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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0172, 1946-01-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0783

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 783 Date: 16 Jan. 1946

SOCIAL SERIES: 172

ITEM 1 Patriotic Literary Societies-Kochi Shimbun-8 January 1946. Translator: Ogawa, Tonoye.
Summary:
Our aim to reveal the war crimes of the JAPAN Literary Patriotic Association will provide a basis for profound reflection upon past militarism and the narrow-minded literary isolation policy. The trend of our literary world, which has been connected with the trends of the times, is shown, if we recall the period just before the outbreak of the world war two.
The "Iron Society" (KUROGANE KAI): The predecessor of this group was the "Groliers Group" (KAGAYAKU BUTAI) under the leadership of Mrs. OKADA, Yachiye. This group disbanded in October 1942. Later when the KUROGANE KAI was organized by the writers who had been holding and authors' round table conference at the Naval Officers' Club every week under the leadership of the Naval Information Office, the former group was consolidated without the latter. This group consisted chiefly of writers, and its membership amounted to 1,000. The aim of this group was the furthering of interests in maritime affairs and the promotion of national interest in foreign affairs. At the inauguration ceremony of the association Mr. TSUMURA, Teshiyuhi, author of the "The Blockade of the South Seas" was awarded the first KUEOGAME KAI prize.
The Culture Deportment of the Imperial Rule Assistance Society; In November of the same year a new plan for supporting the Imperial Rule by poetry was proposed by the Culture Department of the Imperial Rule Assistance Society (YOEUSAN KAI). The groups of poets which joined this campaign were as follows:

The Great JAPAN Poet's Association (OKI, Atuo, the President) (DAI NIPPON SHIJIN KYOKAI); The JAPAN Poets' Association (OSADA, Tsuneo, the President) (NIPPON SHIJIN KYOKAI); the JAPAN Young Poets' League (MATSUMOTO, Hampei, the President) (NIPPON SEINEN SHIJIN REMMEI); the All JAPAN Poetesses' Association (FUKAO, Sumako, the President) (ZEN NIPPON FUJIN SHIJIN KAI); the Great JAPAN National Poets' Assosiation (KAGOSHIMA, Toshizo, the President) (DAI NIPPON KAJIN KAI).

Besides the representatives of the above mentioned groups, such poets as TAKAMURA, Kotaso; MIYOSHI, Setsuji; and TOKI, Temmaro; also supported this group. The group fostered the ideals of militarism through the radio, gramophone records and pamphlets.



