fjord,

in southern East Greenland, enters the coast about 6 miles w ^ e ^ astward of Cape Hammer (68° 06′N., 31° 25′W.), the eastern entrance point of the large Kangerdlugssuak Fjord. Miki ^ The ^ F ^ f ^ jord, which is approximately 9 miles long and 1 mile broad, trends northwestward and then sharply eastward. The western and northern shores are ice-free and gently sloping, while the southern side is steep and studded with glacie local glaciers. Depths in the fjord are generally great, but anchorage ^ , ^ in lo fathoms or more ^ , ^ more is available near the bending point of the fjord and close to the head,
Both the Mikkelsen Søkongen Expedition (1932) and the Anglo-Danish East Greenland Expedition (1935) carried out extensive observations in the fjord. Mikkelsen called it the most friendly fjord which he had seen along this coast. Animal and bird-life as well as vegetation were found to be comparatively rich in the vicinity. A rather large Eskimo settlement, very old and entirely in ruins with a number of graves, meat depots and fox traps, yielded a rich collections of archaeological objects. The ruins are believed [: ] to date back to about 1400-1500.
H.O. ^ 75 ^ 14 [: ] , MG 104, 10 Geogr. Journ. , ^ M ^ ay 1933 ^ , ^ p. 394

Greenland ^ 130 ^

Mogens Heinesen Fjord (Kangerdlugsuattsiak) ^ , ^

a 23-mile indentation in the coast of southern East Greenland, has its southern entrance point at lat. 62° 17′N., long. 42° 12′W, about 14 miles due east from the northern tip of the large Ikermiut Island. The fjord, which has an average width of about 3 miles, trends northeastward to a head encircled by some lofty and snow-free mountains, rising considerably above the ice-clad country around-them. Kasingortok, a snow-free pre ^ c ^ ipitous point close off the northern entrance of the fjord, was found by Graah (1829) to be alive with sea-birds, in flocks of thousands, which had built their nests about it. Holm, who investigated the fjord in 1884, found some Eskimo house-ruins and graves on the northern side of the inner fjord.
The fjord was named after the well known adventurer Magnus Heinesen, whose offer,in 1581, to search for Greenland " at his own cost and risk" was [: ] accepted by King Frederic II. of Denmark and Norway. Heinesen saw the East Coast ^ , ^ but did not land. H.O. 75, 87 Graah, Voyage to Greenland, 82 Guidebook 844 Greenland, I. 7 Indexer: list Ikermiut Island

Greenland ^ 140 ^

Cape Moltke

(63° 30′N., 40° 48′W.) ^ , ^ a cape on the coast of southern East Greenland, about 21 miles north-northeast of Cape Juel, has reddish– brown cliffs ^ which ^ slope upward to about 1,500 ft. On the southwestern side of the cape is a small, well-protected and ice-free motorboat harbor and on its northwestern side is a ship harbor, the entrance to which resembles that of a fjord; the harbor is thought to be safe. The coast to the north-northeastward is fringed by a number of islets, among them the low Kemisak Islet ^ , ^ described by Graah as one of the prettiest and most fertile spots on the coast. The neighboring Sagiarusek Island has Eskimo ruins. The Sixth Thule Expedition,1931, considered this an excellent hunting and fishing locality.
The cape was named by Graah after Count Moltke of Bregentved.
H.O. 75, 97 Graah, Voyage to Greenland, 89
Indexer: list Kemisak Islet; Sagiarusek Island.

Greenland ^ 120 ^

Nansen Fjord,

about 16 miles long and from 8 to 10 miles wide, indents the coast of southern East Greenland between the southeastern tip of Sökongen Island and Cape Nansen (68° 13′N., 29° 26′W.), to the east-northwastward. The fjord trends northwestward to a broad head into which flows the great Christian IV Glacier. (This glacier, which is about 120 miles long and about 11 to 13 miles wide, is a valley glacier and not part of the ice cap. The Courtauld-Wager Expedition [: ] crossed it on their way to Mt. Gunnbjorn ^ , ^ which they ascended on August 16, 1935.) Small local glaciers discharge along the eastern shore of Nansen Fjord. Cape Nansen, at the mouth of the fjord, rises steeply to 2,000 ft. and forms a good landmark. The fjord can be entered freely on a general mid-channel course.
H.O. 75, 144 Polar Record No.11. Jan. 1936 p.35
Indexer: list Christian IV Glacier; Cape Nansen.

Greenland ^ 70 ^

Napasorsuak Fjord (Kangerdlugsuatsiak)

a 20-mile indentation in the coast of southern East Greenland, is entered at lat. 61° 45′N., long. 42° 10′W. close southward of Cape Rantzau. The fjord curves in a northerly and northwesterly direction to a narrow inner end. At times the ice becomes closely packed under Cape Rantzau.
The name Napasorsuak, meaning"the great upright", indicates that the shore of the fjord rise sheer from the sea.
H.O. 75, 85 Greenland III, 453
Indexer: list Cape Rantzau

Greenland ^ 80 ^

Nathorst Fjord

enters the east coast of Greenland between the northern extremity of Canning Land (71° 45′N., 22° 12′W.) and Cape Brown, about 5 miles to the northwestward. The fjord, which extends over 16 miles in a southwesterly direction, widens in its inner part, where lies the small flat Depot Island. According to Lauge Koch, a sledge route leads from the head to the neighboring Carlsberg Fjord. Three hunting huts are located inside Nathorst Fjord. The western shores are steep, the mountains here rising terrace-like to heights of over 3,000 ft.
H.O. ^ 75 ^ 167
Indexer: list Canning Land; Cape Biot; Depot Island.

Greenland ^ 110 ^

Norske Islands,

consisting of one large and two small islands, offlie the northeast coast of Greenland in about lat. 79° 12′N. long. 17° 50′W., eastward of the southern end of Lambert Land. The main island rises to about 1,640 ft.; its north-eastern part is a flat coastal plain.Much of the land is covered with snow and the vegetation is poor. Fog seems to be a frequent phenomenon during the greater part of the summer.
Ice. - Lauge Koch, who flew to Norske Islands in the late summer of 1933, states that the land ice formed a peninsula between Norske Islands and Hovgaards Island, more than 60 miles to the northward, leaving only the northernmost point of Hovgaard free of ice; however, a broad lead extended northwestward through the area.
H.O. 75, 249 MG 130, III,79


Cape Nordenskiøld

(66° 08′N., 35° 34′W.), in southern East Greenland, is the eastern extremity of the mainland peninsula which forms the western side of Ode Sound. The latter, which extends about 7 miles north-northwestward to [: ] West Fjord, a branch of Kangerdlugsuatsiak, separates the peninsula from Stor (Great) Island to the eastward. According to Holm (1884) a small cove on the southern side of Stor Island would make a good harbor.
H.O. 75, 129 Guidebook 909
Indexer list: Stor Island; Ode Fjord; West Fjord o ^ ( ^ Kangerdlugsuatsiak)

Greenland ^ 120 ^

North (Nord) Fjord,

a channel on the northeastern side of Skjoldungen Island, off the coast of southern East Greenland, separates that island from the peninsula Langenaes to the northward. Cape Juel (63° 12′N., 41° 05′W.) forms its southern entrance point. The northwestern continuation of the fjord was named Botn (Bottom) Fjord by the Heimen Expedition, in 1931. A local glacier reaches the head of Botn Fjord, which is surrounded by steep mountains. Along the shores are stretches of very dense vegetation, especially near Eskimonaesset, the site of some old house ruins. This locality, which is also called Ruinnaes, is on the northern side of the channel and was an important working place of the Sixth and seventh Thule Expeditions, 1931-33.
H.O. 75, 94 MG 106, III, 37
Indexer: list Eskimonaesset; Botn Fjord.

