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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0170, 1946-01-15.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0773

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 773 Date: 15 Jan 46


ITEM 1 Case of Small at Miyazaki - Provincial Newspaper Hiuga Nichi Nichi 1 Shimbun (MIYAZAKI) - 9 January 1946. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
A genuine case of small pox is reported from the city of MIYAZAKI . Kiss TAKARA, Masae, 15 year old, living at No. 583 OSHIMA residential quarters in OSHIMA - NACHI, MIYAKI returned home from KOBL on 27 December last year and had an attack of fever on the 30th of the same month. On 7 January a medical examination proved it to be a case of small-pox. The Health Section of the MIYAZAKI Prefectural Office enforced compulsory medical examination of people living in OSHIMA residences, by several physicians. Access to their living quarters has been stopped since the 7th. Dr. THOMPSON of the occupation forces also assisted, and preventive measures have been taken by both the Japanese and the American authorities. The patient has been accommodated in a former military hospital at NITTAHARA which has been taken over by the American forces. As there was no serum in the prefectural office, it was brought from KUMAMOTO by an American plane, and vaccinations will be made shortly all over the prefecture.
ITEM 2 Ministry of Education Decides on Measures for Revision of History Lessons in Schools - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 January 1946. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
In accordance with a SCAP directive Japanese history is to be fundamentally revised, and for this purpose the Bureau of Textbooks in the Education Ministry is contemplating the compilation of new, correct and authentic textbooks on Japanese history within the next two years. A thorough scrutiny will be made of the books from the viewpoints of history, anthropology, archaeology, and racial characteristics by qualified scholars, who will be selected soon. In the meantime, temporary textbooks will be published in pamphlet form for the next school term beginning in April.
The draft of temporary history textbooks has already been prepared, and methods for their compilation are expected to be fixed at a meeting of members of the compilation committee to be held at the education Ministry on 15 January. The members are IMAl, kiyoshi, RYU, Shiku, ITAZAWA, Takeo, HIGO, Kazuo, SAKAMOTO, Taro, WADA, Kiyoshi, and YAMAKAKA, Kenji. Particulars will be decided upon at this meeting, and important revisions made in regard to ancient and modern histories.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 170 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Ancient history: The chapter on the divine age will be erased, in consequence of which the mythical period from the sun goddess to the descent to earth of the descendants of the sun goddess. The post important part on the old textbooks will he completely deleted, making it impossible to teach traditional myths. School history will begin with the accession to the throne of the Emperor JIMMU. The exact dates of eras and the unbroken line of Emperors, on which different views are expressed, will be set forth simply. No mention of differences of opinion, however, will be made in textbooks for national and secondary schools in order to avoid possible confusion of the students.
Modern history: Descriptions intended to justify JAPAN's aggressive actions after MEIJI Restoration will be revised fundamentally, and stress will be placed on the present defeat being caused by her aggressive actions from the Sino-Japanese incident up to the present war. There may arise some doubt as to whether it is permissible to teach old Japanese historical records such as KOJIKI (TN: Ancient chronicle) or NIPPON SHOKI (TN: Ancient history). The Education Ministry is of an affirmative opinion on this point.
The history of the Japanese defeat in the PACIFIC War will be taught until the new term, in place of morals, history, and geography. The task of compiling this history has been entrusted to Mr. KODAMA, Kuju, of the MEISEI Middle School and Mr. AKAI, Yonekichi, of the TAMAGAWA School s.
ITEM 3 Future of Neighborhood Association (TONARIGUMI) - Magazine: Saisei (Monthly) - Dec 45 Issue. Translator: N.Yagiu.
The Neighborhood Association is undoubtedly a product of war. Since the war is over, it must be reformed or abolished. During wartime it had shown a lot of merits as well as demerits. I think it would lead to the solution of innumerable problems facing us. I am sure that it would play an important role in the rebirth of a peaceful JAPAN if it were properly operated and led by sensible men.
Man has an instinct to form groups with others around him. Family, neighborhood and occupation are the three smallest among those groups. The neighborhood is the basis of towns, cities and prefectures. Furthermore, it is not so much a legal or political body as a moral one. It is a spring of love and sympathy.
Originally we were a humor-loving people. But our humorous feathers have recently been lost, bringing about the present tragedy, A happy and quiet life, a peaceful and familiar society . . . are these not all based on the Neighborhood Association? It is a delightful, though more or less primitive, social club.
