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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0188, 1946-01-22.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0882

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 882 Date: 22 Jan 46.

SOCIAL SERIES: 188

ITEM 1 New Education in KANAZAWA - Provincial Newspaper Hokkoku Mainichi ([illegible]azawa) - 13 Jan 46. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
Seeking the reform of the present stagnant educational world, as well as the reconstruction of education along democratic lines, a teachers' roundtable conference was held at 1300 on 12 January at the SHOSHO-Machi Primary School. It was held under the auspices of volunteers among the primary school teachers in KANAZAWA-Shi. The conference was attended by 24 young progressive coachers, headed by Mr. YOSHIDA of the SHOSHO-Machi Primary School.
Ardent discussions were conducted by the atten[illegible]ants on the guidance of pupils during vacation periods, the reconstruction of education, and the organization of teachers' unions. It was stressed that the granting of necessary guidance to school children during vacation is one of the urgent problems to be settled. Under the present setup, however, this will not be realized unless they rely upon the teachers' individual conscientiousness end recognition of responsibilities. In view of the above situation, it was decided to take immediate action by encouraging all who are interested in this matter.
They also discussed the possibility of raising the social position of teachers and stabilizing their livelihood. That was considered the most important factor in the reconstruction of education. From the viewpoint that everything is desired from this factor, they unanimously approved the organization of a teachers' union as well as welfare facilities which will enable teachers to continue their studies freely. Furthermore, they decided to hold a teachers' conference under the name of "Young Teachers' Federation of KANAZAWA-Shi", with participation by teachers from all the public schools in the sane city.
Great hopes are entertained that the planned teachers' union will pave the way for the democratization of education in the Prefecture.
ITEM 2 Science for the Millions in JAPAN - Provincial Newspaper Kobe Shimbun (Kobe) - 15 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Summary:
During the war, it was said the weapon was the essence of science end various research institutes were fully mobilized for the study of weapons. The Japanese defeat was caused by its lack of scientific power.
However, the true mission of science lies not in the purposes of war but in the promotion of culture in assuring the peace of the world.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
In JAPAN all weapons have been destroyed and research on radar, airplanes, and atomic energy has been prohibited. However, JAPAN is about to start a fresh as a peaceful democratic country. Science and culture must be the most important elements in future JAPAN. The reconstruction of JAPAN must be through scientific research.
ISHIHARA, Principal of the KOBE Technical College, said: "Promotion of science is the must important factor in rebuilding new JAPAN. Before and during the war, science for aggressive or defensive purposes was studied. But now, our country is defeated; we must study science for the purpose of promoting the welfare and culture of the people. It is desirable to establish a natural scientific museum for the general public as well as industrial research institutes and industrial education bodies,"
TAMAKA and KATAYAMA, School Inspectors of HYOGO-Ken, stated that scientific education in technical schools, middle schools, and girls' schools must be practical and connected closely with daily life. It is desirable to establish scientific laboratories for pupils, and to popularize science, if technical science is applied to daily life, it becomes common sense. Consequently, science must be put into the minds of the people as technical common sense. On the other hand it is, also necessary that the theoretical side of science is considered as well. If science is handled only as a practical tool, its development will be checked.
Pupils must be taught to see and consider everything scientifically. KIDO, Chief of the Education Section of KOBE-Shi, said, "Suitable facilities must be established for effective scientific education. School-rooms may be used for that purpose, as well as machines and other facilities from munitions factories."
ITEM 3 Educator Takes Stand as Condidate in the Coming Election - Provincial Newspaper Nagasaki Shimbun (Nagasaki) - 15 Jan 46. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Summary:
A veteran educator has .jumped to the political gun in NAGASAKI-Ken. KUBO, Takeo, district commissioner in the prefectural education section, declared his candidacy in the coming general election. He is to represent the SHIMABARA District in the prefecture as an independent. He has 27 years experience in national school education.
He announced his decision, spying, "No political party lays sufficient stress on the problem of national education, which is the basis of the future cultural JAPAN. I am resolved to dedicate myself to the political front as an educator, who 'has, for many years, been forbidden to concern himself with political affairs,"
ITEM 4 Reconstruction of NAGQYA Imperial University - Provincial Newspaper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (Nagoya) - 18 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The election of the now President of the NAGOYA Imperial University is to be held on 23 January. The election will be conducted by the professors of the medical, science, and engineering departments, since there is little hope for the realization of "voting rights of assistants", which was demanded by assistants and apart of the medical faculty.