Greenland ^ 210 ^

Oyfjord (Kanusek),

a 9-mile fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast close northward of Lindenow Fjord, at about lat. 60° 30′N. The fjord trends northwestward to a narrow head, but widens in its inner parts, where a large arm or bay extends northward from its northern shore. Torgilsbu, at one time the site of a Nor v ^ w ^ egian radio-meteorological station, is at the head of this bay. The middle of Oyfjord is occupied by the elongated, razor-backed Nanusek island, over 2,100 ft. high.
Bare-jagged peaks, fronted by a narrow, gravel-covered foreshore ^ , ^ are characteristic for the land surrounding the fjord, but some fertile stretches occur on its southern side and in a valley leading northward from Torgilsbu. Depths within the fjord are great except near the entrance, but tempe– ratures of the waters are so low that the occurrence of food fish is excluded. Air temperatures here are relatively moderate however , the Torgilsbu station reporting a mean of about 35° F. between 1932-1940. The fjord is open from late in July to some time in December. Anchorage in 19 fathoms may be obtained off Torgilsbu, and in two small bays on the southern side of the fjord: at Mannes Havn, close to the mouth, and at Sandbuktu, about 6 miles within the entrance. Accord– int to reports of the Seventh Thule Expedition Oyfjord is suitable for the landing and taking off of (pontoon) aircraft.
H.O. 75, 79 ff Guidebook 828 MG 106, 102 ff.
Indexer: list Torgilsbu; Nanusek Island; Sandbuktu; Mannes Havn

Greenland ^ 48 ^

Patursok (Patussoq),

a narrow, 14-mile fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast at about lat. 60° 44 ! N., immediately north of Kutsit Fjord. The trend is northwestward. The surrounding land is covered by glaciers that reach down to the sea; here and there a black peak shows above the ice.
H.O. 75, 82

Greenland ^ 480 ^

Pendulum Islands,

two-medium sized islands, named Sabine and Little Pendulum Islands , offlie the East Coast of Greenland close northward of lat. 74° 30′N. Sabine Island , the larger and westernmost of the two, is bounded on the west by Cla [: ] ering Strait, which separates it from Wollaston Foreland. Between Sabine and Little P [: ] dulum Island extends Pendulum Strait.
The islands, which almost entirely of volcanic origin, convey an impression of barrenness and desolation. Neither is very high. Mount Keferstein, on Sabine Island , rises to about 2,300 ft; Crown Mountain, a conspicuous, cone-shaped peak to the southwestward, and Hare Mountains, to the southward, attain elevations of about 1,800 ft. Stretches of low and occasionally marshy foreshore occur on the southern and western coasts, off Clavering Strait. Fair anchorage is obtained almost anywhere in the vicinity of the southern shore, the main harbors here, from east to west, being Germania Harbor, Griper Roadstead and Heimland Harbor. ^ (For positions see Clavering Strait) ^ Germania Harbor is a ^ Danish ^ trapper station, and huts stocked with provisions are located here. Hansa Harbor, a rather large indentation on the northeast coast, has a hunting hut on its eastern entrance point, south of which excellent anchorage is reported (1943) in depth of 11 fathoms.
Little Pendulum Island , which lies to the northeastward of Sabine Island, is easily identified because of its distinctive appearance. It rises steeply from the sea on all sides, attaining its greatest height in the center, where Mount Sonnenkopf rises to about 2,000 ft. Bass Rock, a low, triangular-shaped island, lies off its northeastern end. Two ^ Danish ^ hunting huts are located on the island, one near its north point, and the other near its southern extremity. Anchorage in about 4 fathoms was obtained by the German Arctic Expedition and by the 1926 Cambridge Expedition close southward of Cape Stufenberg, the island's southwestern extremity.
Explorations. - Sabine Island was originally named Inner Pendulum Island by

Pendulum Islands, cont.

Clavering, in 1823, and renamed by the German Arctic Expedition, in 1870. Captain Sabine, a member of Clavering's Expedition, conducted pendulum experiments, probably on the west side of Germania harbor - experiments which were repeated by the German Arctic Expedition during the winter of 1869-70. ^Corrective topographic surveys were made by the Danmark Expedition, 1906-08,and^ A ^ a ^ third set of pendulum experiments were carried out by the 1926 Cambridge Expedition, which also carried out surveys and geologi l cal and archeological investigations. An astronomical determination of Sabine Island, made by the Norwegian Svalbard Expedition in 1931, indicated a westward movement of at least 820 ft. in comparison with position data furnished by Clavering and the Germans.
During World-War II Sabine Island served as a weather station to the U.S. Army Airforce, after a secret German station here had been eliminated here ^by U.S. AAF planes.^
H.O. 75, 208 ff. Guidebook 1090 Geogr. J. Sept. 1927, p. 225 ff. Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland. MG 92, Nr. 6 p 1. Nat. [: ] ogr. Mag. October 1946,472. Indexer: list Sabine Island; Little Pendulum Island; Pendulum Strait; Mouny Keferstein; Crown Mountain; Hare Mountains; Germania Harbor; Griper Roadstead; Heimland Harbor; Hansa Bay; Mount Sonnenkopf; Bass Rock; Cape Stufenberg

Greenland ^ 300 ^


a large, triangular-shaped bay in southern East Greenland, is formed by a sharp recession in the coast between Gerner Island (64° 20′N., 40° 12′W.) and Akitsek, a small island, about 42 miles north-northwestward. The bay trends northwestward for about 50 miles and in its inner part is called KJOGE Bay or Pikiutdlip-ikera.
Fronting Pikiutdlek's long ^ slightly ^ irregular southwestern shore is a narrow, winding Island, nearly 40 miles long, which has Cape Löwenörn (Kangek) at its southern end. The island is snow-covered, with some of its nunataks rising to 3,500 ft. A channel to the westward is called Katertak. West of the channel the ice-covered mainland rises to heights of nearly 4,000 ft. Altitudes to the northward and northeastward of the bay are relatively moderate. Inland Ice covers most of the shores of Kjöge Bay in the northwest, while the northeastern shore is partly ice-free. Here a number of low promontories are separated by fjords or bays, among which are the centrally located Uvkusigssaqarfik Fjord and Comanche Bay (q.v.) to the eastward. A number of ice-free islands lie off this stretch of coast; Römer Island, the largest of the group, rises to about 1,000 ft. K. Rasmussen was informed in 1931 that about 31 natives were living in the Pikiutdlek area.
Charts of the bay were largely inaccurate until the British Arctic Air Route Expedition surveyed the area in 1930-31. Additional material for maps was supplied by Danish and Norwegian expeditions and by the U.S. Army Air Forces, which had a beachhead station inside Comanche Bay during World-War II.
H.O. 75, 101 ff. AAF Aer. Ch (85) 1945
Indexer: list Gerner Island; Akitsek; Cape Löwenörn; Uvkusigssaqarfik; Römer Island; Kjöge Bay (Pikiutdlip-ikera).