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SOCIAL SERIES: 172 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)
The Aviation Literary Association (KOKU BUNGAKU KAI): On 15 November of the same year, this association was organized to interest young men enlisting as Army and Navy fliers. The Aviation Superintendant was its counciller; the chairman was KIKUCHI, Kan; KITAMURA, Komatsu, was its secretary; and KIMURA, Sojuro was its leading member. The "Aviation Civilization" (KOKU BUNKA) the organ of the association was published by these authors. A book written by AKINAGA, Kaoru entitled "Men of Wing (TSUBASA NO HITUBITO), was awarded the first KOKU BUNKA prize.
The Literary men's Patriotic Conference (BUNGAKUSHA AIKOKU DAIKAI: The trends in our literary world have become more apparent since 8 December 1942, when the above mentioned conference was held. This conference was held at the YOKUSAN KAI office, and the meeting was attended by 350 representatives of various literary circles, under the chairmanship of KIKUCHI, Kan. At the meeting SASAKI, Nakutsuna, a veteran national poet stressed that poets must write patriotic pieces which will be imbedded in the nation's bossom for centuries. TOKI, Zemmaro; OZAKI, Kihachi; SATO, Hachiro; and TAKAMURA, Katare wrote poetry which emphasized the idea of smashing AMERICA and GREAT BRITAIN. After the meeting was adjourned, KIKUCHI, Kan; YOSHIKAWA, Eiji; NAKAMURA, Murao; NAKANO, Minoru; HIBINO, Shiro; TOGAWA, Sadao; and YOSHIYA, Nobuke visited the Army and Navy Ministries to present a letter of thanks.
The Literary Patriotic Association (BUNGAKU HOKOKU KAI): On 18 June, 1943, the JAPAN Literary Patriotic Association (NIPPON BUNGAKU HOKOKU KAI) was inaugurated as an outside body of the Information Bureau. This Association had 4,000 members including representatices from all branches of literature. The staff members were as follows: President TOKUTOMI, Iichiro; leading members - KIKUCHI, Kan; KUME, Masao; TOKAWA, Sadao; KOGA, Saburo; FUKUDA, Kiyoto; YOSHIYA, Nobuko; KUBOTA, Mantaro; YOSHISU, Shi; SHIOTA, Ryoher; OZAKI, Kihachi; and OKI, Atsuo. Among the officials of the Information Bureau, Mr. INOUE, Shiro, Chief of the third Section of the fifth Department, gave strong support to this association.
The Greater East ASIA Literary men's Conference (DAI TOA BUNGAKUSHA DAI): Under the auspices of the abovementioned BUNGAKU HOKOKU KAI, conferences were held twice. The conferences were attended by reactionary authors of JAPAN, MANCHURIA, INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA, and the southern nations, under the platform of enhancing Asiatic civilization throughout the world. At the conference "The One Hundred Patriotic National Poems" (AIKOKU HYAKUNIN ISSHU) and "The National Mottoes" (KOKUMIN ZAYUNO MEI) were selected. This conference committed a serious blunder in driving our nation into hostility by playing the role of the cat's paw of the militalistic clique and the bureaucrats.
ITEM 2 Round Table Conference on Education (Part II) - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
Party Politics and Education
KATAYAWA: Even if new political parties come to power educational liberation and the accomplishment of real education free from totalitarianism must be realized, so that there may arise no question in JAPAN of liberating education from the interference of party politics.
TANAKA: In parliamentary politics, one minister who places special stress on education may, in some cases be replaced by another, not so enthusiastic or entirely lacking in understanding. Such changes should be avoided. Frequent changes in the presidents of universities through the influence of party politics must likewise be avoided, although such occurrences are comparatively rare, as antonomy is recognized so far as the university system is concerned. In secondary and primary education, we cannot guarantee that the old vices of party politics will not revive.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 172 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
in the future.
KATAYAMA: There were many such vices in the old days of party politics at the time of SEIYUKAI and MINSEITO. (TN: Politicians Party and Democratic Party). Particularly when police politics were very active, even policemen were changed with cabinet changes to strengthen the influence of the party than in power, However, political parties will not survive in the future unless they act in conformity with their respective policies, which will Necessarily differ according to their respective ideologies. So, in my party, the educational policy will be made public and we shall do the best to carry out such a policy.
This is also the case with questions other than education. Accordingly, I think it is unavoidable that educational principles, together with educational authorities, including teachers, should change with cabinet changes if the above principles of political guidance are adhered to. If a socialist party is in power, the principles of a socialistic education will be adopted and if a plutocratic party is in power, the principles of a capitalistic education will make their appearance. This, however, does not constitute an argument, against party politics, which is quite a different question.
TANAKA: That is the question. If educators who take a certain view of life and the world should retire when a political party with different views comes into power, they must be replaced by ether educators. Take the example of law courts. All courts are now occupied almost entirely by judges with capitalistic leanings. Can we think of their changing or retirement masse if the socialists or the communists come to power? On the contrary, we consider judges or the judicial system as being neutral, of the judges stand point, in that they maintain social order and are charged with the carrying out of justice.
Similar considerations may be applied to education. At least educators supply leaders required by the civilized and democratic state, with a common view of life and the world. Such leaders may later join either the progressive, socialist or any other party. But if fundamental education, forming the basis of social life, or, in other words, objective culture, compatible ,with any view of life and the world, or common to any political party, is given at school, it would not be necessary to change the teachers.
KATAYAMA: I think so to a certain extent. As you said just now, if an education which teaches the truth or an educational system free from temporary expediencies is firmly established, I have no objection to educators remaining in office to accomplish bravely the inherent mission of education. If such honest and true educators are in the majority, their replacement is mot of course necessary. However, in present day JAPAN, education has been too distorted to suit temporary expedients, so it would be impossible, for instance, for the socialists party when it is in power, to realize its educational principles without reforming all the schools. If such a reform reaches an adequate level, the ideas of Mr. TANAKA may well be maintained.
YAGI: I think it necessary to bring up good individuals who are at the same tine good nationals. School is generally thought to be the place where scholars are fostered and truth is studied. I think, therefore, that school education can not mold a good man. The pursuit of truth and the advanced study of science are apt to be considered as the sole aim of school education. The pursuit of good and virtue and beauty must be emphasized more than before. More attention must be paid to mental uplift in schools.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 172 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
TANAKA: I referred to the search for truth. This of course includes all truth, good and beauty. The most important of these is good, viz: morality. Moral principles may be learned but this doesnot necessarily mean the development of personality or the healthy development of individuality. The authorities are by no means placing too much stress on natural scientific truth alone. The development of personality is considered most important. A developed personality is the basis of good citizenship. The fundamental object of humanity does not only exist on a moral plane which is purely subjective but lies chiefly in the objective moral to which all humanity should conform. Without this, science and technique would be meaningless and of no use.
YAGI: Militaristic restraint, the influence of political parties and other outside influences are said to be responsible for the decay of JAPAN's educational circlea. Even if all such influences are removed, I regret to have to say that the ultimate cause of their decay is dormant within themselves. For example, the prevailing ides that knowledge alone should be given in schools is the cause of education being dull and moribund. To avoid this, a new educational system must be established, and the existing normal school educationa system, revised accordingly. At present education gives the impression, of being as formal as was militaristic education.
ITEM 3 Imperial Family Securities-Asahi Shimbun-14 January 1946. Translator: Kita awa Tarao.
Full Translation:
Property belonging to the Imperial Family estimated at 1,590,000,000 yen including land, forests and securities will be disposed of and the family will be deprived of its character as ZAIBATSU or tremendous landowners. Regulations for the Bank of JAPAN will be revised in such a way that stockholders of the bank will be limited to either government or financial institutions, and private stock owners, will thus be eliminated. Stocks of the bank possessed by the Imperial Household amounting to 208 thousand shares representing 20,800,000 yen as well as stocks of other corporations will be pasted with in some way. Cash and readily marketable securities belonging to the Household are estimated at 336,159,000 yen and in 1942 included 138 million yen of national bonds, 26 million yen of prefectural debentures, 87 million yen of stocks, representing 29 companies below, 58 million yen of debentures and cash amounting to 24 million yen.
Apart from stocks of companies assets of which nave been frozen By a General Headquarters directive, stocks especially those of banks of special function owned by the Imperial Household are tremendous. The methods to be followed in eliminating the Imperial Families from the list of share holders, are first, selling then on the open market, and second disposing of them by sale to one of the governmental institutions or to a special organization. Steps to be taken for the purpose are being studied by the Finance Ministry and the Department of the Imperial Household.
The list of stocks owned by he Imperial Household is as follows:
Stocks of Number of stocks Yen
The Bank of JAPAN (NIPPON GINKO) 208,000 20,800,000
The YOKOHAMA Special Bank (YOKOHAMA SHOKIN GINKO) 209,318 21,500,000
The Industrial Bank of JAPAN (NIPPON KOGYO GINKO) 45,459 1,420,000
The Bank of Formoss (Taiwan Ginko) 30,264 1,891,000
The Oriental Development Company (TOYO TAKUSHOKU KAISHA) 50,000 1,875,000
The Imperial Bank (TEIKOKU GINKO) 29,110 1,280,000

