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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0268, 1946-02-19.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-1419

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 1419 Date: 19 Feb 46


ITEM 1 What is meant by SHUSSEN and SHINCHUGUN? By IWAI, Ryotaro - Economist (Published. Semi-monthly by MAINICHI) - 1 Feb 46. Translator: T/3 Amano and Hasegawa.
Full Translation:
The Japanese people, newspapers, magazines and radios are all inclined to say, "After the termination of the war" (SHUSSEN NO ATONI), or "Since the termination of the war" (SHUSSEN IGO), and to call the American soldiers - "Advance landing troops" (SHINCHUGUN).
Just what does all this actually mean? It indicates a fundamental weakness in the character of the Japanese people; it means that they are afraid to look reality in the face. It is merely a matter of a few simple words, to be sure, but these few words are signs of the inferiority of the Japanese to western peoples. What is the true meaning of "The termination of the war" (SHUSSEN)? It means, for JAPAN, nothing less than "unconditional surrender" (MUJOKEN KOFUKU). The terms signed on the deck of the MISSOURI were not "war termination" terms, but terms of surrender. The order which outlines principles for control of JAPAN is entitled "Surrender Order No. 1." In English it was "the surrender of JAPAN". What do we mean by an "Advance landing force" (SHINCHUGUN)? It is in point of fact, the "occupation force of JAPAN" (NIPPON SENRYO GUN), or rather the "Allied occupation forces." In English, it is invariably called the "occupation force." At times the American troops are called "enlisted men." This term, known, also applies to the expeditionary forces in the PHILIPPINES and in KOREA. The words which truly express the character of the garrison troops in JAPAN are "the occupation forces of JAPAN."
The Japanese people are very reluctant to use the words "surrender" or "occupation." Their weakened spirit cannot bear the daily use of those shameful words. They hope to lighten the severe shock to their spirit by using an old trick with words. This is the reason why I mentioned the Cowardice of the Japanese people. The Crusaders used "Remember the Holy Sepulchre!" as their battle-cry. The Americans, when they were attacked, adopted, "Remember PEARL HARBOR!" as a national slogan - and in the end they saw justice done to JAPAN. In 498 B.C. the Greek army burned the city of SARDIS, the capital of PERSIA in ASIA-MINOR. For this reason a great expedition was later sent to GREECE by the Persians. The King of PERSIA, DARIUS, ordered one of his slaves to say to him each time during his meals, "Your majesty, don't forget the Greeks!"
Can the Japanese people bear to hear the words "ruined country" (BOKOKU), "surrender" (KOFUKU), and "occupation" (SENRYO)? Are they going to continue to hide the actual facts by using trickery on words?
I am using as a date on my letters "the 2nd year of national ruin" and such and such date. Don't find fault with my eccentricity. I am not thinking of revenge. I want to fix firmly in my mind that we must never embark again on a foolish and miserable war.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 268 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Abolition of Licensed Prostitution in MIYAZAKI - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichi-Nichi Shimbun (Miyazaki-shi) 12 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sakata.
Full Translation:
With the abolition of licensed prostitution, recently ordered by the Home Ministry, in accordance with MacARTHUR's directive, the Prefectural Authorities have ordered the suspension of the business of chop-houses in the licensed quarters, from 31 January. These chophouses throughout the prefecture have been carrying out their business as brothels, with the so-called authorized geishagirls, since 1939, when the prefectural authorities directed the abolition of licensed prostitution. This, however, was nothing but a nominal matter in practice. Twenty-seven chop-houses and 166 licensed prostitutes come within the range of this directive. As to finding these persons new jobs, the Labor Division of the prefectural government intends to recommend them to open as hotels.
In the AZUMA licensed quarter in MIYAZAKI-shi, all 10 of the chophouses have been changed into hotels simultaneously since 1 February, as a result of a conference of their association. They are now doing their best to complete their equipment. However, they have had few customers, so far, because the visitors to the quarter did not know of the change in business. Accordingly, they are preparing wide advertisement of their new business. As for their employees, such as prostitutes, waitresses, etc., some of them have remained there as hotel-maids, and others have gone back to their homes after having cleared off their debts. The rest are now considering how to live in the future. At any rate, all of them seem to be thankful for the abolition of licensed prostitution.
ITEM 3 Emergency Economic Measures - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Feb 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
The day of the eventual drastic operation on JAPAN'S national economy, which has shown symptoms of dying owing to the rapid progress of the inflation, has come at last. On 17 February, a series of emergency economic measures was officially promulgated including 3 basic Imperial Ordinances relating to urgent monetary measures, extraordinary investigation of properties and deposit of Bank of JAPAN notes, as well as the cabinet decision on the "basic outline of measures regarding post-war commodity prices." Simultaneously, the government measures for foodstuff control, the compulsory control of materials and the outline of measures against unemployment, which have a close connection with the above Imperial ordinances were promulgated, completing the preparations for the great drive against the current vicious inflation.