Greenland ^ 120 ^

Puiagtok (Auarkat),

a narrow fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast immediately north of the small Taterat Peninsula, at about lat. 61° 15′N., whence it trends west-northwestward for about 17 miles. A short branch, where anchorage is obtained, extends from the southern side, west of Taterat. On the northern shore, close to the mouth, is the old Auarkat settlement, near a deep fertile valley. Fertile stretches also occur on Taterat; a large, vault-like grotto here has a remarkable echo.
Graah, who first investigated the fjord in 1929, found about 20 Eskimos living on Taterat, all good-looking and some distinctly European in type. An old whaler gun, stranded in the interior of the fjord was re-discovered by ^ g. ^ Holm, in 1884, and late transferred to Julianehaab by members of the Seventh Thule Expedition.
H.O. 75, 84 Graah, Voyage to Greenland 74 Guidebook 837 MG 106, 97
Indexer: list Taterat; Auarkat settlement

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Puisortok (Puissortoq) (" the diving-up place"),

a large glacier on the coast of southern East Greenland, with a 3-mile frontage on the sea, lies close southward of Cape Billé (62° 01′N., 42° 03′W.) [: ] ^ ^ Puisortok is described by Graah (1829) as rising perpendicularly from the sea for about 600 ft., at which elevation it strikes off at an angle of about 30° to the inland ice which covers the high land farther back. Because of its frequent calvings the glacier is considered dangerous. Cape Bille^é^, named by Graah after Admiral Steen Billė, is a yellowish, rocky projection, beyond which the coast [: ] recedes westward for a distance of about 7 miles. The name of the glacier, Puisortok, means "the diving-up place", that is where the masses of ice, which have fallen out and shoot out on the glacier emerge like a marine animal. (Ostermann).
H.O. 75, 86 Graah, Voyage to Greenland,80. Greenland III. 454
Indexer: list Cape Bille^é^

Greenland ^ 1120 ^

Scoresby Sound,

one of Greenland's mightiest fjord systems, with branches that cut inland for 175 to 185 miles, is entered on the East Coast, between Cape [: ] rewster (70° 09′N., 22° 03′W.), and Cape Swainson, about 20 miles to the north-northeastward. The outer sound, or Scoresby Sound proper, trends west-northwestward for about 70 miles, maintaining a width of about 23 miles; it issues only one arm, the narrow Hurry Inlet, which leads from the northern side, close within the entrance. Farther inland, Scoresby Sound bifurcates. One large fork extends west-southwestward for about 29 miles, where Gaase and Föhn fjords branch off to the southwestward and westward, respectively; Röde and West fjords lead from Föhn Fjord. The other fork, called Hall Inlet, which has a breadth of about 25 miles, extends about 45 miles northwest– ward, issuing ö Fjord and Northwest Fjord. ö Fjord, the more southerly of the two arms, connects with Röde Fjord.
The wide western end of the Scoresby Sound complex consists of a number of large and small islands, as well as peninsulas, separated by sounds and narrow channels. Almost in its middle is Milne Land, a large, glacier-covered island, rising to over 6,200 ft. Off its southern shore lies the small Danmark Island, where Ryder anchored in 1891-92 (Hekla Harbor.) Gaase Land, a large tongue of land bounded by Gaase and Föhn fjords, projects to the southward of Milne Land, while Renland, an island-like peninsula, occupies most of the north– western portion of inner Scoresby Sound. The mainland coast, too, is divided into a number of "lands," of which Scoresby Land extends along the sounds innermost northern shore, with Jameson Land and Liverpool Land lying to the eastward; Knu [: ] Rasmussen Land forms the southern shore of Scoresby Sound.
Many glaciers debouch in the interior, the greater part of the country consisting of glacier-covered uplands, from which rise peaks up to 6,500 ft. high. Only Jameson Land is ice-free; the coast here is low and undulating

Scoresby Sound cont.

and indented by numerous short rivers which form deep chasms often roofed with ice. Elsewhere the shores are for the most part steep and inaccessible. In the whole inner part of Scoresby Sound and on the outer coast of Liverpool Land the rock is mainly gneiss. On Jameson Land Rhaetic plant beds are abundant; on top of these are layers of sandstone containing animal fossils of the Jurassic. Basaltic rock predominates on the southern shore. of Scoresby Sound.
Depths within the fjord are great; the least charted depth within the entrance is 65 fathoms, and to the southward the depths increase rapidly. Within the sound there is a least fairway depth of 38 fathoms. Currents in the interior seem to be both surface and subsurface; floating bodies of little draft are carried along with the tidal current, while those which draw several fathoms appear little ^ , ^ if at all ^ , ^ affected . Vessels may obtain anchorage in several places, the best being Scoresby Sound Anchorage (70° 28′N., 21° 58′W.) in Rosenvinges Bay, on the north side of the sound. The fjord can be navigated ^ for ^ 4 to 6 weeks from the end of July, but even then it is necessary to keep constant watch for drift ice, as the many calving glaciers in the Scoresby Sound region, combined with the winter ice, put great obstacles in the way of navigation.
The climate in Scoresby Sound is relatively favorable. At the colony during the period 1925-31 ^ , ^ monthly mean temperatures were lowest in January (3.4° F.) and highest in July (40.1° F.); in 1937 the absolute minimum was -32.8° F., (Febr) and the absolute maximum 59° F. (July). In the winter months the prevalent wind direction is northerly along the outer coast, often reaching a high velocity. In the inner regions warm föhn winds, descending from the In al ^ la ^ nd Ice, are frequent ^ , ^ both summer and winter. Precipitation is slight, but fog is frequent on the outer coast.
The vegetation is fairly rich. Large areas are covered with heather and grass, and the scrub willow is found everywhere; in summer there is a wealth of flowers.

Scoresby Sound cont.

