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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0158, 1946-01-10.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0700

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 700 Date: 10 Jan 1946

SOCIAL SERIES: 158

ITEM 1 Press Directive of CIC to TOKUSHIMA Press-Provincial Newspaper TOKUSHIMA Shimbun (Tokushima) - 5 January 1946. Trans1ator: Gilbert. C.
Full Translation:
The TOKUSHIMA Counter Intelligence Corps has the following statement the TOKUSHIM, Press to contribute to the reconstruction of TOKUSHIMA by exposing injustice without mercy even if officials ere involved: It has come to notice that many newspapermen still submit to official threats to withhold publications showing that they have not overcome the habits circulated by unjust oppression by the state officials, militarsts and control organizations. A SCAP directive has, however, granted full, press freedom. It is, therefore, desirable that any unjust acts by the above named be exposed in the press. Should the concerned officials bring pressure against newspapermen as a result of such publications the local Counter Intelligence Corps will take measures to protect the Newspapermen.
ITEM 2 Restudy of Japanese History - YomiuriHochi-8 January 1946. Translator: Akabane. Y.
Summary:
IZU: The reason the Imperial Household has continued its existence through the feudal ages is explained by the fact that there was no social revolution in JAPAN by which the working masses could achieve their aims. In time social evolution was evolved only be those who were in the lower portion of the upper classes. The masses could not participation political disputes. For example, in the feudal ages the GENJI and ASHIKAGA Families, whose social standing was low, revolted against such nobles as those of the FUJIWARA Family, and farmed a new government, when warriors took the reins of Government from the nobles, it was necessary for them to adorn themselves in fedual style, for which they naturally turned to the Imperial Household, which had held power from ancient days. GENJI, OTA, TOYOTOMI and TOKUGAWA were no exception to his rule. They utilized the Imperial Household for this purpose considering it to be the supreme, ruler of the country.
YOMIURI: Did this not happen in China?
IZU: In CHINA, the revolution was always initaled by a 1eader of the faring masses, who overthrew the existing monarch and became ruler instead. On the contrary, in JAPAN, be virtue of the fact that the government which had been overthrown had the roots in traditions dating back to the family system, the new government could not overthow the old completely and make a new dynasty of its own because the new power did not derive its authority from the lowest, but from the middle stratum of society. In other words from the retainer who had direct connections with the upper powers—the lords.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 158 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
TOSUCHIYA: It is difficult to explain the fact that a complete revolution did not take place in JAPAN. Is it due to economic causes, or to the fact that the Japanese are an island race?
IZU: That is a very difficult question, I think that the very ancient nature of the villages survived even into the middle ages. Cooperative bodies retained their form for a long time.
NISHIOKA: The isolation of JAPAN as an island country is, I think, the fundamental reason.
TSUCHIYA: Why have the relics of ancient days been retained into the middle ages and those of the TOKUGAWA Shogunate Era up to the present?
HANYU: That is simple. For the full development of the national economy or for social evolution of a country, it is essential for it to have sufficient land and population. It is also necessary that similar developments be carried on actively around it. In the case of JAPAN, although there was always a certain degree of economic and social development internally, it did not fully nature and the next regime was without fail, for and in an alien and international form.
In the case of the MEIJI Restoration, the Japanese feudal system was changed into the capitalism developed in EUROPE and this new system was taken advantage of by the ruling class. Therefore, the process is very simple, many social revolutions took place in JAPAN, but whenever they occurred, they were influenced by the foreign communities or by future societies which had just begun to appear with the result that the upper class still held away.
YOMIURI: As not one of the reasons the fact that the Imperial Household was not powerful?
TSUCHIYA: Yes, because the Imperial Household was then not necessarily needed.
HANYU: The so-called Imperial estates in the middle ages were looted by carriers like ASHIKAGA, Takauji and ethers.
NISHIOKA: Imperial maners were increased considerably during the HEIAN Era but they were plundered by feudal lords throughout the country, who took advantage of family land disputes arising in the Imperial Household which were most conspicous during the KAMAKURA Era. Though plundered, fixed economical right ever these estates were still retained by the Imperial Household.
ITEM 3 New Year Rescript of Emperor to be used by Culture Ministry for new Instruction on education-Asahi Shimbun-9 .January 1946. Translator: Nishihara. H
Full Translation:
The Emperor has issued the Imperial New Year Rescript aiming at guiding the Japanese toward building a state of culture and peace. The Education Minister demanded that all educaters make efforts in line with the Emperors esteemed wishes and in this connection he gave the following notification to school principals within his direct jurisdiction and that of the prefectural governors.
In addition he stated that pamphlets will be published to explain the meaning of the Imperial New Year Rescript and measures will be taken in education to realize the Emperors wishes. The Education Ministry's notification follows.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 158 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
On the first post-war new year, the Emperor has issued the Imperial Rescript and revealed a way to build a new JAPAN. What the Emperor has shown should be the basis of education for our country.