The flood of the post-war circulation of banknotes has reached the deadline of 60,000,000,000 yen, but the slow promotion of productive power due to accumulating obstacles such as the tardy rehabilitation of war damaged factories, want of materials, absolute scarcity of foodstuffs and so forth has caused confusion and disproportion between goods and money, thus accelerating inflation and increasing black-market activity. Although the proletar[illegible]st demands an increase in their wages, supplementary living expenses of 500 yen for the winter, and 1,000 yen for tiding over the impending starvation, they are, even so, unable to sustain themselves as the rise in the price of commodities always defies the increase in their income. The present government measures are thought to be the last alternative to save the country from its critical con-
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ITEM 3 (Continued)
dition. Their outline is as follows:
The ordinance for urgent monetary measures means the freezing of capital; the ordinance for depositing the Bank of JAPAN notes, the issuance of new ones; the ordinance for the extraordinary investigation of properties, the enforcement of 3 special taxes [illegible]property tax, individual property increase tax and incorporated war profit tax; and the basic outline of measures for commodity prices, the establishment of maximum prices. With this set up, the measures are to be executed in the following way:
The nation's properties aggregate more than 400,000,000,000, of which the majority is only nominal, being represented by printed papers not backed by goods, such as national debentures, bonds and deposits. 60,000,000,000 yen in Bank of JAPAN notes is now circulating in markets which are suffering already from an overflow of money. To make the situation worse, individual deposits amounting to about 150 thousand yen are ready for circulation as floating capital at any time. As the first step, the outflow of cash is to be compulsorily restrained on and after 17 February, by freezing all deposits on that day, followed by the enforcement of compulsory exchange at par old banknotes for new yen during the period from 25 February to 7 March. This affords the basic materials for investigations regarding property tax etc. as such an exchange will make dear the amount of cash held by the people. The exchange is limited to only 100 yen per head without exception and the surplus is to be compulsorily deposited. Cash amounting to over 60 billion yon now circulating among the nation will thus be absorbed and black marketeering capital be exhausted. Besides, however high the monthly income, any amount over 500 yen per capita will be frozen in deposits, so the daily cash in hand of each person will necessarily decrease, resulting in a diminution of purchasing power.
Rich and poor alike will be subject to an equally scanty life. The freezing of the capital of the nation is not expected to be raised before the collection of the property tax, namely until the effect of the tax collection becomes apparent. On the other hand, as a result of this freezing of capital, issuance of new bank notes and tax collection, individual funds will be decreased to a certain extent. This will be neutralized by enforcing maximum prices in conformity with the basic outline of measures for post-war commodity prices. In the meantime, the Ministries of Commerce and Industry and of Agricultural and Forestry are to exercise their powers to strengthen productive power by means of various powerful policies, so as to prevent the prices of commodities from soaring by stablising the difference between goods and money.
Although JAPAN's economic life is to be reconstructed after protracted illness, and poverty will be the end of all people, a firm foundation for the genuine reconstruction of JAPAN will thus be stabilized. That is the objective of this important operation. Truly, it is a great operation, on which the government is staking its destiny!
ITEM 4 Crime - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Feb 46. Translator: T. Ogawa.
A gang of more than a dozen burglars appeared in the NAKANO area, and disappeared like the wind after raiding 3 adjoining houses. At 2250 hours, Saturday, 8 burglars broke into the house of HASE, Yoshio, a dealer in watches, at 295 ARAI-Cho, NAKANO-Ku. The burglars robbed the victim of 20,000 yen in cash, and 40 watches, by threatening the victim with a pistol. The gang then raided the next
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house, that of HARAZAWA, Kishiro, a dealer in watches. Finding an opportunity Kishiro escaped to the house of his neighbor, HARAGUCHI, Chohei, to ask for help. At the neighbor's, however, to Kishiro's great astonishment, all members of the family had already been tied up by 5 burglars. Upon seeing this Kishiro rushed out to the nearby police-box. The burglars ran away in the confusion. The damage caused to HARAGUCHI was limited to only 300 yen in cash and 3 watches. It was presumed that the burglars had placed watchmen at important points, and the members of the gang numbered 15 or 16. All of them were masked, and were wearing black over-coats and rubber-boots. Each carried his own pistol which caused the dwellers of the neighborhood indescribable terror.