Marine animal life is abundant and includes various seal and whale types. Among land mammals are polar bears, musk oxen, reindeer, wolves, foxes,hares,lemmings and ermines. Fowling cliffs are found on the islands and on the Liverpool Coast. The land seems to have been fairly well settled in former days, and is rich in ruins and relics of former E k ^ s ^ kimo habitations.
History. - Scoresby Sound was presumably discovered by the Icelanders toward the end of the 12th century, and may have continued to be known until the 14th century.; the old name Ollumlengri, which occurs in Ivar Bararson's account of Greenland (mid 14th century) connotes a fjord longer than all other fjords and seems applicable only to Scoresby Sound, the longest fjord in the world. Some 17th and 18th century maps also indicate a certain knowledge of the coast,but no landings have been recorded during that period. In 1781, the Danish Whaler Volquard Bohn drifted into Scoresby Sound, thinking it a strait. The sketch he drew of the outer coast was, however, not included in later maps. Consequently William Scoresby,jr., who partially explored the sound in 1822, was credited with its discovery, and was, so far as is known, the first European to have set foot on this shore. Scoresby named the fjord after his father, William Scoresby, sr., whose ship, the Fame , accompanied the son's vessel during part of the trip. The inner fjord b a ^ r ^ anches were first investigated by Ryder's Hekla Expedition, 1891-92, which wintered on Danmark Island. The outer part of the fjord was explored by the Nathorst Antarctic Expedition, 1899, and by the Carlsberg East Greenland Expedition, 1900, under Hartz. In 1924, E, Mikkelsen laid the foundation of a colony in Rosenvinges Bay near the sound's northern entrance, and the following year eighty-five Greenlanders were transferred from Angmagssalik to Scoresby Sound settlement with all their possessions. In 1926 Lauge Koch used the settlement as a base for his geological exploration of the coast between Scoresby Sound and Danmark Harbor on Germania Land, and between 1927-29, Alwin Pedersen, Mikkelsen's companion in 1924, made valuable observations of the fauna of the region. Between 1925-36,Charcot

Scoresby Sound cont.

repeatedly visited the sound for biological, physical and oceanographic work, his ship, the Pourquoi-Pas also carrying the Cambridge East Greenland Expedition to Scoresby Sound in 1933. Other expeditions, which have called here , include a number of ^ Danish ^ ship and airplane expeditions ^ under ^ Lauge Koch ^ , ^ between 1926 and 1938 , the Wegener Expedition, 1930-31, the Louise Boyd Veslekari Expeditions, 1931 and 33, the Mikkelsen Sökongen Expedition and the Seventh Thule Expedition, in 1932 and 1933 ^ , ^ respectively. The Wegener Expedition had two observation stations in Scoresby Sound, and during the Second International Polar Year (1932) meteorological observations were carried out ^ here ^ by French and Danish Expeditions.
(For discussions of the movement of the pack ice off the entrance of Scoresby Sound see East Greenland Current and Storis.)
H.O. 75, 153 Guidebook 957, 963 Geogr. Journ. May 1933, Mar 1935 Greenland I. 32, 40. S [: ] monsen's Konversations Leksikon (1926) XXI, 146 MG Nr. 56, Lysstreif over Noregssveldets Historie, Oslo 1944. A.Pedersen, Der Scoresby Sund 24 Breiffuss, Die Arktis 175
Indexer: list Cape Brewster; Cape Swainson; Hurry Inlet; Rosenvinges Bay; Gaase Fjord; Gaase Land; Föhn Fjord; Röde Fjord; West Fjord; Northwest Fjord; Hall Inlet; Milne Land; Renland; Jameson Land; Scoresby Land; Liverpool Land; Knud Rasmussen Land; Danmark Island.

Greenland ^ 320 ^

Scoresby Sound Colony

(70° 29′N., 21° 58′W.), the northernmost permanent settlement on the east coast of Greenland, lies on the north side of Scoresby Sound, in a small bight on the eastern side of Rosenvinges Bay. Founded in 1924, by Einar Mikkelsen with means provided by the Scoresby Sound Committee, a private Danish committee, the colony, from small beginnings,developed into East Greenland's second largest settlement, with a population, in 1944, of 240 Greenlanders. The latter live divided between the colony and three small outposts, Cape Tobin (Unarteq), Cape Hope (Igterajivit), and Cape Stewart (Ivssorigseq). The buildings consist of a church with a steeple, administrative buildings, storehouses, coal- and worksheds, a store and a number of dwellings. There is a small landing pier which may be used by small boats. A wire– less station, erected in 1927, is open for public communications. Some coal is mined in the vicinity of Cape Hope, and warm springs occur near Cape Tobin. The natives are engaged in fishing and hunting, and there is an abundant supply of seal, walrus, narwhal, etc. in the waters off Scoresby Sound, and of land-game on the shores. Trade-in-production ^ figures ^ for 1944-45 ^ , ^ after deductions for local consumption ^ , ^ were as follows: sharks liver 300 kg; bearskins 18; blue fox skins 47; white for skins 157; sealskins 130. A Danish government ship calls once a year. During world war II the population was supplied by the U.S. Armed Forces which maintained a weather station and airbase in Scoresby Sound.
Anchorages: Scoresby Sound Anchorage, said to be the best in Scoresby Sound, is in a small bight immediately off the settlement. When icefree, it provides excellent shelter, and there is a convenient watering stream nearby. Depths, on the anchor range, are about 14 to 16 fathoms 600 yards from the front range mark. The 5-fathom curve lies from 50 to 175 yards offshore.
There is also an ^ ^ anchorage range on the western side of the settlement bight, which is marked by a beacon composed of an inverted yellow triangle set on a post about

Scoresby Sound Colony cont .

10 ft. high.
Rosenvinges Bay, through which the settlement bight is approached, is too shallow for icebergs to enter ^ , ^ but pack-ice drifts in from Scoresby Sound. The bay is usually open for navigation from July to September.
H.O. 75, 157 ff.
Indxer list: Rosenvinges Bay; Scoresby Sound Anchorage; Amdrups Harbor; Cape Tobin (Unarteq); Cape Hope (Igterajivit); Cape Stewart (Ivssorigseq).

Greenland ^ 40 ^

Schweizer Land

is the name sometimes given to the Mt. Forel region north of Angmagssalik District in southern East [: ] reenland. The area extends approximately from [: ] at. 66° 05′N. to 67° N. and from L ^ l ^ ong. 35° 30 W. to 38° W. and attains elevations of over 11,000 ft. (See under Mt. Forel).