When the war ended with the defeat of our country, the whole Japanese public seemed to have lost its aim and faces grave difficulties and confusion. But if the nation aroused itself and andured its difficulties with inflexible spirit, it is certain that the nation can create a bright happy future. The nation should comply with the rescript and the Imparial oath of Five Articles, and respecting public opinion recognizing the true meaning of peace. The nation should improve its culture make close friendships among people and reform the public life.
From olden times love for families and country was a basis characteristic of our people, out how the nation extends its love toward all humanity. Relations between the public and the Imperial Household do net depend on the myths and vague ideas of superiority of our race. The abolition of such an idea will be a measure to create a true relationship between the Emperor and the people as is stated in the Rescript. The people's loyalty to the Emperor has been encouraged by the statement.
To realize such an esteemed intention of the Emperor, education will be a very important measure. The responsibility of educators is important. Every educator should do his best in this connection, and arouse himself and improve his ability and morals to fulfil his duty. Thus the nation will be able to complete a peaceful and everlasting plan for our country's future and fulfil the Emperor's esteemed wishes.
ITEM 4 New Commission to be formed to edit school text books-Asahi Shimbun 9 January 1946. Translator: Nishihara. H.
Summary:
The former text book Research Organization has been abolished. A new organization, the text Book Committee, will be established to edit new text books. An announcement to this effect was premulgated on 8 January. The committee will be chosen from authorities on politics, education, economics and labor, famous essayist and novelists. The former organization consisted of university professors only. The members of the committee will number about twenty. In addition to these, honarary members, specialists in their own subject, will be appointed.
Another important point is that the committee will not only edit the text books published by the Government but also give advise to editors of all text-books. General Headquarters Staffs are conferred with as to who is to be appointed. The first meeting will be held before the end of this month.
The new text-books edited by the committee will be published before April when the school term starts. It will depend on further discussion whether the publications are to limited to national school textbooks or extended to higher nation 1 school text-books.
ITEM 5 Imperial Household Official Kills Father-Mainichi Shirnbun-9 January 1946. Translator: Ohne, Masahi.
Summary:
Why did an Imperial Household Official kill his father? Could the crime be caused by the defeats of the family system or because living difficulties? It is a matter for deep consideration. Investigations revealed feudalism and vanity in the Imperial House hold department as an important element of the crime.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 158 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
The criminal KAWAJIMA, Keiichi entered the Department as an office by when he finished primary school. He was an honest and diligent boy, and later was promoted to the position of Court Official while his father had lost his job and was leading a miserable life.
His father had become a obstacle to his promotion. When he wanted to marry HATSUE, his present wife, his father objected because she worked in a barroom. In those days, he felt humiliated among fellow-officials in the department where the respect for formality and feudalistic convention was ingraived.
His father, living away from his house, came to the office where the son worked once or twice a month. Then his father dressed in rags. The son was ashamed of his father and considered him a hindrance to his success in life. This result was the patricidal act.
Concerning this matter, a novelist ISHIKAWA, Tatsuzo said, "the crime of the Court Official added to war defeated JAPAN a further grief. To a 1arge degree the crime has a social basis. The present social unrest is a breeding grounds for various crimes. Strong policies as well as righteous education are necessary to do away with the social evils".
A low salaried official said, "Every evil act occurs as a result of the shortage of food. We low salaried men can not maintain our livelihood on our current salary."
ITEM 6 New Education for JAPAN-Tokyo Siiimbun-9 January 1946. Translator: Nishihara. H.
Summary:
In America, the Governor of each state is the highest administrative official in education. Under him are the school boards in towns or villages. The American way of school administration will be practised in JAPAN as planned by the American advisory Committee on Education, which is coming to JAPAN.
The bad practises of Japanese school administration must be reformed by the Japanese people. Firstly, the Education Minister's power over school administration must be abolished. Secondly, the prefectural school administration must be reformed. We must reform the present procedures by whish school administration is carried out by Governers or chiefs of home departments who have no knowledge of education. With the independance of education as an objective, it is desired to give to the university president of each area the highest power is school administration. Thirdly, the members of prefectural or town assemblies must be kept out of school administration. Interference by tie members has been a very bad practice in the past, and this must be strictly reformed.
By the above three measures, the educators and administrators are given equal treatment and the revitalizing of education circles will be realized. To establish a self-governing system in schools, it is important to give teachers the power to teach in accordance with their own free will. In private schools, directors of the financial affairs must not interfere in decisions of teaching programs, or personal affairs of the schools.
New the Government Universities are beginning to establish a self-governing system. A new educational system will be established after the reformation of school administration on the basis of self-government in educational circles.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0158, 1946-01-10.
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