At 2230 hours, Saturday, a 20-man gang of FORMOSANS and KOREANS, transported on 2 motor-trucks, raided a warehouse of the CHOBU Wood-working plant of the TAMA Military Gun-powder Mill, at DAIMARU, INAGI-Mura, MINAMI-TAMA-Gun. They wore discovered in the very act of loading the trucks with the stolen goods from the warehouse, by 2 guards of the mill, who were on patrol duty at that time. While one guard was surrounded by the gang, the other guard left the scene to sound the alarm. Upon hearing this, 3 policemen of the HACHIOJI Police Station, who were on guard, and two United States soldiers rushed to the scone. The gang suddenly fired at them, and the American soldiers returned the fire, killing WU CHIANG (21), a CHINESE national, living at 743 NOKATA-Cho, 1-Chome, NAKANO-Ku; wounding AKITA, Kwanichi (23); and arresting FANG Chao Chang, a CHINESE national, c/o CHANG, at 381 TANASHI-Cho, KITATAMA-Gun; TAI Ming-Kuang (25), a CHINESE national; and MORITA, Mitsuo (23), c/o KIMURA, at 43 KAMIMEGURO, MEGURO-Ku. The remainder had escaped.
In SHITAYA-Ku, around 2400 hours, Saturday, a trio of burglars broke into the house of ISHIDA, Atsushi (43), at 172 IRIYA-Cho, SHITAYA-Ku. The burglars, after gagging ISHIDA, deprived the victim of 7,000 yen in cash, a suit-case, a rucksack, etc. In SHIBAKu, - At 2330 hours, on the same day, TANIDA, Atsushi (27), c/o TOYO-KAIKAN Apartment house, at 5 SAKURAGAOKA, SHIBUYA-Ku, was assailed by a young man in a flying suit, on the street at No, 5 TAMURA-Cho, 2-chome, SHIBA-Ku. The assailant robbed the victim of an over-coat, a portfolio, and a check-book, by striking the latter a heavy blew on the face. In JOTO-Ku, at 0040 hours, Sunday, a 4-man gang of burglars broke in a chop-suey house run by WU A -Chang (48), a CHINESE national, at 8l4 OHSHIMA-Cho, 2-Chome, JOTOKu. The gang robbed the victim of 800 yen in cash, a rucksack, some table-salt, a pair of shoes, some chicken meat, beef, and a few bottles of whisky, etc., by threatening him with a dagger. In NAKANO-Ku, at 2030 hours, on the same day, a 6-man gang of burglars broke into the house of NAGANO, Kunisuke, at 54 SUMTIYOSHI-Cho, NAKANO-Ku. The burglars stole 1,000 yen and some clothes.
ITEM 5 The fate of comsumers' unions - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Feb 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Concerning the future status of the consumers' union, SUZUKI, Masuo, the Chairman of the Central Committee of the JAPAN Co-operative Union League (NIHON KYODO KUMIAI DOMEI) spoke as follows:
"The majority of the present small-scale consumers' unions have a conservative character limited to the scope of self-protection and are significant only in that they lower the living cost and enforce fair and equitable distribution. However, with the present shortage of goods, the members do not expect further elevation of their
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living standards. This is the defect in the general character of the consumers' unions. Consequently, I thought such unions would disappear in the future.
Now the Government has frozen bank deposits, and various goods have been placed under the management of the State. As a result, the fall of the consumers' unions and the co-operative unions will be hastened, because of the impossibility of using the funds collected from the small donations of low-class families. Anticipating the emergency steps taken by the Government of late, the wealthy men have already hoarded ample supplies. On the other hand, the producers will be able to exchange their products with the goods kept by the wealthy people, but they cannot enter into bargains in currency with the consumers' union. Therefore, the consumers' unions will not be able to justify their further existence, What steps are to be taken in order to meet such a situation?
"I am of the opinion that consumers' unions must be formed on the basis of ward units, and under each ward unit, scores of branches must be made. The unions must, rather, take suitable steps toward the rationalization of living conditions, and the application of science to daily life in general, rather than to the acquisition of goods. For example, machines to make flour food, public bath-rooms, and public kitchens must be arranged. Thus, paving the way to better living conditions, the unions, at the same time, must deal with the producers, and, also, must ask for the Government to finance them. In the meantime, the farmers must form farmers' unions and producers' unions. If compulsory control of produce is enforced, the voluntary spirit of the producers will, in the future, be destroyed. To meet this, the Government must give facilities, materials, and funds to those who do the work. The working men must be encouraged by assistance from the Government. Thus, they can work, carry on the management by themselves, and make their profits. I think the consumers' unions must advance to the status of production unions, and the Government, also, should utilize such unions as new distribution organizations."
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0268, 1946-02-19.
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