Greenland ^ 220 ^


a fjord in the Angmagssalik District of southern East Greenland, is approached between the southern extremity of Qianarteq Island (65° 38′N., 360 38′W.) and Erik the Red Island, about 9 miles to the eastward. A number of islets lie off its entrance. The fjord, which narrows to about 4 miles in its interior, extends about 11 miles northward where it branches. One arm extends westward for about 3 miles to a glacier at its head; the other arm trends northeastward about the same distance to Knud Rasmussen glacier. Only the inner portion of Sermiligak indents the mainland; the outer eastern shore is formed by a chain of islands of which Leif Island and the more southerly Erik the Red Island are the largest. Qianarteq, which flanks the outer western side of Sermiligak, is separated from the mainland to the northward by Ikateq sound, which leads southwestward to Ikerasak, a channel opening out on Angmagssalik Fjord. Altitudes close to the head of Sermiligak are over 4,900 ft.; about 10 miles farther inland some peaks in the heavily glaciated area attain elevations of nearly 6,000 ft. The Seventh Thule Expedition (193 ^ 2 ^ -33) reported scattered fell vegetation near the out ^ of ^ shores of the fjord. Some valleys farther northward, in the wild mountainous tracts of land between Sermiligak and Angmagssalik fjords, are rich in vege ^ t ^ ation which includes willow, crowberries
H.O. 75, 127 MG 106, Nr. 2 p. 30 Guidebook ^ and blueberries. ^ 906
Indexer: list: Qiarnateq Island; Leif Island (Sermiligak); Erik the Red Island (Sermiligak).

Greenland ^ 380 ^

Shannon Island,

about 26 miles long, north and south, and about 26 miles wide at its broadest, offlies the southeastern end of Hochstetter Foreland in northeast Greenland. Cape ^ ^ Philippe Broke (74° 56′N., 17° 35′W.) is its southeast point, and Cape David Gray, its southern extremity. The wide Shannon Sound extends betwee between its western side and the mainland to the eastward; the southern shore is bounded by Hochstetter Bay.
Shannon Island, which is of volcanic formation, attains a maximum height of about 1,000 ft. in Meyerstein Mountain, near its northeastern end; the major portion, however,is only a few feet above sea level, and the lowlands, when not covered with snow, consist mostly of muddy swamp. The irregular coastline is indented on its southern side by Freeden Bay, on its eastern side by a large indentation from which lead Frosne Bay and Nordenskiöld Bay, and on its northern side by Sengstacke Bay. Two level areas, close eastward of the Tellplatte, a low range in the vicinity of Cape David Gray, are reported to be excellent natural landing fields for planes. Three Danish hunting huts are located on the island.
Shannon Island was first approached by Clavering, in 1823 who made a landing on its northern shore, and partially approach explored by the Second German Arctic Expedition, 1869-70, which named several of its prominent points and bays. The Danmark Expedition, 1906-08, carried out some initial archeological research, as the island abounds in traces of former Eskimo occupation . Mikkelsen's Alabama expedition, 1909-12, had a three years' base ^ in Alabama Cove, ^ inside Norde sn ^ ns ^ skiöld Bay; the Alabama sank in the harbor in the spring of 1910, as a result of damage suffered the preceding August when she had been caught in the ice pack east of Shannon. Other, more recent expeditions to the area include the Danish Three Year Expedition, 1931-34 which had a temporary base on Hochstetter Foreland. The program of the

Shannon Island cont.

expedition, apart from cartographical work, included extensive botanical and archeological research.
During World-War II [: ] U.S. Coast Guard and Infantry troops eliminated a German-held position here.
(For ice conditions see Hochstetter Bay.)
H.O. 75, 220. Boyd, The fjord region of East Greenland MG 44, 177 Nat. [: ] eogr. Mag. Oct. 1946 pp. 459 472 Second German Arctic Expedition, vol.II p. 326
Indexer: list Shannon Sound; Cape Philipe Broke; Cape David Gray; Freeden Bay; Frosne Bay; Nordenskiöld Bay; Sengstacke Bay; Meyerstein Mountain; Tellsplatte; Alabama Cove.

Greenland ^ 130 ^


an island about 32 miles long, southeast and northwest, lies off the coast of southern East Greenland, flanked on the southwest by South Fjord and on the northeast by North Fjord. Actually only the island's eastern end faces the sea proper. Here , at sk^j^oldungen's southeastern extremity, rises Cape Juel (63° 12′N., 41° 05′W.) rises to over 1,700 ft., slanting to seaward to an elevation of about 120 ft. A wide cleft near the tip gives the cape the shape of a V, with arms opening outward. The island affords anchorage in North Bay, a large well-protected harbor on the island's southern side. A small glacier near the head of the bay appears to have a slow discharge of small chunks. U.S. Army personnel, maintained at Skoldungen during World War II reported a snowfall of 50 ft. during the winter 1944-45. (See also South Fjord or Inugsuarmiut ^ and north fjords ^ .)
H.O. 75, 93 Nat. Geogr. Mag. May 1946, p. 483 (Brown, A. H. "Americans stand guard in Greenland.")
Indexer: list Cape Juel

Greenland ^ 150 ^

Sofia Sound,

a 30-mile passage in the King Oscar Archipelago of northeastern Greenland, extends west-southwestward between Geographical Society Island and Ymers Island, connecting Foster Bay on the east with King Oscars Fjord and Antarctic Sound on the west. The eastern entrance, which is about 4 miles wide, is encumbered by the low Robertson Island, and of the two channels thus formed only the northern one is navigable. Sheltered anchorage in depth of about 30 fathoms is obtained at Sofia Sound Anchorage, about 2 miles west of the island. Cape Humboldt (73° 06′N., 23° W.), the northern entrance point of Sofia Sound at its eastern end, is a conspicuous, eastward facing basalt rock which rises sheer from the sea. One of the best ^ Norwegian ^ hunting stations is found about 1/2 mile north of this cape; anchorage in 32 fathoms is available off the station. (See also Ymers Island).
H.O. 75, 180
Indexer list: Geographical Society Island, Robertson Island, Cape Humboldt; Sofia Sound Anchorage.

Greenland ^ 440 ^

South (Sör) Fjord or Inugsuarmiut

enters the coast of southern East Greenland between Kutsigsormiut promontory (63° 08′N., 41° 12′W.), and Cape Juel, about 7 miles northeastward, whence it extends northwestward for about 34 miles. The northern shore is formed by the elongated Sk ^ j ^ oldungen Island ^ , ^ the southern side by the mainland proper. The innermost fjord, which narrows to about 1 mile, issues a branch, the small Ida Fjord, which leads northeastward to North Fjord, a channel on the northern side of Sk ^ j ^ oldungen.
The peaks surrounding the head of South Fjord are steep and high ^ , ^ with Dunderbreen ^ , ^ (The Thundering Glacier) ^ , ^ sending huge masses of ice down a ravine on the southern side of the head. To the northestward the inland ice retreats suffi– ciently to give way to a broad and luxuriant valley, Queen Marie Valley (Dronning Marie Dal), so named by Graah, in 1829. The valley is noted for its vegetation which inc ^ [: ] ^ udes willow, dwarf birch, angelica and several kinds of berry-pearing plants; a river here, flanked by grass-covered banks, abounds in salmon. To the northward stands a Nor [: ] egian trappers hut which ^ , ^ in 1941 ^ , ^ was occupied by a Greenlander family.
Anchorage within South Fjord is available in three places: in North Bay, on the northern side, about 7 miles within the entrance; at Caroline Amalie Harbor, a small bay on the southern side of the fjord, about 6 miles within the entrance, and in a cove off Queen Marie Valley. North Bay, which opens into a broad basin with two coves at its head, is a well-protected ship harbor, accessible as a refuge for vessels sailing Denmark Strait. Vogt of the Heimen ^ Heimen ^ Expedition (1931) describes both South and North Fjord as deep and clean, and says that even the largest ships could go through them and find good, safe harbors. A continuous series of soundings taken around Sk ^ [: ] ^ oldungen show a depth of at least 26 fathoms in Ida Fjord, the connecting channel; the depths increase on either side, toward South and North Fjord. End of October the U. S. C. G. C. Northland found North Bay

