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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0221, 1946-02-03.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-1104

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 1104 Date: 3 Feb 46


ITEM 1 Transport Problem of the MIYAZAKI Middle School - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichinichi Shimbun (Miyazaki) - 28 Jan 46. Translator: H. Ohno.
With the termination of the war, the MIYAZAKI Middle School was opened in some barracks situated at a place far away from the center of MIYAZAKI-Shi. Consequently pupils of the school have been hard put to it to attend school. To meet this situation, the Principal SHIGA and others are trying to get a new intermediate station between HANAGASHIMA and HIUGASUMIYOSHI or a special bus between the school and SUMIYOSHI station. However, the prefectural authorities failed to co-operate. Thus, the problem remains unsolved.
KITAOKA, Chief of the Educational Section in the MIYAZAKI Prefectural Office, said: "The establishment of an intermediate station is not impossible in view of the formation of the train schedule, but we cannot realize it unless we obtain permission from the Ministry of Transportation. We are now seeking buildings suitable as schools. We want the citizens to co-operate with us."
An occupation officer said, "We sympathize with many school boys who must walk eight or nine miles to their school and their parents who are worrying about this. In view of the importance of education, we urge the authorities to take suitable steps to let pupils study quietly. If the authorities do not make efforts to rebuild the schools because of the shortage of materials, no school house will be built for a long time. I want the authorities to build school houses promptly in a convenient place. I think the problem of materials could be solved with a little effort."
ITEM 2 List of Criminals in KOBE Prison - Kobe Shimbun - 28 Jan 46. Translator: S. Sakata.
Although we hear of many robbery cases of present, the number of burglars in the KOBE Prison is far less than expected. Out of a total of 348 suspected criminals in the prison 256 are thieves, 30 burglars, 7 swindlers, 12 blackmailers, eight murderers, two usurpers, four gamblers, 12 stolen goods dealers, two charged with interference with the government official duty, two arsonists, two charged with corruption and two others.
Out of 286 thieves and burglars, we can find only two gangs and these gangs were not arrested in KOBE-Shi. This seems to be explained, however, by the fact that the recently reported cases are still under examination by the police, who have recently become active as the result of the permission for policemen to use pistols.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 221 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Problem of Geisha in MIYAGI-Ken - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichi Nichi Shimbun (Miyazaki) - 28 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
In compliance with the directive of the Home Ministry, the licensed prostitute system is to be abolished in MIYAGI-Ken. However, the problem regarding the special geisha girls remains unsolved. Masters employing these girls wish to keep them as before. If so, the geisha girls will become similar to waitresses in cafes and the master will only be able to charge for rooms.
The special geisha girls in the MIYAGI-Ken are, so to speak, "half- licensed prostitutes" and they are more free from the various restrictions than the general licensed prostitutes. At a time when AIKAWA was Governor of the ken, the system of these special girls was organized as a first step toward the complete abolition of the licensed prostitute system. Those girls in the ken number 165.
ITEM 4 Labor, Capital and Inflation - Mainichi Shimbun - 2 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sakata.
On investigating the present financial condition of the KEISEI Electric Railway Company which has recently raised its employees' salaries by 5 times we can find some suggestions there relating to the management of corporations under the economic situation prevailing since the surrender.
A remarkable fact is that many outside workers' salaries reach or surpass the income of their superiors such as the chief of a section and the like. Even 17-year-old office boys can get, for example, a monthly base salary of 150 yen as the result of the raise to 5 yen from 1 yen per day, plus an allowance of 30 yen, 20% of the monthly base salary; lunch allowance of 30 yen; regular attendance allowance of 15yen; reward of 10 yen for 2 working days instead of off-days; and overtime allowance of possibly 30 yen calculated with a half month of 3 hours overtime per day which allows an eighth of the daily wages, and thus the total monthly take-home pay amounts to 250 yen, discounting exemptions, While the income in the class of sectional chiefs is 900 to 1,000 yon, which includes a base salary of 600 yen and allowances, typist's take-home pay amount to 670 to 630 yen including a base pay of 400 yen. The highest salaried car-driver gets 1,500 yen, and six outside daily workers are said to be paid more than 1,000 yen each.
