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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0165, 1946-01-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0742

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 742 Date: 13 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 165

ITEM 1 Special Attack Corps Member Returns Home Alive - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimbun (Sendai) - 5 January 1946. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary:
A member of the Special Attack Corps, who was considered dead, returned home to the surprise of his family. HYODO, Kizo, aged 24, was drafted into the Special Attack Corps, which was formed within the KASUMIGAUEA Air Force in November 1944, and was in action as a fighter escort pilot in the KONGO Special Attack Corps. On hearing of the annihilation of the KONGO unit, the family believed that he was dead. But Kizo came home at 0700 on 1 January. Kizo described his safe return as follows:
"At the air base in CEBU we were ordered to attack the American Force which was attacking LEYTE and then to attack American ships sailing toward LINGAYEN. When the American Force landed at LINGAYEN, only 20 pilots out of 600 remained in our unit, and only a few airplanes were left. The remnants of our unit were ordered to join the TAIGI unit, based in TAIWAN. At that time the American Forces landed in OKINAWA, and when we were preparing a last attack by all members, the surrender was announced on 15 August.
"We had been led to believe in victory and we could not believe it was true. Afterwards, we were forced to move to SHINSHA, where we spent our time growing vegetables. A cruiser transported us to KAGOSHIMA on 26 December."
Kizo further stated to the press:
"I am alive because I was a fighter escort pilot and not a suicide pilot. I cannot tell whether it is lucky or not for me to be alive when I think of my friends who died in action. I was sincerely sorry for them. AKIZAWA, Kiyoshi, another pilot, who is still alive, said that he wished to devote the remainder of his life to memorial services for his dead friends, and I, too, share the same feeling."
ITEM: 2 Conference of Miyagi Middle School Principals - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shibun (Sendai) - 7 January 1946. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
For the purpose of moulding school education on the lines of the SCAP directive on education, a conference of principals of secondary schools in MIYAGI-Ken was held in the city of SENDAI on 4 and 5 January. Governor CHIBA addressed the assembly as follows:
"Although the causes of our defeat are manifold, lack of internal unity caused by moral degradation and poverty of scientific techniques are the most conspicuous from an internal standpoint. In his New

