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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0227, 1946-02-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-1135

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1135 Date: 5 Feb 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 227

ITEM 1 Demand for Increase in Teachers' Wages - Provincial Newspaper Tokushima Shimbun (TOKUSHIMA) - 31 January 1946. Translator: T. Ogawa
Summary:
The prefectural authorities have started the investigation on the livelihood of teachers who are depending on their salary alone. This investigation was started with a view to allowing teachers to remain at their posts. According to the result of this investigation suitable measures are to be taken to stabilize teachers' livelihood. In this connection, a spokesman of prefectural authorities has revealed the following facts and figures.
The Average salary of primary school teachers has hitherto been 61 yen per month. Plus this regular salary, the teacher who gets this amount is paid 10 yen as a temporary allowance, 15 yen as a continuous service allowance, and, if he has served for 10 years, 10 yen as a long service allowance. The total of all these sums amounts to 103 yen. The majority of primary school teachers are getting a monthly income around these figures. Teachers who have served a shorter period after graduation, and assistant teachers, are getting much less. We have been paying 5 yen as a family allowance, but this must be increased to 200 yen. Accordingly the teacher who supports a family of 5 will get 1,000 yen more per month. Supposing he lives on rationed food alone, his minimum cost of living per month will amount to 500 yen. Under such circumstances teachers are suffering an unequal balance of income and expenses every month.
Those who have savings can tide ever this crisis, while those who have no private means or savings have resigned their posts due to the difficultly of living. At present the difference between income expenses is too large to cope with the crisis. Perhaps the nurses in kindergartens and teachers in secondary schools are suffering in the same way. At a conference of school heads it was revealed that the cost of living in the urban districts and the rural districts is ouch the same. It is quite reasonable that teachers are claiming better treatment everywhere.
ITEM 2 Increase in Railway Fare - Mimpo - 3 February 1946. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The masses are groaning under the pressure of the ever-soaring prices of commodities. To aggravate the situation, the government railways have decided to raise railway fares on a large scale from 1 March next. It is an increase of 250 per cent for ordinary tickets and 300 per cent for season tickets as well as freight, which will necessarily raise the prices of commodities more speedily

