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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0182, 1946-01-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0853

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 853 Date: 20 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 182

ITEM 1 Educational Rehabilitation - Provincial Newspaper Chubu Nippon (Nagoya) - 15 Jan 46. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
In order to handle the rapid reconstruction work of war-devastated schools, which number some 4,000 throughout the country, the temporary Educational Establishment Office has been established within the Minister's Secretariat of the Education Ministry. The newly established office became active on Monday.
The number of universities and colleges which have burnt down, or have been damaged duo to air raids, are over 100 The total figure amounts to 4,007, including secondary schools, youths' schools and primary schools. It is expected to take many years for their rehabilitation.
It has become necessary to map out a plan for schools, in compliance with the new plan of land readjustment. In preparation for emergency rehabilitation work, the above-mentioned office has begun its work as the. first stop in conversion. It will utilize the former military establishments end war plants, by keeping close contact with the War Sufferers' Rehabilitation Board. The office will change its name to the Rehabilitation Department, after the compilation of the budget for the next fiscal year, and it will be established semi-permanently within the Ministry of Education.
In this connection, the Ministry of Education appointed the following officials on 11 January: TANAKA, Kotaro, director of the School Education Bureau, was appointed director of the Temporary Educational Establishment Office. TANAKA, Tokuiji, Engineer of the Education Ministry, was appointed vice-director of the Temporary Educational Establishment Office.
SEKIGUCHI, Yasushi, director of the Social Education Bureau; YAMAZAKI, Kyosuko, director of the Scientific Education Bureau; SHIBANUMA, Naoshi, director of the Athletic Bureau; ARIMITSU, Jiro, director of the Text-Book Bureau; TANAKA, Yoshio, vice-director of the School Education Bureau; INADA, Seisuko, chief of the Secretariat Section; NISHIZAKK, Mogumu,. chief of the Archives and Documents Section; ITO, Hideto, Chief of the Accountant and, con-currently, chief of the Materials Section; and NAKANE, Hideo, chief of the General Affairs Section, were all appointed as councillors of the Temporary Educational Establishment Office.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 182 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Professor KAWAKAMI - Tokyo Shimbun - 17 January 46. . Translator : T. Ogawa.
Summary;
Among the scholars and thinkers who have been ousted from universities or colleges "by the heavy oppression of the military clique and the fascists was Professor KAWAKAMI, Hajime, who had put his heart and soul into expounding Karl Marx's “Das Kapital" for nearly half of his career and had made himself popular among young readers by such books as "A Tale of Poverty" (BIMBO MONOGATARI), etc. The Professor was also famous for his hot arguments against the so-called "orthodox political economists," represented then by HIJIKATA, Shigomi and Professor TAKADA, Yasuma, etc.
Later the Professor was imprisoned on a charge of conspiracy with the JAPAN Communist Party. When he regained his freedom, not only JAPAN, but the whole world was thrown into the chaos of war. Under such circumstances, his achievements have almost been forgotten by the people. Despite this, a new era of democratic revolution has finally come, due to JAPAN's. defeat.
The Professor is now 68 years old, and is sick in bed at a small residence in KYOTO-Shi. The former fighter for freedom is suffering from the inevitable senile atrophy as well as from malnutrition. And those who visit the sick old professor every now and then, are limited only to Professor SASAKI, Chuichi, an old intimate friend and Prof. SUEKAWA, Hiroshi, President of the RITSUMEIKAN University and brother-in-law of the Sick man.
The following report is written by a reporter of the TOKYO SHINMBUN, who has been allowed to visit the sick Professor by the courtesy of Prof. SUEKAWA: Upon hearing from his brother-in-law that the recent purge directive will affect more than 20,000 men, Prof. KAWAKAMI said, "The purge directive should be carried out to the utmost. Then he continued, "Mr. NISHIO and Mr. SUGIYAMA, have been chosen as candidates for Cabinet Ministers, oh? Well, the world, has changed, hasn't it?" he whispered in a hoarse voice mixed with a deep sigh.
Speaking of changes, it was the Professor himself who has changed rather than the world. His condition is not good in these days. His temperature has been above 40 degrees Centigrade and he has hardly eaten on a meal, due to a continuous state of coma. On his thin sunken cheeks among unshaven whiskers the number of gray hairs has remarkably increased.
"You say that the Communist Party is showing brisk activity. That's fine. Bright days are ahead of young people. In 1913, I was still an assistant professor of the Political Economic Department of the KYOTO Imperial University, I lived in KYOTO, too. And I heard the Bell of Freedom of the University's clock-tower announce the hour every morning and evening", he said, in recalling the good old days. "In 1928 having been sentenced to five years imprisonment, I was sent to the IOHIGAYA Prison. It prison I couldn't help recalling the sound of that bell, always with a dear feeling. The ringing of the bell, perhaps, has been prohibited during the war. I hope, however, that the sound, will be heard again shortly. But —" At this moment, I saw a tear or
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POLITICAL SERIES: 182 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
two run down his cheeks when he suddenly stammered this word. The Professor buried his face in the pillow as if he wanted to conceal his tears. "I wonder whether or not I can last until then? With my present condition of health it's a great pity" he continued after a short interval of time. "Mr. NOSAKA has returned, oh?" As soon as he had spoken these words, he had a severe fit of coughing.
By the way, at the reception for Mr. NOZAKA held on 13 January at the JAPAN Communist Party's Headquarters, Mr. KUROKI, Shigenori made a proposal to send some one to KYOTO to inquire after their sick old comrade's condition. The proposal was unanimously approved. In this connection it was also decided to give a present to the sick Professor
ITEM 3 Neighborhood Associations Black Markets and Widows Discussed by members of various parties - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 17 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
AKAMATSU, Tsunoko, Social-Democratic Party:
Neighborhood group associations and neighborhood associations have been acting as extremist societies for the execution of the war. Disgusting boss politics have been carried on by persons of minor social, importance. This must be remedied politically It means the exclusion of boss politics, and, economically, it means the self-management of those associations. This is necessary, as they will still be extremist organs when our daily life is conducted in accordance with the principles of planned economy, and along democratic lines.
Existing black markets are places to see but not to buy. The prices are far beyond the reach of the working class. It goes without saying that, due to awkward bureaucratic control during the war, various commodities and foodstuffs, were not available. Even after control was removed, and these items became available, prices were still much too exorbitant for the masses. This going from one extreme to the other is responsible for the prevailing confusion. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to analyze once more the working of the system and. the facilities for collection and distribution. Necessary controls must, of course, be maintained strictly and reasonably. In conclusion, the direct connection between production and consumption is extremely important, so that the activities of consumers’ societies may be adjusted accordingly.
All Possible measures should be taken, spiritually as well as materially, for the relief of widows. I think it would be better for them to got married again. For those, who are not in a position to re-marry, the Government should give work and pay. As for the future, JAPAN will have a regrowth of industries on small and medium stales. Opportunities for women in these peacetime industries will be numerous.

