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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0195, 1946-01-24.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0917

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 917 Date: 24 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 195

ITEM 1 Teachers’ Union in MIYAGI-Ken Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 19 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
Aiming at the democratization and enlivening of the educational fields, as well as improving the position of teachers, teachers' unions are being organized throughout the Nation. In MIYAGI-[illegible]en, a teachers' union will be formed consisting of all types of teachers within the prefecture. A preparatory committee meeting was held on 17 January to discuss principles and declarations. At the meeting, it was also agreed that membership will be limited to teachers, as a precautionary measure against the union being used as a tool for political campaigns, demonstrations by other bodies, or elections.
The union also plans to encourage a Nation-wide union of teachers. Their inaugural meeting will be held on 10 February.
ITEM 2 Criticism of the JAPAN Art Exhibition Tokyo Shimbun - 23 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Summary:
The wave of democratization is also hitting the artistic world. In view of the movement for democratization aroused among civilian artists, the Education Ministry has decided to study measures in order to cope with the situation. The JAPAN Art Exhibition (NIHON BIJITSU TENRANKAI) is to be held for one month beginning 1 March.
The date was decided on at a meeting of the Imperial Academy of Art (TEIKOKU GEIJITSU IN) held in the confused atmosphere immediately following the termination of the war, but since then the situation has changed. Furthermore, most of the staff of the JAPAN Art Exhibition are old men belonging to the Imperial Academy of Art. Therefore, it is believed that the exhibition will be valueless.
On the other hand, 50 Japanese painters in KYOTO are demanding the postponement of the exhibition's date, the reform of the inspection committee, and the democratization of the exhibition. Other powerful artistic parties, also dissatisfied with the JAPAN Art Exhibition, are planning to hold a separate art exhibition.
To meet these situations, the Ministry of Education is beginning to consider such items as the postponement of the date of the JAPAN Art Exhibition, reformation of the inspection committee, fairness when selecting works, and the adoption of the open-door principle for new artists.
Educational authorities said, "Of course we shall postpone the date of the JAPAN Art Exhibition. Some painters are in difficulty because of the shortage of various materials for painting. We desire that

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SOCIAL SERIES: 195 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
the JAPAN Art Exhibition becomes thereafter, a means by which men of ability can be widely recognized."
ITEM 3 The Problems of Coeducation - Asahi Shimbun - 23 Jan 46. Translators Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The long awaited co-education of men and women will be realized next April, but the movement of various universities, high schools and women's special schools is not very active at present. The reason for this is that, as yet, these universities and high schools have not presented a formal application of inauguration to the Ministry of Education. Such inactivity is supposedly due to the long interval until the beginning of the new term. This year it is April or May for high schools and October for the universities. This coupled with various difficulties in school management are the chief hindrances. Even in the Ministry of Education the method of dealing with women's special schools, in relation to high schools, has not yet been decided. If capable women's special schools having a long history are given the qualification of "Women's high school", men's special schools will demand equal recognition of qualifications for admission to colleges and universities. If, however, certain designated women's special schools are simply given the secondary qualifications for such admission, as is now the case with iron's special schools, this would not achieve the fundamental objective of granting equal rights to women.
On the other hand, if certain designated women's special schools are allowed to be treated as men's high schools, each Imperial university will have to enlarge its facilities as they are already at full capacity. At present, this is on extremely difficult problem.
Furthermore, there is the question as to whether domestic science may be considered as a course of learning in schools. It is a serious matter as the question involves the revision of university ordinances. The TOKYO Medical Special School has disclosed its intention of creating three classes one for women in the preparatory department, enabling graduates, both men and women, to attend the university on an equal footing. This may be said to suggest clearly the future of the co-educational plan.
Generally speaking, the attitude of the universities toward co-education is rather negative. Apart from schools already accommodating female students, such as the WASEDA University, there is no school which has discussed the enforcement of co-education at any faculty meeting. This by no me ns indicates any positive opposition to co-education but is probably due to the following reasons:
Private universities all have their respective preparatory department, the graduates of which are being given priority for entering the university; therefore, no room is left to accept applicants from other schools.
Most universities have been more or less damaged by the war and there is a lack of class rooms, so en increase in students is impossible.
Many difficulties awaiting immediate solution, such as the treatment of demobilized students, the question of food, clothing and housing, as well as the revision of teaching methods, are accumulating.

The HOSEI University has admitted female graduates from certain designated women's special schools treated as high schools, so far as its literary department is concerned. The attitudes of the various universities are as follow:
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SOCIAL SERIES: 195 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
TOKYO Imperial University: This institution is already at its capacity with graduates from high schools. If necessary, therefore, it may be inavoidable to open special classes for students over the fixed number, according to the chief of the business management bureau.
RIKKYO University: The literary department will be re-opened next April, together with Principles of Christianity and English courses. Women will be permitted to enter.
KEIO University No concrete plan has yet been made, although school authorities are advocating a co-educational system in order to raise the position.
WASADA University: Women have been admitted to the literary department few the past few years, there being seven students in that department and one in the economic department. This system will be extended to other departments.
MEIJI University: Co-education is already in force, there being about 50 female students.
In accordance with the "Outline for the renovation of women's education", disclosed recently by the Ministry of Education, several schools are now going to take necessary measures to raise their status to a formal university; therefore, women's universities conforming to the university ordinance will appear in the coming new term beginning in April. They are expected to be as follows:
TOKYO Women's Medical School, headed by Mrs. YOSHIOKA, Yayoi. The necessary steps will be taken in one or two weeks. At present, the school has a one-year preparatory department and four-year regular department system, but in the new system each department will be three years, making the whole course six years, the same as the men's universities. In addition, an advanced course will be opened, and facilities will be enlarged. Female doctors of medicine are a monopoly of this school, numbering 60 in all. The Women's Welfare Special School, a four-year course established the year before last, will be maintained.
NIPPON Women's University, headed by Mrs. INOUE, Hideko. In compliance with the revision of the special school ordinance during the war, this school had adopted the three-year system, but the new university will have the six-year system.
TSUDA JUKU, headed by Mrs. HOSHINO, Ai. At present, the school has an English literature department (three-year course) and a science department (four-year course). In the new system, the university structure will be on this basis, with a literary and science department.
TOKYO Women's University, headed by ISHIHARA, Ken. Although generally rumored as remaining in the present status, the school is now preparing to make it a new university, fully conforming to the university ordinance, revising the existing five courses of national language, history, foreign language, economy and mathematics from a throe-year system to a six-year system.

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