South Fjord cont.

open and free from bergs, winter, as well as young ice; inside South Fjord were some medium-sized icebergs.
Since the days of Graah and Holm, who first investigated the region,many expeditions have called at the fjord, among them the British Arctic Air Route Expedition, the Heimen Expedition, Iversen's Polarbjørn Expedition and the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition. The latter, which carried out carried out surveys and magnetic measurements in the fjord, also investigated its flora and fauna, and in addition, made excavations both in South Fjord and in the more northerly North Fjord. The Heimen ^ Heimen ^ Expedition brought back plant collections from the region.
According to Graah, Rasmussen and others, South Fjord or Inugsuarmiut (" they of the populous place") was much visited, at one time, by the Greenlanders, who came here to, hunt salmon and lay in a stock of berries for winter use. It is little frequented by the Greenlanders of to-day. (See also Sk ^ j ^ oldungen Fjord; North Fjord.)
H.O. 75, 91 Greenland III, 453 Graah, Voyage to Greenland, 107 ff. Guidebook 852 MG 106, III, 34 ff.
Indexer: list Ida Fjord; Queen Marie Valley; Caroline Amalie Harbor; North Nay; Dunderbreen.

Greenland ^ 180 ^

Tidemann Fjord

in southern East Greenland, is entered between the tip of Lang ^ e ^ naes peninsula (63° 17′N., 41° 08′W.) and Imaersivik Island to the northeast . About 10 miles from the entrance the fjord bifurcates to form Devold and Troll Fjords. Devold Fjord, sometimes called Lang ^ e ^ naes Fjord, extends northwestward for about 9 miles and then forms two short arms, of which the more northerly terminates in an inner basin, off a small fertile valley; the basin provides a well-protected harbor, suitable even for larger ships . On the south side of Devold Fjord, close to its entrance, is Heimen Harbor, a small bay, excellent for small craft and a desirable place for wintering.
(Insert:) o ^ O ^ n the harbor's northern side was the temporary radio-meteoro– logical station Finnsbu of the Devold expedition of 1931-32.
Troll Fjord, the more easterly branch of Tidemann Fjord, extends about 11 miles north– northwestward to several glaciers at its head. The shores of both Troll and Devold Fjords are steep, with altitudes rising to 3,600 ft.
H.O. 75, 95
Indexer: list Troll Fjord; Devold Fjord; Heimen Harbor.; Finnsbu. (Insert:) o ^ O ^ n the harbor's northern side was the temporary radio-meteoro– logical station Finnsbu of the Devold expedition of 1931-32.

Greenland ^ 290 ^


a fjord in southern East Greenland, enters the coast between the islands Uvdlorsiutit and Ausivit, at about Lat. 62° 35′N., Long. 42° 12′W., whence it cuts inland in a northwesterly direction for about 27 miles. The wide outer part has three ramifications on its northern side, named,in turn, East, Johan Kjaer, and West Fjords. Close off and parallel to the relatively straight southern shore lies the long, narrow Takisok Island, fringed on the southeast by a number of islets. West of Takis s ok the fjord narrows to 2 or 3 miles, and is often blocked by large icebergs which are discharged from glaciers in the interior. The inner shores are bounded by a grandiose A ^ a ^ lpine landscape, with peaks rising to over 4,000 ft.
The Tingmiarmiut region, which inludes the large Tingmiarmiut Island in the northern approaches of the fjord, was first investigated by ^ of ^ Holm, in 1884, and has since been explored by a number of expeditions, among them the British Arctic Air Route Expedition (1930/31), the Heimen Expedition (1931), and the Sixth and Seventh Thule Expedition (1931/33). Holm described Takisok Island as a pleasant place, [: over ] grown with heather and grass. The Heimen ^ Heimen ^ Expedition, which sent a motorboat into the inner fjord, reported patches of rich and colorful vegetation ^ a ^ long its shores. (See also Tingmiarmiut Island.)
H.O. 75, 88 Guidebook 845 Greenland III 457 MG 106, III, 28
Indexer: list Takissok; Ausivit; Uvdlorsivit; East Fjord; Johan Kjaer Fjord; West Fjord.

Greenland ^ 380 ^

Tingmiarmiut Island

(northern extremity 62° 47 ′N., 42° 23′W.) lies off the coast of ^ King ^ Christian IX Land, southern East Greenland, in the northern part of the approach to Ting– miarmiut Fjord. It covers an area of about 13 by 8 miles. The smaller Ausivit Island and a number of islets lie off its southern shore. Close northeastward of Tingmiarmiut is the precipitous n ^ N ^ unarsuak Island, abou r ^ t ^ 2,370 ft. high. The channel which separates Tingmiarmiut from the mainland to the nort [: ] ward is called Ikerasak.
In the interior the island reaches an elevation given as 4,094 ft, but the mountains decrease in height toward the southeast where the long, low Akitsok (peninsula), juts out into the sea. Tingmiarmiut settlement, which is now abandoned, is on a plain at the head of a bay which indents the Island's southeastern tip; there is a trappers station here, erected by the Heimen in 1931. The Seventh Thule ^ (1932-33) ^ Expedition reported ^ ^ an ice-free and well-protected harbor in the bay off the old settlement and found several possible areas in the region for the landing and taking off of (pontoon) aircraft. The Heimen Expedition found an anchorage in a well-protected basin at the western end of the channel Ikerasak.
Members of the British Arctic Air Route Expe id ^ di ^ tion (1930/31) considered Tingmiarmiut the obvious place to winter, as game abounds here and berries are prolific to profusion. The vegetation is rich, in spots, including willow, angelica and blue bells. Bøgvad of the Seventh Thule Expedition who spent some time in the vicinity of the old settlement, brought back a large collection of plants.
Holm, the first to explore the region in 1884, says that Tingmiarmiut (" the people of the place where there are birds") was originally the

Tingmiarmi t Island cont.

name of a small steep bird cliff on the southwestern tip of Tingmiarmiut Island, near where the Greenlanders had a dwelling place. Eventually the island, the fjord to the southward, the islands and islets in the approach to the fjord, and the surrounding region assumed the name. (See also Tingmiarmiut Fjord.)
H.O. 75, 88 Guidebook 847 Chapman, Northern Lights, 243 MG 106, III, 28
Indexer: list Ikerasak (Tingmiarmiut Isand); Akitsok (Tingmiarmiut Island).

