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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0234, 1946-02-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-1183

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1183 Date: 7 Feb 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 234

ITEM 1 Crime and Preventative Measures in NAGANO - Provincial Newspaper Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (Nagano) - 2 and 3 Feb 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The following is a summary of a round table conference held at the office of the SHINANO MAINICHI SHIMBUN in regard to the moral reconstruction which is thought most important in view of the recent social degradation; attendants are five prosecutors and the chief secretary of the NAGANO District Court:
The press: "Atrocious crimes have been frequent of late. To protect ourselves, legal defense is thought necessary."
Associate procurator, NOMURA: "The act of a burglar inflicting injury on the person of others with a sword, pistol, dagger or club is called an atrocious crime. The rapid increase of such crimes after the war is thought to be a transitional phenomenon, but we must use all our efforts to prevent this undesirable tendency. The recent crimes are characterized by their cruelty, large extent of damage and gang methods. There are many instances of injuries inflicted on passers-by by burglars, brandishing Japanese swords on the street all of a sudden, just like street murderers trying out new swords on chance passers by. We must keep strict watch on ourselves. So self-defense becomes necessary for us. There is a law relating to crime prevention and the punishment of thieves and robbers promulgated in Nay 1930."
Chief Prosecutor, NAGAI: "In such instances, there may occur cases when we inflict injuries unwillingly on offenders, on account of carrying too far our defense measures or improper defense. The limit will be determined, in each case, fully taking into consideration the conditions of the scene of the crimes and criminal method employed."
Prosecutor, YOSHIKAWA: "In short, if infringement and counter-attack are in perfect balance, the act of the defender constitutes legal defense. However, the interpretation is very difficult."
Prosecutor, TSURUTA: "It is very encouraging that a case of four brothers who killed one of two robbers, stabbing him in the back with a Japanese sword, was dropped as constituting legal-defense. In this instance, the law was applied according to its spirit."
Prosecutor, YORIOKA: "The law must be based on sound common sense. It will be alive or dead according to its practical application."