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SOCIAL SERIES: 227 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
than ever. The people are now going to be driven to great living difficulties, especially the war sufferers who have been forced to move to suburbs due to the shortage of houses caused by war devastation. They come to city centers every day in packed cars and trains. They are very hard hit by the three-fold increase in season ticket fares.
Throwing away its motto "No increase of income, no decrease of income", the Government railways raised its fares three times during the war, bringing the rate per kilometer to 3 sen in 1944, from 1 sen 3 rin in 1930, while the present revision is 8 sen per kilometer, about 700 per cent increase as compared to the pre-war rate. Parallel with this, private transportation companies are contemplating an increase in their fares. The metropolitan electric cars has already raised their fares by 100 per cent since the end of last year. The reasons for this increase by the Government railways are, according to the authorities, betterment of treatment of the staff, increase of prices of various commodities including coal, covering of deficit amounting to 3,500,000,000 yen in reconstructing expenses, and prevention of inflation absorbing floating purchasing power.
Almost all the transportation companies are going to increase their fares for the reason that their financial conditions are already in deficit and no not allow them to improve the treatment of their staffs. Thus, they have to resort to the raising of fares. However, the financial deficit of all communication organs, including government railways, is by no means due to a decrease in their income, especially in view of the large increase of passengers end the consequent confusion of the services since the war. It is mainly due to the rehabilitation expenditures for damage in air raids, the responsibility for which should reasonably have been assumed by ZAIBATSU and other war-profiteers. War profit taxes and property taxes must be appropriated for such purposes.
The increase in the price of coal, which is one of the causes of the deficit, was made at the end of last year 85 yen, about 4 times the old price for the purpose of improving the treatment of miners. Another increase of 100 per cent, namely 170 yen per ton, is being attempted on the pretext of the sudden rise in production costs. The increase in the freight rates for rice and other commodities will at once affect the production costs which will reflect on the prices of various commodities, affecting railway management in turn. In such a way, the increase of railway fares and commodity prices go around forever, only spurring on the vicious inflation.
Mr. KAWAI, Chief of the Passenger Section of the Government railways is quoted as saying that he does not think there will be a decrease in passengers even after the revision of fares, in consideration of the present conditions of transportation. So long as the SHIDEHARA Cabinet continues in power, the nation can not hope to be relieved of this imminent danger to their livelihood. Opinions expressed by various persons as to how the coming increase in railway fares will affect the living of working masses follow:
Mr. USHIO, Mikutaro, of MARUNOUCHI Salaried Men's Union says, " I am now living in the CHIBA Prefecture, as my house was destroyed in the air-raids. At present, a railway season ticket costs me 54 yen a month, but it will be increased to 135 yen. This means almost all of my monthly salary. I deeply lament the measures taken by the Government.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 227 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Mr. TOKUDA a, Shuiichi, Communists, says, "Although the railway authorities are emphasizing the rehabilitation of the service and the betterment of the staffs treatment, not only the treatment of the Government railways, but that of whole working and [illegible]masses must likewise be improved, and war profit and property taxes must be appropriated for this purpose. The Government says that an improvement of treatment will spur inflation, but, in our opinion, inflation may be prevented if the properties of capitalists and big landlords are immediately frozen, except for a, certain fixed amount to be drawn every month as their living expenses. Thus, the livelihood of the working masses will become far better."
Mr. MIZUTANI, Chosaburo, social democrat, says, "I doubt if the Government has much confidence in its measures against the soaring prices of commodities. It seems to be serving merely as the harbinger of soaring prices. In order to cover the deficit, sacrifices must be borne by the State, to a certain extent, instead of the masses, at such a critical moment. The question, is how are the people going to tide over the present increase in railway fares. I think transportation allowances may reasonably be taken into consider[illegible]ion now that housing allowances are being studied by the authorities concerned.
ITEM 3 Swindlers Still At Large - Asahi Shimbun - 4 February 1946. Translator: S. Sakata.
Full Translation:
At 1930 hours, 2 February, at the entrance of TOKYO Station, TAKEYAMA, Wasaburo, age 32, of 91 HIGASHI-HONDEN, NISHIAZA, AMAGASAKI City, was swindled of 5400 yen by a field-capped man who called himself a military policeman.
At 1730 hours 1 February, KARASAWA, Soichi, age 17, of 1, 2-chome, KANAME-Machi, TOSHIMA-Ku, was swindled of 1,500 yen and a, wrist-watch by a 20-year-old man who took him into the Railway Training School, calling himself a detective on duty.
ITEM 4 Ships for Repatriatos - Asahi Shimbun - 4 February 1946. Translator: S. Sakata.
Summary:
Out of 71 American ships for the Japanese repatriates which SCAP has lent to the Government, only 31 have been completely equipped and manned. Of these, except for 8 ships used for coal transportation only one is being prepared for navigation. It will sail from [illegible]IIGATA for [illegible]LUNG on the 6th, as the first boat to transport repatriates.
Such poor conditions after a month from the time the first of the American ships anchored in YOKOHAMA, are due to the shortage of food and seamen, especially lower-deck seamen as opposed to officers. For instance, officers number one half of the 800 seamen waiting for the order of manning two ships in YOKOHAMA at present. And another one of the causes is the shortage of diesel-engineers. Therefore, some say that it may be necessary to abolish the present method
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SOCIAL SERIES: 227 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
of deciding how to man the ships as carried out by the SENPAKU-UNEI-KAI or Ship Transporting Corporation. The big three shipping companies, namely, [illegible]. Y. K. O. S. K. and MITSUI shipping companies, shore the other minor companies' seamen placing them under their control and putting the seamen aboard a ship under the name of the employer, for example, [illegible].Y.K.
As for the food problem, although it was reported that the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry secured 37,000 koku of staple food for the first navigation of all the 209 ships, including those for repatriates, as a result of the recent meeting of the vice-minister, we know that the report is nothing but a sesk plan of the bureaucracy. The real circumstance is that the stock of rice, even in YOKOHAMA is not enough for the ships' crew and the repatriates too.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0227, 1946-02-05.
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