The assistants' demands were submitted to the former President, Dr. SHIBUSAWA, prior to his retirement. He left the decision of this question to his successor, so it is now pending settlement by the
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SOCIAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
new president. Therefore, the important duty of electing the new president is to be imposed on all the professors. Its result is expected to have a great influence on the future development of, not only the culture of central JAPAIT, hut the city of NAGOYA itself.
Questions awaiting the solution at the hands of the new president are the reconstruction of the war-destroyed University, the food and housing problems of the students and faculty, fundamental renovation of school courses, perfect realization of University autonomy, etc. Particularly, the local dispersion of learning and the direct connection of the University with local industries has great importance. Also, the pending removal of the Engineering Department to the city of TOYOKAWA must be scrutinized again.
The former president attempted to move the Engineering Department to the city of SUZUKA, but be abandoned his attempt because of the fierce opposition on the part of the prefectural and city authorities and others. Later the former naval arsenal was selected as the site for the above Department, but even this was abandoned, because of repeated appeals by the mayor of NAGOYA. That Department had an inseparable connection with the industrial development of NAGOYA. The mayor offered the premises of the NAGOYA Commercial School to the Department, but no consideration was paid to the suggestion.
Now, the opinions for supporting NAGOYA as the place of reconstruction of the University are predominent among various elements, including almost all the students. Its rapid realization is expected from the new president. He must accordingly be endowed with political ability and a keen sense of feeling, coupled with provincial standing and reputation.
ITEM 5 Building Plans - Asahi Shimbun - 21 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary:
At a cabinet meeting on 4 September, a plan to build 300,000 houses was approved, and the Government took the necessary steps toward a carrying out the plan. But what is the actual situation? In an interview with one of the authorities the following information was obtained:
Question: How many houses have been built?
Answer: I can't give an accurate figure because of an available estimates from certain districts. I presume that 120,000 to 130,000 houses were built before early January. I believe that 150,000 houses (half of the 300,000 houses planned) will be built before the end of January. I think we can manage to complete all 300,000 house before the end of March. According to a Reconstruction Bureau investigation, 4,000,000 houses will be necessary in the entire country; the Government is now encouraging the people to build houses themselves. 60 per cent of all the houses were built at individual expense.
Question: What are the actual conditions of the large buildings to be used as houses under the Emergency Regulation?
Answer: The plan is to build 300,000 houses out of the large buildings, but the plan has not been carried out because of the lack of transportation facilities and labor; steps are being taken toward its materialization.
Question: What will the people who have no money, no materials, and no leisure time to "build houses themselves do?
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SOCIAL SERIES: 188 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Answer: That is a difficult problem. The price of one simple house is 5,000 to 6,000 yen. With accessories, it will cost 10,000 to 15,000 yen. Therefore the Government has enacted a regulation by which it will give loans to the public, the Housing Associations, and the war sufferers. The maximum loan will be 10,000 yen for each house built, and is to be repaid in ten years. The public pawn shops will give loans of 2,000 yen to war suffering family, to be repaid within five years, at an interest rate of 3.5 Percent a year.
Question: Some of the war sufferers don't know what steps to take in order to borrow the funds."
Answer: The Industrial Bank of JAPAN (NIPPON KANGYO GOTO) is now giving special loans to ordinary civilians to build houses. The maximum will be 10,000 yen for each house, to be repaid within five years at an interest rate of 3.5 per cent a year. As a general rule, the loan must be secured on immovable properties, but in case the borrower has no securities, the house will be accepted on a mortage basis after it is completed. If a sum of more than 10,000 yen is desired, ordinary loans at the rate of five per cent a year will be given; the amount is not limited in this case.
Question: How can land on which to build be secured?"
Answer: This problem has not been settled yet. The extraordinary Diet session discussed the problem; a petition was issued in connection with the promulgation, of house-land regulations; but no definite decision were reached. The next session is expected to settle this problem. According to one plan, since most cities were ruined during the war, the former prices of land will not be considered in the now plans. All land will be bought by the Government which will issue a house-land bond to be redeemed in thirty years, with no interest during the first two years.
ITEM 6 A Case of Small box Found in the South western area of TOKYO - Mainichi Shimbun - 21 Jan 46. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Full Translation:
A case of smallpox was found in the south western area of TOKYO on 18 January. The patient, NOMURA, Tojiro, age 46, of 1-chome NISHI-NAKANOBU-EBARA-Ku, was admitted into the hospital that is attached to the SHOWA Medical College. The source of the infection is not known.
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