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SOCIAL SERIES: 234 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
NOMURA: "At this juncture when social conditions have been so aggravated and national morals degraded that people are apt to indulge in vices indifferently in order to live, we must well understand what is meant by legal-defense and bravely fight against atrocious crimes in co-operation with neighbors, etc. For this purpose, proper arms are desirable to be used according to circumstances."
TSURUTA: "As to the carrying of arms by policemen, no instructions have yet been given."
The press: "What about the participation of the common people in the prevention of crimes?"
YORIOKA and NAGAI: "A boy aged 13 succeeded in arresting a disguised detective at the end of last year in the city of NAGANO, this is a very good example of the people's co-operation. We ask people to be careful to ascertain special features of criminals and report them at once to the police. It is also desirable that crimes, if found, be reported irrespective of their extent of damage. People are apt to refrain from reporting such criminal cases because they don't want to be involved in the case or some other reason, but this is a very bad custom."
YOSHIKAWA: "In ENGLAND and CHINA, there is a system called people's indictment, by which exposure or indictment of criminals is actively carried out by the people. Generally speaking, the Japanese dislike testimony and keep themselves apart from possible troubles. They are rather negative in such actions as crime prevention."
The press: "What is the trend in contribution to papers in relation to calumny?"
NOMURA and NAGAI: "The report of a certain civilian to the effect that TOJO received a bribe from MITSUBISHI, amounting to 10,000,000 yen was seized by Allied Headquarters, but this proved to be unfounded. This is a most conspicuous example of calumny. In AMERICA and ENGLAND where perfect liberty is predominant, calumny is thought to be a serious offence from the standpoint of the respect of human rights. Letters have been received by the District Court in large numbers, especially since the war, but most of them, 99% of those which intended to slander or defame others have been proven false. As these contribution are anonymous, not even a single case has been indicted. I can not but doubt the mental conditions of contributors who content themselves with such irresponsible contributions, testifying to their mean character. We can in no way place confidence in anyone of these contributions. Such a detestable attempt to entrap others could be exposed if clubs were obtained, and offenders could be punished severely.
YORIOKA and NOMURA: "Contributions relating to the demobilized head the list in number, most of which aim at agitating the prosecutor's office, purposely exaggerating their disposal of war materials. However, most of them are full of misunderstanding, or malicious intentions and we cannot dispose of them in any way. Though rare, there are some who come to the prosecutor's office by themselves to demand inquiries to be made in certain cases. Such persons are mostly honest and sincere, divorced from private interests. Such a candid attitude is desirable for those intending to expose other's crimes. False accusers are liable to penal servitude ranging from three months to
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SOCIAL SERIES: 234 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
ten years. The number of false accusations shows the state of civilization in our country. To respect the life of others is a duty of cultural people."
The press: "Crimes involving the Occupation Forces seem to be increasing of late."
YOSHIKAWA and NOMURA: "More than 20 cases have been prosecuted already, most of which are thefts, swindles, trespass and intimidation. It must be pointed out that the Occupation Forces are demanding strict punishment from the standpoint of high morels and culture. Although the crimes are trivial, punishment is heavy. The other day a gang who succeeded in stealing concealed cotton cloth with the help of a jeep using American soldiers as decoys was arrested by the MATSUMOTO Police Office. The culprits will be punished severely for the double crime of deceiving and defrauding the Occupation Forces, who, declare that if the prosecutor's office deals with such cases lightly in accordance with Japanese customs and feeling, the Forces will try the cases themselves. The people must restore energy, speedily getting rid of their absent-mindedness. Koreans, Chinese and Formosans are liable to the Japanese laws, while staying in JAPAN."
The press: "What about deliquent boys?"
NAGAI and others: "It will be important to revise their treatment. According to the spirit of the juvenile law, punishment must be avoided as far as possible in order to lead young delinquents on the right path through admonition and tender care. However, the eradication of ever increasing young men's crimes can not be expected by such lukewarm methods. In this connection, strict and positive guidance and supervision accompanied by constant efforts and love of schools and homes are eagerly desired in order to nip in the bud, any vicious indications which appear. For those young offenders, no indictment will be made as a rule, but if crimes are serious, it may be necessary to make a costly sacrifice in the cause of justice or discipline. In TOKYO, even a boy pickpocket of about 12 years of age could easily steal around 10,000 yen if he made a round trip through the YAMANOTE line. It is rather hard for these youngsters to refrain and they naturally fall into vice if once successful in the adventure. For them, buying sweets seems to be an absolute temptation. Movie theatres in NAGANO are full of young children ranging from 7 or 8 years to 13 or 14 years of age, presenting hot beds for delinquents. This must be seriously taken into consideration. In these days, parents give their children 20 or 30 yen at a time as pocket money, which is responsible for driving them to vice. Some children go to TOKYO to sell their clothing and other goods stolen in the country and they gain about 1,000 yen easily in one trip."
The press; "What attitude will be taken by the prosecutor's office about the question of taking action on the delayed delivery of allotment rice by farmers?"
YORIOKA and NOMURA: "During the war, such crimes were lightly disposed of but now they are severely punished and we place special stress on preventing foodstuffs from going through wrong channels. We avail ourselves of this opportunity to warn the people against illegal acts pertaining to allotment rice delivery and crimes directly menacing people's living, to which we are going to pay special attention, and severer punishments than before will be inflicted on the offenders.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 234 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
The special war time penal code was rescinded on 15 January to brighten the nation, but the judgement of criminals has become far more strict than before.
"As regards concealed materials widely rumored of late, we suppose real concealed materials are lying intact in warehouses, closets, outhouses or, under floors of individual homes; we hope the people will disclose such materials as soon as possible. Voluntary return of these materials is recommended to their holders who are worrying about their possession of such materials not to be legally sold or used. If they are not stolen or seized by force, holders will not be punished.
ITEM 2 Written Examinations - Asahi Shimbun - 6 Feb 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
The principals of the higher schools throughout the country discussed the entrance examination at a meeting held on 4 February at the Ministry of Education, when a decision to enforce written examination was reached.
In November last year, the "Ministry of Education ordered the school authorities to enforce a written examination based on common sense as before, and uniform questions for the entrance examination made by the Educational Authorities was distributed to schools throughout the Country. However, the lack of facilities in the school made it impossible to hold the examination at the same time throughout the country.
Thus, the principals' meeting reached the conclusion that the questions for the examination should be made up at each school, but the questions should be based on the general knowledge in various subjects. A definite answer to this proposal will be made known by the educational authorities before long.
ITEM 3 Robbery with Violence in YOKOHAMA, FUNABASHI Asahi Shimbun - 6 Feb 46 Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Around 1830 on 4 February, a trio armed with pistols attacked OMORI, Yutake; ICHIHARA, Bunpei, both of ISOKO-Ku, YOKOHAMA-Shi; and SONE, Kyuichi, of HASHIHARA-Gun, SHIZUOKA-Ken, at a place near the KAGETUTEN of TSURUMI-Ku, YOKOHAMA-Shi, robbing them respectively of 100,000 yen, 80,000 yen and 2,000 yen, totalling 132,000 yen.
At 1800 on 4 February, two men armed with short swords threatened AKIMOTO, Mitsuo, aged 18, of KEIDO-Machi, SETAGAYA-Ku at a place near 586 FUNBASHI-Machi, CHIBA-Ken and robbed him of 120 yen.
At 21 00 on 4 February, a couple threatened SUGIMURA, Shizuo, aged 48, of TENNUMA-Machi, SUGINAMII-Ku with short swords and robbed him of 350 yen.
At 2030 on 3 February, a masked trio broke into the house of SAGANO, Tokichi, of NAKANO-Ku and seized 130 yen and 30 suits of clothes, then they took meals at the house. At 0630 on the next morning, they left the house.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0234, 1946-02-07.
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