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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0162, 1946-01-12.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0725

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 725 Date: 12 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 162

ITEM 1 Roundtable Discussion on the Democratization of Japanese Living - Provincial Newspaper Bocho Shimbun (Yamaguchi) - 4 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Most Japanese do not know what a democratic form of living means, so it is most important to teach them. To begin with the Japanese language must be revised so that instead of the infinite gradations of politeness, denoting class differences, common civilaty in speech will be taught and practiced. This must start in the family. At present, feudal terms are still used by the husband in his relation toward the wife. The expressions are, as a rule, disparaging, stressing the inferior status of the wife.
Another thing of paramount importance is that everyone be indoctrinated with a sense of responsibility toward his work. This quality is often totally absent among people in minor positions, such as servants, petty officials, and clerks.
The democratic way of life is observable in the relations of American enlisted, men and officers. While at work, they observe strict discipline and display a sense of responsibility; after working hours, they go about as equals.
The other day an American soldier in his jeep noted a young boy bowing to a policeman with each word be uttered. The soldier was so incenses that he stopped his jeep and asked the meaning of such actions. The policeman, thereupon, bowed, to the American just as often as the boy had bowed to the policeman. The American then advised the policeman that bowing to him was as wrong as making the boy bow to the policeman.
Moreover, that such confusion should exist between concepts if individualism and egotism is regrettable. People seem to forget that individualism is based upon self-discipline and self-respect. A manifestation of this confusion is the congestion in travel conveyances.
While the GUMBATSU was under attack, another reprehensible trait became evident. People began ignoring all soldiers even though many of the demobilized troops deserved sympathy.
Ambignity is another Japanese foible. In social intercourse, the Japanese, unlike the American who endeavors to find the admirable points in others, continually finds fault. The Frenchman describes his love affairs to a friend, inviting criticism; the Japanese conceals his love affairs, but delights in maligning the love affairs of others. In culturalty advanced natious, the daughter seeks her mother's advice on love affairs. Japanese mothers frequently abuse the daughter's faith by furtively opening her letters and exercising a secret censorship.
In reaching a solution for current labor disputes, two things are necessary; an understanding of the needs of the worker on the part of the management, and increased enthusiasm and sence of responsibility toward his work on the part of the worker. Some American soldiers, constructing a barracks