IWAMOTO , Akiko, Communist Party.
Neighborhood group associations and neighborhood associations should reorganize. Office holders, who were appointed by unilateral instructions from above,

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SOCIAL SERIES: 182 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)

or after biased consultations between a select few must retire. They should he replaced by persons elected by public election. Most important is making it impossible for the heads of these associations to be unjust, however trivial their actions may be. On the basis of such autonomous associations, popular control of foodstuffs, if made effective, will surely improve the distribution system.
The existing black markets are the result of governmental incompetence and negligence on the one hand, and capitalistic avarice and sabotage of production on the other. These causes must be removed first of all. As an expediency, bureaucratic Government control and other cartels should be replaced by democratic structures. Under such supervision, small and medium factories will be able to operate freely. For example, the increase of wages will result in a speeding up of production, which, in turn, will lead to the smooth circulation of commodities. As a logical result, this smooth circulation will lower block market prices.
Despite social customs and conventionalities, widows should. remarry. However, it is not necessary for them to leave their work when they remarry. Husband and wife must both work to amplify their wages. All opportunities for work must, therefore, be open to both men and women. The time has come for women to rid themselves of suppression and liberate themselves.
YOSHIOKA, Yayoi Progressive Party.
Neighborhood group and neighborhood association systems should be maintained, particularly since the latter has served very well for the promotion of fraternal friendship among neighbors. Autonomous management of these association is considered necessary hereafter. Regarding the distribution of goods to every household, the revival of the pre-war system would be best. If this is impossible, one or several associations are advised to collect expenses from their members and hire agents to pick up the rationed articles from town distribution depots, distributing them to each home. This will froe housewives for their domestic affairs to a great extent.
Controls hitherto effected have been clumsy, as they were done by inexperienced personnel. The sale of perishable items should have been made after more deliberate preparations. Hereafter, the experience of producers, and distributions should be utilized.
Ideal nurseries must be established to facilitate the upbringing of children of working widows. Such institutions must be available, not only for widows, but for other working women as well. I hope half-a-day work is given, to widows and married women, to guard their homes from unto- ward accidents. In time, we must do our utmost to reconstruct defeated JAPAN , by setting up the most ideal situation and surroundings for work.
OTSUDO, Hideko, Liberal Party.
Neighborhood group and neighborhood association system may be abolished, now that the wholesale distribution system for all living necessities is being replaced by a free economic system. The current system is very onerous for married women. It wastes much time, so it must be

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SOCIAL SERIES: 152 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)

revised. Domestic life itself must also be scrutinized and a collective cooking system should be evolved.
I think it would be an important counter-measure for lowering "black market prices to accelerate productive activities along the channel of free economics. This could be accomplished by the abolition of all unnecessary controls. No concrete results can be expected from official controls blindly suppressing prices, without any regard to actual conditions. Present black market prices are the outcome of the price of staple foods, so this must first be reduced to a reasonable amount.
Giving work to widows is most important. Consultation offices must be established in order to deal with questions relating to their re-marriage, infants rearing, and domestic management. They must be given the opportunity to earn their own living; for instance, by enlarging the equipment of temporary teachers’ training institutions. Various national institutions must be organized for the solution of this problem.
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