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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0160, 1946-01-10.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0712

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 712 Date: 10 Jan 46


ITEM 1 New University in KANAZAWA - Provincial newspaper Hokkoku Mainichi Shimbun (KANAZAWA) - 6 Jan Translator: Y. Akabana.
Public buildings in the city of KANAZAWA have put up door plates written in English and there has appeared one with the inscription "KANAZAWA Medical College" at the entrance of my school. But I felt it rather curious to hear an American army surgeon refer to it as a university. The difference between the college and university must be clearly noted, though the Japanese word DAIGAKU roughly serves to mean both.
Colleges arose from special schools as a result of the perfection and improvement of their curricula. Faculties established by the necessity of educational classification as universities destined for the highest research institution of scholarly pursuits are not the same in their origin, although the difference is not necessarily clear in JAPAN as compared with that in western countries.
We are glad to learn that the establishment of a university was eagerly demanded recently in KANAZAWA, but such demands must not be motivated by a desire for more civic development or the convenience of study of urban students. In this connection we must bear in mind the following:
The history of European universities teaches us that they have maintained their existence in the face of many crises since their establishment which in some instances dates as far back as the Renaissance. Even in the future there may be similar difficultly for them, for which citizens should be prepared to land assistance and support.
As regards the relation between the citizens and the university some ideas cross my mind. The first, is the example of the TIIBINGEN University in south GERMANY. The city is situated in a highland district abundant in forests, and has a population of only 30,000. If this small city we deprived of the university, the staff, families, students, and attached hospital, nothing would, remain. That is to say, the city exists entirely for the convenience of the university. Students study there to their hearts' content in peaceful surroundings, while professors are in a position to indulge in research without any distractions. Citizens live in close touch with the university.
The second is the example of the LEIPZIG University, which is in the very center of this commercial city with a population of about 1,000,000. Classrooms of the law school are on the second floor, while there is a bar on the first floor, so professors and students can drink downstairs after debate meetings. Middle age wives

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SOCIAL SERIES: 160 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
come to listen to lectures of the literary faculty and they return home shopping for the dinner sausage. The university is built of stone and is substantial, so outside noises are completely eliminated.
Now in the case of KANAZAWA, if a university is established, I hope it is to be as informal as possible, and if possible close to farm villages. It must, however, be remembered that it in no way means the vulgarization of education. I firmly believe that it should not be overlooked as a meaningless demand, if the establishment of a university fully interwoven with such an ideal is earnestly demanded at this critical time. (By Professor MIYATA, Sakae, of the KANAZAWA Medical College)
ITEM 2 Restudy of History (Continued) Bound Table Discussion - Yomiuri- Hochi - 10 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
The following is a commentary on the MEIJI Restoration:
HANI: Before taking up the study of the MEIJI Restoration and its significance, it is necessary to point out that the life of the common people of JAPAN can be studied from old texts and it invariably reflects their hardships. So the MANYOSKU tells that peasants engaged in transporting rice to the cantol of NARA died am route of starvation. During the TOKUGAWA period these conditions led to more than 1000 recorded revolts of peasants and townspeople fighting for their rights. These revolts were in the beginning disconnected and therefore could not assume the proportions of a general social revolution. However, toward the of the TOKUGAWA period when transportation, industry, and commerce had developed capitalism already superseding the feudal order, the common people came to realize their joint hardship and organized themselves for joint solution of their economic problems. Things were leading in this way toward a national revolution when the lower military class eclipsed the popular movements by taking over the leadership in the MEIJI Restoration. The MEIJI Restoration itself was a compromise of the feudal ruling class with the democratic demands of the people. The people's movement did not lead to a republic as is the case in a social revolution, since there was no clear political consciousness among the Japanese common people at the time, so the lower military class and the ruling forces could effect a transformation of the feudal order into an absolute monarchy. In other words, the MEIJI Restoration cannot be termed, a reactionary victory, but on the other hand was also not a full-fledged revolution. It stood midway between the two and protected in this way the old ruling class.
IZU: One reason why the Emperor System could be established at the time of the MEIJI Restoration was that popular thought was generally under the impression that KYOTO and TOKYO, the Imperial House and the feudal TOKUGAWA Regime two opposed orders. This popular conception was utilized by the lower military class to effect a new national unity.
HANI: Once, the MEIJI Restoration was established, the new Imperial government reverted to the same feudal suppression. On the same day that the Imperial Covenant consisting of five articles was declared, bills were posted in all Japanese villages forbidding mass meetings and resolutions by farmers under a death penalty; that is the same method of suppressing the people's will that the feudal TOKUKAWA Regime had exercised. In the religious sphere, freedom of belief was proclaimed to the world, while in JAPAN
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SOCIAL SERIES: 160 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
the old edicts prohibiting Christianity were not abolished. It was only when the revolt of URAKAMI drew international attention and protests that the Imperial Government abolished the edicts Prohibiting Christianity.
TSUCHIYA: There are a few doubtful points, but, in general the statements made on feudal conditions and the significance of the MEIJI Restoration must be accented as true. However, in order to reach an unbiased picture of the MEIJI Restoration, a study must be made of the persons involved and efforts expended toward, agricultural and industrial reform during the TOKUGAWA Regime and after the MEIJI Restoration.
ITEM 3 Red Cross Hospital Labor Dispute - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
The employees' union of the JAPAN Red Cross Central Hospital (NIHON SEKIJUJI SHA CHUO BYOIN) has submitted a resolution made up of 17 items demanding recognition of the union's right to bargain collectively, establishment of a management committee, participation of the employees in the management of the Hospital, democratization of the managing system, and clarification of the responsibility of the present director FUJINAMI, Tadashi, former surgeon Lieutenant-General. However, no reply from the management has been given to the employees' union.
On 9 January, representatives of the union met with the management and presented additional demands including the resignation of the director and of the official staff. Then the official staff promised to issue a reply by the afternoon of 10 January. When the reply proved to be unsatisfactory the employees determined to operate the hospital by themselves. They are already in touch with the [illegible]DAI Hospital, the Doctors' League, and the NAKANO Sanatarium, as well as the provincial branches of the JAPAN Red Cross Hospital, Moreover, 600 girls of the Nurses' School of the Hospital exacted to join the movement.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0160, 1946-01-10.
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