Some people seem to consider that a slight judicial power might be allowed the Neighborhood Association. But an organization for penalty is already set up in the Government. We must know that class sanctions as well as revenge is remnant of feudalistic ages when state sovereignty was not strong enough.
Of course, the Neighborhood Association must be drastically reformed along lines fit newly given purposes. A gathering of people is easily degenerated unnoticed. So the Neighborhood Association must be firmly established on a just foundation, lest it is misused or exploited for underhand purposes. "TONARIGUMI" is not bad as a Japanese word, but it is a little hard to pronounce. Not only for that, but also to turn over a new leaf we had better create a more familiar and charming name. "Do unto others as thou wouldst have them do unto you". This should be the motto and theme of the new groups.
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ITEM 4 Social Conditions Among Demobilized Men - Asahi Shimbun - 13 January 1946. Translator: T. Ogawa.
The majority of demobilized servicemen are unable to contribute anything to the construction of a new JAPAN as they are only wandering in a weakened state due to the serious difficulties of life. A great many of them have become blackmarketeers. The worst of them have lowered themselves even to burglary under the abominable name of "demoralized special attack unit'! His Majesty the Emperor, being deeply worried about this terrible situation, has asked the vice-ministers of the 1st and the 2nd Demobilization Ministries respectively about the present state of these demobolized servicemen and the possibility of giving them the necessary guidance. To this Imperial question the two vice-ministers he be answered that a written report to that effect will be presented to the Throne shortly. The Emperor repeated the same question on Thursday. The authorities concerned drafted the report hurriedly so the report is to be submitted shortly to the throne.
The gist of the report to the Throne is as follows: The majority of the demobilized servicemen except those who have returned to the rural districts are in a state of degradation having lost their will to live due to the sudden change in environment and the cold treatment given them by the world, and also because of the present economic situation, which makes it impossible for them to earn a living legitimately. The number of those who have lowered themselves to becoming blackmarketeers or burglars is very few at present, on the whole, and they are limited only to non-commissioned officers and men with comparatively low level of education. There are signs of the great possibility, however, that even officers might follow this tendency in the future, unless some counter-measures are taken. Considering the fact that officers are generally more intellectual or have more will power than the rank and file, their future is quite a serious problem. The relief work for these demobilized servicemen without employment, is being considered by the vocational Guidance Association from the same viewpoint As the civilian unemployed. In the case of the demobilized servicemen, however, no actual guidance is seen because they have been mentally weakened. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to take effective methods of guidance both materially and mentally.
1. In this connection Mr. KOTSUKI, Vice-Minister of the 1st Demobilization Ministry who has drafted the report to the Throne states as follows.
It is extremely regrettable that the demobilized servicemen, who once were His Majesty's right hand men, are continuing their worthless living, and that some of them have been scorned by the people. Having been asked, twice by His Majesty I am quite overawed. I have made up my mind to comply with His Majesty's wishes by co-operation with the nubile.
2. Mr. Vice-Minister of the Welfare Ministry states as follows:
Our policy of treating demobilized and disabled servicemen is based on a directive of MacARTHUR's Headquarters. Accordingly they will receive the same treatment as the civilian unemployed. I am of the opinion, however, that we grade our sympathy, if such grading is allowed, as follows: Those who are most to be pitied are the demobilized servicemen, especially those who have been repatriated from abroad, next come the repatriated civilians from abroad, and raid-victi[illegible].
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SOCIAL SERIES: 170 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
I want the public at least to welcome those repatriated servicemen from abroad with a warm heart, though we are unable to give them any special benefits. We will do our best in their relief work as well as in helping civilian unemployed and raid-victims.
The vocational guidance for demobilized servicemen will be handled at the Labor Bureau, while the same business for the bereaved families of the war-dead will be handled at the Social Bureal.
3. The Home Minister's opinion is as follows:
The increase of crimes in the post-war period is quite inevitable. As the authorities responsible for the control over this trend, we are making every effort to restrict these crimes, especially the crimes of committed by the former "Special Attack Fliers or demobilized servicemen. We want a prompt solution to such a social situation, which might encourage their effenses, at the same time we want to have the thought that those who have committed a crime, should be punished without fail, thoroughly recognized by these people. Alone with this the method of preventing crimes will also be thoroughly considered.
While it is rumored that a great many of the demobilized men have lowered themselves, on the other hand there are some of them who are endeavoring to get on their feet for the reconstruction of their fatherland. Many demobilized servicemen have joined the Communist Party recently.