Greenland ^ 100 ^

Cape Tordenskjold (Kunerinak)

(61° 24′N., 42° 20′W.) is a striking landmark on the coast of southern East Greenland. The cape rises to about 2,225 ft. and consists of two mountains separated by a cleft; the inner mountain, which is round-topped and glacier-covered, is consider– ably higher than the outer mountain which is black rock and has a flat summit. According to the Seventh Thule Expedition, there is a harbor suitable for motor-boats behind the cape. The anchorage is said to be safe, but the entrance is narrow and access difficult, because of icebergs which ground in the bay off the harbor.
The cape was named after Peter Wessel Tordenskjold,(1690-1720), Norvegian naval hero.
H.O. 75, 85 Skrifter om Svalbard Nr. 80, 438

Greenland ^ 170 ^

Umanap-kangerdlua or Sehesteds Fjord

(63° 01′N., 41° 25′W.) enters the coast of southern East Greenland between Griffenfeldt Island and Uvivak, a small island over two miles to the northward. The fjord extends about 25 miles northwestward, bifurcating near its head. About midway, short arms branch northward and southward, the northern, lateral fjord offering well-protected anchorage off the fertile Pilerquit valley at its head. A third arm or inlet, named Inn Fjord, extends northwestward from a point close to the northern entrance of the main fjord; it has an island at its mouth. Inside is an exceptionally good harbor (for small craft), which was used by the Heimen in 1931 and by the Veslekari in 1932.^,^ and the whole of the fjord is reported to be the best place along this stretch of the coast for pontoon aircraft to land and take off. [: ] rom 1931 to 1940 the Norwegians had their radio and hunting station Vogtsbu inside Inn Fjord.
Altitudes alongside the main fjord increase toward the head, where a peak rise ^ s ^ to over 6,700 ft. The surrounding land is largely buried under glaciers.
H.O. 75, 90 MG 106, 209
Indexer: list Inn Fjord, Vogtsbu Station.

Greenland ^ 280 ^

Umivik Bay,

in southern East Greenland, is formed by a deep recession in the coast between the eastern end of Colberger Heide (64° 02′N., 40° 32′W.) and a high mainland promontory (Kiatak), about 19 miles to the northeastward. Inside the bay are a number of islands, among them the large Upernagsivik Island, which separates Gyldenlöve Fjord (q.v.) from Torsukatak channel to the northward. Both Gyldenlöve Fjord and Torsukatak are usually considered part of the wide ^ r ^ Umivik Bay area. The surrounding shores are largely covered by inland ice, which comes down to the sea in smooth, even waves, with only now and then glimpses of bare rock. The islands, with the exception of Upernavigsik, and some of the peninsulas in the bay are ice-free. Several of the smaller islands southwest of Kiatak Promontory are inhabited. There is a ship harbor in the sound between Kiatak and the off-lying Gerner Island. The Seventh Thule Expedition reported the position free from ice at the beginning of August, 1932.
The area was surveyed by Holm and ^ Garde ^ , in 1884,.and in 1888, Nansen set out across the inland ice from a small nunatak west of Kiatak promontory. However, charts of the area were relatively inaccurate until the British Arctic Air-Route Expedition (1930-31) and the Heimen Expedition (1931) investigated the bay and adjacent fjords by motorboat. In 1933, M.Spender of the Seventh Thule Expedition made a survey of the whole coast from Umivik to Kangerdlugssuak,in lat. 68° N.
H.O. 75, 98 Guidebook 862 MG 106,I,213 Groenland 605 AAF Ar. Ch.85 1945
Indexer: list Kiatak Promontory; Gerner IslandUpernagsivik; Torsukatak.

Greenland ^ 200 ^

Vega Sound

is a 60-mile passage in the King Oscar Archipelago in northeastern Greenland, where it extends northwestward and then westward between Traill Island and Geographical Society Island. Its eastern entrance, which opens out on the Greenland Sea, is between Bratthuken (72° 29′N., 21° 58′W.) and Cape Mac Clintock, about 13 miles to the northward. The western end connects with King Oscar Fjord, opposite the northern end of Ella Island. Two island groups, the Norde ^ n ^ skiöld Islands and the more westerly Scott Keltie Islands, occupy its eastern portion. Anchorage in 25 fathoms is obtained off the Sverresborg Hunting Station, northward of the Scott Keltie Islands, about 1/3 of the way from the sound's eastern end. of the sound. On September 7, 1941, when the ^ u.s.e.g.cufher ^ Northland anchored here, there was no ice in the sound.
Vega Sound, which is flanked by some stretches of fine pasture land near its outer end, is noted for its varied bird-life. Ringed and bearded seal are plentiful in the sea to the east. Ruins of very ancient Eskimo dwellings occur along the northern shore of Vega Sound.
H.O. 75, 177 Skrifter om Svalbard 63, p.15, 30. Louise Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland, p. 335
Indexer: list Bratthuken; Cape Mac Clintock; Geographical Society Island; Scott Kelties Islands; Nordenskiöld Islands; Sverresborg Hunting Station.
^ 40 ^

Cape Warming

(67° 02′N., 33° 42′W.) is the southeastern extremity of a small island off the coast of southern East Greenland, about 35 miles northeastward of Cape Gustav Holm. The island, which has the shape of an inverted book, rises to about 1,640 ft. Its cape was named after the botanist Eugen Warming, a member of the Fylla Expedition, 1884.
H.O. 75, 135 Greenland I. 88

Greenland ^ 480 ^

Watkins Mountains,

in King Christian IX Land in southern East Greenland, extend back of the 35-mile stretch of coast that lies between Cape Nansen (68° 13′N., 29° 26′W.) and Cape Ravn. From coastal peaks of about 7,000 ft., the range rises to Gunn– bjørn Mountain (68° 55′N., 29° 54′W.), which attains an elevation of 12,139 ft. and is probably the highest point in Greenland. Several peaks,over 11,000 ft. high, rise immediately to the southeast of Gunnb ^ j ^ ørn Mountain. Farther to the south– ward and eastward three giant icestreams - Christian IV, Rosenberg, and Kronborg Glaciers - together with innumerable tributaries, furrow wide valleys leading to the outer coast.
The range was unknown until 1930, when Watkins of the British Arctic Air Route Expedition discovered it from the air ^ ; ^ its precise levels were first established in 1935 by members of the Courtauld-Wager Expedition, who ^ that summer, ^ ascended Gunnbjørn Mountain and other peaks in the vicinity. That very same year, J.Kr. Tornoe, in an article in Norsk ^ Norsk ^ Geografisk ^ Geografisk ^ Tidsskrift ^ Tidsskrift ^ (summarized in the Geographi- ^ Geographi- ^ cal Journal ^ cal Journal ^ Vol. LXXXIX, 1937), advanced the opinion that the summit of the Watkins Mountains might be identical with "Hvitserk", the legendary landmark of the Norse. The old sailing directions state that ^ , ^ in clear weather ^ , ^ it is sometimes possible to see Hvitserk (Greenland) and Snaefell (Iceland 0 ^ ) ^ at the same time. Accor ^ d ^ ing to Tornoe's records ^ , ^ the only part of the Greenland coast , near enough to Iceland, and high enough to be seen from the middle of Denmark Strait, are the high mountains of the Watkins Range. Courtauld and the cartographer Spender, who ^ ^ was the first to map the entire coast of Kin f ^ g ^ Christian IX Land, seem to lend support to this theory. Others (see C.C. Rafn in Grønlands ^ Grønlands ^ Historiske ^ Historiske ^ Mindesmaerker ^ Mindesmaerker ^ ) contend that Hvitserk is identical with Cape Farewell, and Nansen advocates the theory that the name applies to the Inland Ice on the south and east coast or else to Ingolf Mountain near Angmagssalik.
On Older Greenland maps, prepared on the basis of old and new accounts, "Hvidserk" or "Huptsark" is usually identified as a mountain on the East Coast of Greenland ^ , ^