Secondly, the company's balance sheet for the former fiscal period reveals the following: While the income from passenger foes is 1,450,000 yen a month, the employees' salaries (after the raise) is 1,050,000 yen and the total payment of purchased electric power, various articles and miscellaneous expenses amounts to 700,000 yen monthly. Consequently the passenger foe must be raised.
Indeed the company is to put into effect a rise of two and a half times the fee on 1 March. However, the increased income after the raising of passenger fees is estimated at about 2,300,000 yon a month, that is, only one and a half times the present amount. On the other hand, the company must pay a total of 1,700,000 yen during a fiscal period of 6 months, including the newly increased payment for employees and other expenses. Therefore, the company will hardly be able to pay a dividend of 5%.
Under the circumstances, the company's labor union approves this rise in passenger fees on the grounds of stabilizing the company, their employer, but not themselves. The fact that the labor union's trend of thought is not "laborer against capitalist" but "capitalist plus laborer" is noteworthy.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 221 (Continued)
ITEM 5 Dialogue on future School Policy - Tokyo Shimbun - 2 Feb 46. Translator: T. Ogawa.
It is understood that a new method will be adopted in considering the applicants for secondary schools this year due to the entirely new situation in the postwar period. Consequently some applicants and parents anxiously want to know the details of the new method. The following is the gist of the questions and the answers exchanged between a TOKYO SHIMBUN reporter and Mr. MOTOSHIMA, Hiroshi, the Chief of the Educational Affairs Section of the Metropolitan Government.
Question: Why is it not allowed as a rule to change schools during the period within one year after admission?
Answer: Because it will bring trouble to the school authorities to allow any student to change school during such a short period. I hope that parents will at first study carefully the educational policy or tradition of each school, and then choose the most suitable school after considering the child's character, ability, physical strength, schooling facilities etc.
Question: The abolition of the School District System inevitably does not attract a great deal of applicants to a famous school. On the contrary an unknown school does not suffer from insufficient applicants far below its admitting capacity. Why?
Answer: I think not. Because the number of applicants will constantly be made public by the school authorities. Furthermore, the number of students to be admitted will be published accurately. Therefore, the applicants can choose the most suitable school according to their ability judging from these figures. The tendency, however, that applicants will rush to famous schools is probably inevitable.
Question: What method will be employed in considering the applicants in such a case?
Answer: Our policy is to adopt the combined method of character test, judgment from the report of the schoolmasters and medical examination. Written tests, however, will be imposed according to circumstances. The written test will be a very simple one though. It will be on the same level as the oral test. Therefore, the applicants need not prepare too hard for the written test, because we don't want to bother the children with such a matter. School children have suffered enough from evacuation, mobilization, war calamity and food crisis. Further suffering might wither the children's ability, we fear. The test-paper, however, as a rule, will be made out by each school. We will give them approval by carefully examining the contents.
Question: Judging from past experience, without the written test, extreme importance has been attached to the medical examination. I am told for instance, that an applicant lacking a finger was rejected because of the medical examination. Is it true?
Answer: I have never heard of such a thing. Supposing an applicant lacks a finger or even a leg, he can continue his study so long as his head is perfect, can't he? Anybody can apply for secondary education even if he has a physical defect due to the air raids.
Question: The test will be carried out simultaneously throughout the metropolitan area. Then why do you carry out the second test?
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SOCIAL SERIES: 221 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Answer: Only in cases where the number of applicants does not exceed the number of students to be admitted, will the second invitation be issued. But those who have applied for the previous test are not qualified to apply for the second test. The submission of an application to another school is permitted once within a 5 day period after the closing date.
Question: Is there any tendency, on the whole, for the number of applicants to exceed the number of students to be admitted, due to the closing down of damaged schools?
Answer: We think the number of applicants and that of students to be admitted is about the same so far, due to war evacuation end other reasons. As many applicants as possible will be admitted to schools with large capacities. The number of closed schools will be published shortly.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0221, 1946-02-03.
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