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SOCIAL SERIES: 162 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
recently, returned some defective material, demanding that it he replaced. This indicated independance of thought and action. A Japanese would use the material, even if he knew it was no good.
The existence of clans is by no means restricted to JAPAN. They exist in ENGLAND and AMERICA, as well; hut clans in JAPAN have developed into a national clan system.
Motherly love is a very commendable quality, but in JAPAN it is often indiscriminately stupid, leading to sacrifices that frequently harm both the mother and the offspring. Improved standards in the education of mothers is extremely necessary.
Japanese moreover have net learned to recognize the right of privacy. It begins with parents who attempt to keep newly wed couples from having a private life, and extends itself over the neighborhood associations, and system of rationing where the housewife is compelled to go out at all hours to get the ration, even when she is occupied cooking.
Real co-operation must be taught, working hours must be regulated and so reduced to permit adequate leisure to allow participation in social functions, and to help people learn to think for themselves.
ITEM 2 The Police - Provincial Newspaper Kobe Shimbun (Kobe) - 5 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
Discording the veil of political police during the war, the Japanese police are now going to democratize themselves. The establishment of a democratic police force is by no means an easy task in the face of the dismal social condition prevalent throughout the country. It is especially so in the case of KOBE as that is an international city. As the IKUTA Police Office has international free markets within its jurisdiction, it is always exposed to the danger of unjustifiable collective violence. The escape of a gang detained at the police office on 23 December caused a profound uneasiness among the citizens as it signifies the submission of a democratic police force before the force of violence, and cries have been raised for the speedy establishment of judical police, the first step toward democratic police. In view of the seriousness of the situation, the American military police in KOBE are now lending their full assistance to the Japanese. The above police office is now doing its best to prevent unjustifiable acts of violence, and Mr. NAKBA, Chief of that office, said:
"The gang of burglars detained in my office managed their escape by violent means last December, which is certainly a great dishonor for police forces. Three of the ringleaders have already been arrested and detained here, and the rest will, without fail, be arrested within this month."
He is now ready to solve amicably matters of this post, involving foreigners and is hoping to have opportunities to talk over any case with those concerned, there being posted on the door of his office a democratic expression. He has opened his room to hear popular voice, on the principle that "conservation with the chief of police will hasten understanding," and he is doing his best to eleminate any friction with foreigners. Only recently bosses living in SANNOMIYA offered assistance, but he refused them for fear of such friction.
However it may be, the decrease in the police force that is the cause for the citizens' uneasiness, so that the establishment of a judicial police force of the American type is desired.
The following are some of the opinions of the KOBE, police force police authorities in
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SOCIAL SERIES: 162 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
regards to the promotion of a democratic police force:
A, chief of police: "The decrease in the police force is the effect, to a large extent, of the influence of the times. For instance, retiring policemen are more numerous than those recently employed. It is regrettable that among retiring men there are many able policemen who formed the back bone of the police force. Those with families are retiring, which accounts for the difficulty of living and the drop in the quality of police. The improvement in their treatment is absolutely necessary to prevent such a drop in the police force.
A, police sergeant: "The want of materials is responsible for the decline of the police force, to say nothing of the mental side of the picture. Police telephones cannot be repaired speedily and automobiles and bicycles are lacking. To strengthen the police force, such equipment must be fully supplied. The improvement of such equipment is desired to fully provide a mobile police force."
A, assistant police sergeanti: "The Japanese seem to be lacking in the spirit of self-rule. There are many instances testifying to their lack of spirit for co-operative or mutual assistance. As the decline in the police force is duo to the fall of national power, so must we guard ourselves by mutual assistance"
B, Chief of Police: "Hereafter, I believe security can be fairly well maintained as the military police have come to help us in preventing systematic acts of violence."
B, assistant police sergeant; "Although the police went to estremes during the war, we hope to do our best as a faithful public servant along democratic lines. In the present social situation, even police officials cannot live a perfect life, so please refrain from attacking them and cooperate with us in all phases of police activities."
It is now a social desire that the deginity of the police be restored. At the same time, the change from a bureaucratic to a democratic system is also desired. The protection of popular interests is the foundation of a popular and democratic police. Various items seem to be seriously considered concerning the evacuation problem of some war victims in KOBE, reported in this newspaper some days ago. Inhabitants of MIYUKI-DORI and ISOGAMI-DORI were instructed by the occupation forces to evacuate by 25 December, and a number of them appealed for postponement through an interpreter of the prefectural office. Permission was obtained, but the police forced them to evacuate by 25 December, claiming they had had no notice of postponement. In this case the police were attached as being too mechanical.
The two leading citizens who took the task of negotiating this matter stated as fellows:
"Although the question was solved with difficulty, we hope the prefectural authorities and the police will prevent the recurrence of similar incident. Official business, especially outside liaison, was not smooth. What one interpreter had said was refuted by others, and the attitude of the police and other officials was very unkind towards us. They did not think of the dwellings after the evacuation. We hope the authorities concerned will be more kind and humane and deal with the business in a spirit of protecting popular interests."
Since the termination of war, people are looking coldly upon the police, which is an unexpected attitude. Chief of the AMAGASAKI Police Office, SHIGENARI hit on the idea of encouraging sports among his staff as a means of brightening their spirits. The police are now extremely fatigued due to their efforts of defense against air raids during the war and activities against atrocious crimes after the end of the war. However the public is coold and hard towards them. The police chief is daily instructing them, saying, "Don't fear sticking to justice," and encouraging various gymnastics and sports, with the result that the spirit and atmosphere of the police office and its staff has greatly improved.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 162 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Toyama-Ken Conducts Child Health Investigation - Provincial Newspaper Hokkoku Mainichi (Kanazawa) - 5 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
TOYAMA-KEN conducted an examination of the physical condition of 18,897 babies of less than 12 months of age. As a result, it was learned that infants fed on mothers milk along were healthest, those fed on mothers milk and other milk were next, and thirdly were those fed on other milk alone. A few years ago babies fed on other milk showed the best results. The present change is duo to the fact that the quality of animal milk products have dropped to a point where, far from giving nutrition to the babies, it often causes rather serious digestive ailments.
Regrettable, however, is the fact that mothers are frequently undernourished, causing a drop in both the quality and quantity of mother's milk, making it increasingly necessary that milk other than human milk be used to augment the infant's diet. At present about 60 per cent of the infants in cities and villages are nursed on mothers milk, about 30 per cent on a mixed diet, and less than 10 per cent on artificial products alone. The rate is more unfavorable in small towns, where only 40 per cent are fed on mothers milk, 50 per cent on a mixed diet, and 10 per cent on animal milk.
ITEM 4 Cleaning up Publishing - Asahi Shimbun - 10 Jan 46. Translator: T Ogawa.
Summary:
Immediately following the recent directive issued by SCAP which ordered the dismissal of undesirable personnel from public offices, a step will be taken in publishing circles to exclude the militaristic and ultranationalistic elements. At the press interview held yesterday a spokesman from SCAP stated the following in reference to postwar publishing circles in JAPAN:
"Being advocators of democracy we do not adopt the same measures as the Germans, that of prohibiting the reading and selling or of burning book's and magazines which have formerly existed in JAPAN. This is not only the attitude of General MacARTHUR's Headquarters, but also the attitude of all the Allied Powers."
"Around 1939, Japanese troops were the best in the world, and in this connection many books glorifying 'Invincible JAPAN' were published. Even though such books are now being sold at bookstores, and there are those who road them, no one would believe these books nor would any harm result from their being read."
At present the publishing circles JAPAN there still exist publishers who have misled the Nation or agitated the Nation's desire for war by publishing ultranationalistic or militaristic publications during the war. It will also be expected that those who have been dismissed from official posts will resume their activity by joining publishing circles. This is an important problem which SCAP should promptly solve, and an investigation is already underway. As a result of this, it is anticipated that all publishers who had driven the Japanese ration toward war will be banned from publishing circles. Furthermore, in this connection the explanation made by the same spokesman is as follows:
Question: "Does a publisher mean an individual or the publishing company such as the KODANSHA or the SHUFUNO TOMO SHA?"
Answer: "Of course it also includes the publishing companies."
Question: "What do you mean by 'taking some measures to disband the company?"
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SOCIAL SERIES: 162 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Answer: "It is necessary to clean up the publishing circles. We are not in a position yet to concretely explain the contents of our plan. As far individual authors, at present nothing can he definitely stated about the measures we will take."
Question: "What are you going to do with the articles written by many war correspondents who have been sent to the front during the war?"
Answer: "If their articles have faithfully described the battles which were fought at the front, we have no objection, because they have fulfilled their duties as war correspondents. However, if they have deceived the people at home or supported the performance of military operations, we must take some measures."
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0162, 1946-01-12.
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