Watkins Mountains cont.

thus on Hendrik Doneker's "Zee-Atlas", printed in 1660, on J.v. Keulen's rather detailed map of Greenland, issued in 1709, and on maps drawn by Hans and Poul Egede, in 1740 and 1788, respectively. Most of these place "Hvidserk" north west of what approximates the Scoresby Sound region. On still earlier maps, (Oleus Magnus' map, 1539) "Hvetssargk" is identified as an island, west of Iceland., due possibly to accounts of the journeys of Pining and Poth ^ o ^ urst (15th century), current xxx in the literature of that day.. The two Danish pirates were said to have erected a huge shipman's quadrant on "Weyszarch", an island between Greenland and Iceland. However, Norse sailing directions of the mid 14th century (Ivar Bardarson) specifically call "Hvitserk" a cliff, lying a day's voyage north of Hvarf, which is reached by sailing directly west from Iceland.
H.O. 75, 144 Geogr. Journ. June 1937, p. 552 MG No. 56, Lysstreif over Noregs– veldets Historie, Oslo 1944. Stefansson, Introduction to the Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher P. XXXV, LVI. Greenland I, 145, 452 (maps)
Indexer: list Gjunnbjörn Mountain; Christian IV Glacier; Rosenberg Glacier; Kronborg Glacier; Hvitserk or Huptsark.

Greenland ^ 440 ^

Wellaston Foreland,

a large peninsula in northeast Greenland, about 30 miles long, north and south, and about 35 miles wide at its broadest, projects between Young Sound and Hochstetter Bay. Cape Borlase Warren (74° 16′N., 19° 32′W.) a low, narrow ^ rocky ^ promontory, forms its southeastern extremity; Cape Wynn, a precipitous headland, about 20 miles to the northeastward of Cape Warren, is its extreme east point. North of Cape Wynn the east coast recedes some– what to form Clavering Strait, which separates the peninsula from the off– lying Sabine Island.
Wollaston Foreland has no large indentations, except on its northern side where the broad Albrecht Bay extends southward for about 10 miles to a river delta at its head. A broad depression continues south-southwestward from this head to the vicinity of Young Sound, narrowing as it proceeds inland. Elsewhere the land is mostly mountain country, attaining its highest elevations near the center where Needle Mountain rises to over 3,700 ft. Off Clavering Strait the shore is precipitous, rising steeply to elevations of from 700 to 1,600 ft. South of Cape Wynn and around Cape Borlase Warren, the open country is somewhat more extensive. Two large valleys traverse the south– eastern end of the peninsula, one running in a north-south, the other in an east-west direction; between them the mountains attain elevations of over 3,500 ft. Mount Herschel, the Cape Herschel of Scoresby, close to the southern extremity of the peninsula, rises to 2,200 ft. The land,in general, is barren and the vegetation poor, but hunting is good offshore. A number of Norwegian hunting huts lie scattered about the eastern and southwestern coasts. ^ and 2 [: ] located on Wollastan Foreland ^ One of the main Norwegian stations liess off Cape Herschel, and is usually made the first port of call when the yearly relief ship arrives from Norway.
Ice. - Ice conditions off the southern end of Wollaston Foreland vary greatly. In July 1931, and again in 1937, the Polarbjörn spent two weeks

Wollaston Foreland cont.

going through the pack ice.. In 1932, and in 1933, the same vessel entered the pack in 74° 06′N., 14° W., on July 19, and reached Cape Herschel, in 74° 14′N., 19° 42′W., two days later.
Wollaston Foreland, named by Scoresby and roughly charted by Clavering and the German Arctic Expedition, was remapped by the 1926 Cambridge Expedition. Other more recent expeditions which [: ] ave done outstanding scientific work here, include a number of Danish and Norwegian Expeditions, notably those under Hoel ^ , ^ and Orvin and under Lauge Koch. (See also Clavering Strait; Gael Hamke Bay).
H.O. 75, 206 Boyd, The Fjord Region of East Greenland, p. 335 Geogr. Journal, Sept. 1927, p. 243
Indexer: list Cape Borlase Warren, Cape Wynn, Cape Herschel; Needle Mountain; Albrecht Bay.

Greenland ^ 300 ^

Ymer Island,

in the King Oscar Archipelago of northeastern Greenland, is bounded on its southern side by Sofia and Antarctic Sound, and on its northern side by Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord. The island, which is about 55 miles long, east and west, and from 12 to 25 miles broad, is almost cut in two by the long, narrow Dusén Fjord, which comes in from the east. Only a narrow strip of land separates the head of this fjord from Blomster Bay, a wide bay indenting [: ] the island's northwestern end.
Ymer Island is generally mountainous, with numerous local glaciers and lakes. However, altitudes are higher in the southern part, where Angelin Mountain, the island's highest peak, rises to about 6,200 ft. The eastern portions flatten down to two low spits of land, the more northerly one termi– nating in Cape Graah, and the more southerly one ^ , ^ off the southern entrance of Dusén Fjord, terminating in Cape Wijkander. Plant life is rich in the northwestern portion of the island, particularly around the head of Dusėn Fjord, where the damp ground is a mass of blossoming flowers in July. Muskoxen, foxes, lemmings and many hares are found here. The southern part is said to be less well-stocked in wild life, except in the east, where there are extensive area of fertile soil.
A number of Norwegian hunting stations dot the shores of Ymer Island, the most important one standing cloe to Cape Humboldt, several miles south of Cape Wijkander. Several old house-sites and Eskimo graves are reported in the vicinity; others are found inside Dusėn Fjord.
Anchorage is available in Sofia Sound, Dusėn Fjord and in Blomster Bay. (See also King Oscar Archipelago; Sofia Sound; Kaiser Franz Joseph Fjord).
H.O. 75, 181 Guidebook 1051 L [: ] Skrifter om Svalbard,63, p. 13
Indexer: list Dusén Fjord; Blomster Bay; Cape Graah; Cape Wijkander; Angelin Mountain.