In this connection Mr. OKI, Shigenori of the JAPAN Communist Party states af follows:
The fact that among the recent criminals are found many demobilized servicemen, indicates how an aggressive war has spoiled the innocent mind of our young men. Two former young officers, both graduates of the Army Aviation Academy, visited our office yesterday to try and solve their problem and dispel their doubts about the present situation. Among those who visit our office, we find so many demobilized servicemen. Their relief will be settled by the hands of the Peoples' Government alone. It is worth of note that among the offenses of late, there are crimes which were not committed merely in order to live, but which were systematic crimes. Our party is planning to start the relief work for demobilized men by appointing a Demobilized Men's Relief Committee.
5. Mr. NISHIO of the JAPAN Social Party states as follows:
We should show sympathy to the situation and feelings of the demobilized servicemen, even though it is impossible to give them any special favor. The demobilized servicemen themselves should seek positions which are steady by recognizing the present social situation without thinking that they alone have a priority on finding a job.
ITEM 5 Conditions at Uraga - Tokyo Shimbun - 14 January 1946. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Three months have elapsed since the commencement of repatriation from the southern areas and approximately 10,000 civilians have already made port at URAGA Harbor. Among those evacuees, nearly 80 percent were persons from OKINAWA, the majority of whom had no
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SOCIAL SERIES: 170 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Near relatives or friends. Consequently, a dormitory for the laborers of the URAGA Dock Company has been used to house them. Recently, the number of those evacuees has increased.
A large number of American vessels are being used for the repatriation from overseas, and as a result, approximately 10,000 persons per day will be able to return to their motherland. To meet those situations, more homes to accomodate them were established at KURIHAMA and YOKOSUKA.
The URAGA Evacuees Relief Bureau (URAGA HIKIAGE ENGOKYOKU) has decided to send 2,000 evacuees to SHIZUOKA -Ken and 100 other evacuees to SAITAMA-ken. The evacuees sent to various areas are to be given economic guidance to insure that they may make a home. Almost all the evacuees are in a miserable condition. They lack sufficient clothing to tide over the cold winter. Especially, are the women and children becoming the target of general sympathy. Each repatriate from PALAU or YAP had been allowed to carry 1,000 yen as well as his savings pass-book. Persons who have come from DAVAO, LEYTE, and MANILA, and so forth, are most miserable, because they could not withdraw their money from the banks and they lack necessary clothing.
Many evacuees at URAGA have borrowed money from the Peoples' Money Deposit (SHOMIN KINKO). With a certificate which makes this possible, a bachelor can borrow 300 yen; a person with a family, can borrow 500 yen; a man with near relatives can borrow about 1,000 yen. A repatriate from DAVAO said, "I borrowed money from the People's Money Deposit to buy some radishes and other vegetables. All the repatriates accommodated at the URAGA Home are worried about the shortage of foodstuff. They have no money for entertainment such as cinema. The URAGA Relief Bureau gave them some straw sandals and military summer suits, but no clothing for the use of women and children, A movement to relieve the poor evacuees has been initiated recently at YOKOSUKA-Shi. It is expected that this movement will prevail all over the country.
ITEM 6 Crime Trends and Neighborhood Crime Protection Associations - Tokyo Shimbun - 14 January 1946. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Recently, murder cases of persons going to the country to buy food, burglaries committed by demobilized servicemen, and various other crimes committed by the unemployed suffering from difficult living conditions, have increased. However, those crimes, it is thought, can be avoided.
Tue Metropolitan Police Board is planning to reorganize the Crime Protection Association (BOHAN KYOKAI) whose activities in the part were conducted only by the police. But, hereafter, every citizen will have responsibility in the activity of the Association in order to banish crime from the metropolitan area. The new plan aims to eliminate the bureaucratic elements from the association system.
The Crime Protection Associations established within each jurisdiction area of the various police stations will have as advisers the head
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SOCIAL SERIES: 170 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
of the police station. A branch will also be set up at each neighborhood group association and the head of the neighborhood association will be appointed the head of the branch. The items to be handled at the branches of the Associations are: popularization of knowledge regarding crimes; co-operation with the police when arresting a criminal; collection of various information; kind guidance of the men who must be protected; aid to the unemployed, and warm hearted treatment of the demobilized servicemen. These functions will be carried out under the guidance of the head of the neighbor- hood group association.
The night patrols now conducted at various places will be included in the activities of the association. Each neighborhood association will form a self-protection unit. A large expenditure will be required for the reorganization. As the plan is for the sake of self-protection of the citizens, donations from well-wishers are expected to be used for this.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0170, 1946-01-15.
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