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SOCIAL SERIES: 172 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The HOKKAIDO Development Bank (HOKKAIDO TAKUSHOKU GINKO) 153.976 6,700,000
The JAPAN Mail Steamshin Company (NIPPON YUSEN KAISHA) 161,100 8,210,000
The Oji Paper-Mill Company (OJI SEISHI KAISHA) 60,608 13,582,000
The South Manchurian Railway Company (MINAMI-MINSHU TETSUDO KAISHA) 34,375 3,290,000
The FORMOSA Sugar Refining Company (TAIWAN SEITO KAISHA) 39,600 1,980,000
The KANTO Electric Current Distributing Company (KANIO HAIDEN) 34,759 1,737,000
ITEM 4 Unsold Fish Startling Sight at Yesterday's Market-Tokyo Shimbun-13 January 1946. Translator: Hiroshi Sato.
Full Translation:
What happened in the central market on the 11th was quite an incomprehensible thing to the citizens of TOKYO. There were sardines priced at 24 yen per kamme and flat-fish at 11 yen. These fish were heaped up unsold though they were priced at half the black market price. This was the result of a boycott by retailers who have a violent dislike for low priced fish. These fish remained there growing stale. Such is the trouble caused by the defective official price control system of the present.
That day the usual amount of fish totalling about 11 tons including 700 kamme of fresh sardines caught at 8080 and 4000 kamme of shark and fiat fish was brought to the market. As usual the official price was fixed at the meeting of the price committee composed of representatives of consumer, producer retailers' union, and controlling corporation, and the fish was assigned to their branches respectively. But these branches accepted only a very small portion and had gone away leaving the remaining 2,000 kamme of fish untouched.
At the end of last year and the beginning of this month, dealers of these branches used to go directly to the fishing centers and bought a large amount of fish of which they have not yet fully disposed. This is why these dealers could not touch this newly arrived cheaper fish which was sent to be consumed in the kitchens of TOKYO citizens.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0172, 1946-01-16.
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