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SOCIAL SERIES: 165 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Year's message, the Emperor graciously said, 'We must construct a new JAPAN by abolishing the old evil customs. To abolish the old customs is particularly necessary in educational circles. The burden of constructing a new JAPAN must be born not so much by ourselves as by the students you now are teaching, so that you are requested to do your best to disseminate moral and scientific education in conformity with the Imperial Rescript."
His address also referred to school discipline, the introduction of new educational principles for secondary schools, religious education, etc. As to the abolition of geography, history, and morals under the SCAP directive, various questions were raised by the principals, most of whom were anxious to know if European and American history can be taught in lieu of Japanese history, and how teachers of the three courses to be abolished can be employed. These questions are to be settled later in accordance with the instructions of the Ministry of Education.
Regarding the selection of students to be admitted to secondary schools for the coming school year, opinions were exchanged, and it was decided to hold examinations in almost the same way as the preceding year. Slight modifications will be made to bring them into line with the changes in the present social and educational conditions. Composite examinations and the regional school system are opposed by private and suburband schools. The composite examination system and the regional school system were opposed by almost all the private schools and some of provincial schools. The latter, however, suggested improvements on this system, based on their experiences during the past two years. A few urban schools supported this system. The following are some of the opinions expressed at the conference:
Students admitted to the school they have listed as their second choice are apt to change schools. Though inferior in ability, students living near the school are preferred from the standpoint of school management.
The existing bureaucratic composite examination system and regional school system must be eliminated, and freedom of choice in selecting a school must be given to students. Composite examinations are too troublesome.
The composite examination system aims at the exclusion of personal influence and favoritism in admission, but in reality the trouble involved outweighs any benefit it may have. The regional school system is far better if traffic, food, and postwar conditions are taken into consideration.
The composite examination system would not be so bad if methods of marking were made more simple. The regional school system should be abolished in the city of SENDAI. Written examinations must be added. Entrance examinations must not be given on the same day in public and private schools.
To avoid admission to schools by personal influence, the composite examination system is preferred.
The composite examination system should be abolished. Examination questions should be prepared by a meeting of representatives of the schools concerned.
There must be more written examinations. Verbal examination is apt to be subjective.
It is hoped that in national schools students will be taught in accordance with their desires as far as possible.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 165 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
In a certain private girls' high school, many students wanted to leave after the war to go to other schools. This was found to be an expression of dissatisfaction since they had been forced, as a result of the composite examination system, to enter a Protestant school in spite of their being children of Catholic families; and so a change of schools was allowed.
At a round-table conversation the same day an education inspector declared the attitude taken by this school was due to the old regulations prohibiting students from changing schools. This naturally caused grave concern to the religious schools, as it clearly indicated an attitude denying the freedom of religion. The principal of a certain prefectural school expressed his desire to have entrance examinations held on different days in public and private schools so that if students failed to enter his school, they may be given a chance to go to a private school. This proposal once again provoked severe attacks from private school principals.
The above two examples of educators, who are in charge of our democratic education, show, to our great regret, how deep-rooted is the old bureaucratic idea among some of them.
ITEM 3 New Education - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 8 January Translator: Kinoshita.
Summary:
By the democratization of education, the Education Ministry has enlarged its administrative range from the narrow school education to a wider scope of social education. The administration of physical training and civil culture have also been transferred from the Welfare Office and the Bureau of Information. Now the educational authorities are confronted with a number of problems requiring solution.
In the educational administration proper, the problem of excluding educators with militaristic tendencies and reappointment of liberal teachers demands a speedy solution. The stabilization and promotion of the teachers livelihood is the most important issue to be decided in the difficult situation, in which some teachers are forced to become black marketeers.
The democratic renovation of the educational system must be accomplished to the extent of giving equal opportunity to everyone, including woman students. Revision and publication of textbooks demands both speed and deliberation. Furthermore, the dispersion of educational institutes to various districts must be considered in keeping with the land program. Stabilization of living in students' domitories is another fundamental problem.
In the cultural administration of literary, theatrical, fine arts, music, and movie enterprises, there should be no oppressive control, but a fair support for the healthy growth of cultural bodies.
In physical training we must endeavor to check the postwar decline in the national physical standard by encouraging the national spirit through sports. The supply of sporting goods is also of official concern. Creation of new national sports is keenly needed to replace the prohibited militaristic sports.
ITEM 4 Crime Tendencies in NAGANO - Provincial Newspaper Shinano Mainichi (Nagano) - 9 January 1946. Translabor: J. Kinoshita.
Summary:
An increase in the number and ferocity of crimes was reported by the
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SOCIAL SERIES: 165 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Section of Criminal Affairs in NAGANO-Ken, based upon the statistics as of the end of October 1945.
The number of crimes has leaped from a monthly average of 801 cases and 573 criminals before the war's end to 1,334 cases and 1,210 criminals, marking a 166 per cent increase. The most remarkable increase is in the number of robberies, having gene up 230 per cent. The total number of crimes counting the unrecorded potty crimes is supposed to be at least four or five times greater.
The stealing of crops in fields has decreased from the prewar 760 cases to the postwar 543 cases owing to a guard system organized after the war's end, but there are three times as many cases as in the corresponding months of the previous year. The shortage of food has stimulated robbery, fraud, and plunder of various foods, indicating an increase of food thefts by 153 per cent in rice, 170 per cent in wheat, 33 per cent in potatoes, and 187 per cent in vegetables over the previous year. The stealing of clothing shows an increase of 109 per cent. The pilfering of items in luggage and parcels has increased 300 per cent, and the number of bicycles stolen has gone up 360 per cent. Stealing of cash has shown a slight increase, but the abolition of official prices in fresh food materials has been causing a steady increase since high priced goods in black market dealings require more money.
Crimes committed by demobilized soliders, ex-criminals, and juvenile delinquents are on the increase. There have been 95 cases of illegal butchery committed, mostly by KOREANS during the two months period after the war's end. Indication that the size of the police force is inadequate to cope with the situation is the 20 per cent decrease in the number of criminals apprehended.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0165, 1946-01-13.
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