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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0155, 1946-01-09.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0687

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 687 Date: 9 Jan 46.


ITEM 1 Easier Methods of Building Houses - (Provincial Newspaper) Chogoku Shimbun (Hiroshima) - 1 Jan 46. Translator: J. Kinoshita
A new method of building has been put forward by KOB YASHI, Teisure, chief of the Building Section of YAMAGUCHI-Hon. After the building of temporary houses for war victims is finished, the problem of permanent houses will be a difficult one. The type of house to be built in the future has not yet been settled by the Government authorities. A mere repetition of the prewar made of wooden houses will have to be avoided owing to the scarcity of timber. The number of bombed houses throughout the country is estimated at some 2,290,000. The demand for houses will exceed this number because repatriates will need hones too. The timber required at the rate of 15 tsubo (about 50 meters square) per house will amount to more than 100,000,000 koku, which is twice the amount produced during the war. The fact that wood is needed for other things besides houses and the fact that an excessive amount was felled during the war aggrarates the scarcity of timber. These factors necessitate that wood for building purposes be used economically.
The new mods of architecture proposed by KOBAYASHI is block building, which requires less wood. The block may be either an ordinary brick or a hollow block of backed clay is which is abundant in that district. The block-built house is fire proof and safe in areas not so subject to earth quakes and uses only half or one third the timber required for an ordinary wood house. The cost of building will not be high compared with the exhorbitant prices now asked. A conventional six-tsubo house costs some 10,000 yen in TOKYO. The mode of starting the block industry and the optimum size of blocks need further study. The large block, he thinks, may be more economical both from the building and the transportation point of view. Moreover, the training of a block-layer is easier and quicker than that of carpenter, the shortages of which is hindering the present reconstruction work.
ITEM 2 Borderline of Liberty and Libertine - (Provincial Newspaper) Shinano Mainichi (Nagano) - 1 Jan 46. Translators: C. Gilbert
Demands are made today for the democratization of Japanese Politics, Economics, and Society, but, practically speaking from everyday life of the Japanese, nobody seems to know just whet a democratic form of lifeis. The crucial point seems to be that liberty without responsibility is no god. Liberty which injures the liberty of others is definitely harmful. Without self respect and responsibility there can be no true democracy.
The Japanese must be taught the difference between liberty and libertinism. Without a sense of responsibility for one's actions, there can be no democratic of life. As a result of the mixup of terms by the TOJO Cabinet for propaganda purposes, the majority of Japanese today think that individuality and selfishness are the same thing.

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SOCIAL SERIES 155 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
In illustration of such confused thinking the following conversation may be recorded: One men to another on the train, "Does liberty mean that one can have three or four wives?" The other man "What are you talking about! I have difficulty in feeding even one."
Another occurrence which illustrates the point: An old man tries to sit down in an empty seat in the train; a matron stops him and, calling a fifteen year old boy from the other end of the car, makes him sit down, saying to the old man "This is a free ace, you know!" The Japanese must first learn to think correctly and independently; otherwise true democracy and liberty will be hopeless undertaking in JAPAN.
When one explains a co-operative association to the average Japanese, he will say" Oh splendid, please do so!" never "Let's do so"! During the war, the neighborhood organizations held air raid practice until they received a directive from the ward office; otherwise nobody thought of it. At present, the Japanese masses are just like automatons; they will move in any direction that they are pushed. In AMERICA, ladies clubs and churches work for public enlightenment and education and teach the spirit of public co-operation. This spirit of co-operation is, however, much more necessary in poor JAPAN than rich AMERICA. If the Japanese are not taught this spirit of joint co-operation, they will starve.
The Japanese people are at present apathetic; the Japanese industries do not begin working unless ordered to do so by SCAP directives. In a sense this state of things is not to be wondered at under the lax policies of the SHIDEHARA cabinet. In conclusion, it can be said that it is not possible to point out the democratic forum of everyday life by practical examples. The democratic form of life rather consists of efficient leadership as well as of correct thinking on tae part of the individual.
ITEM 3 Speech Assembly of Tokushima Youth -(Provincial Paper) Tokushima Shimbun (Tokushima) - 4 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara
The Political Education Research Association (SEIJI KYOIKU KENKYUKAI) sponsored a speech contest for young men in TOKUSHIMA-Ken on 3 January at the TOMITA National School. After a speech by OKAJIMA, chief of the TOKUJIMA Library to welcome them, the following nine speeches were given: "When a Country is in a Chaotic Stat, a Here will Appear," by OKADA, Jsunemi; "On the Improvement of the Economic situations in Rural Area," by KIDA, Shigeo; "The True Meaning of Human Life and the Emperor System," by KISSA, Hisatero; "Give First," by HIRAMATSU, Isho; "Building a New Japan and the Responsibility of Young Men," by TOMIZAWA, Tsugio; "Rouse Yourself, Friends," by YAMADA, Kaneo; "The Establishment of New Ideals in Politics," by MIYAZAKI, Nobukatsu; "Come Forward, Young Men," by TAKAGI, Takaaki; "The Leading Parts will be Played by Young Men," by MATSUSHITA, Kikuo.
The speeches made a deep impression on the audience. At 1600, the contest come to an end, and Mr. YOKOYAMA, the chairman Mr. MIKI, Chief of the agricultural association, and others gathered to judge the speeches.
ITEM 4 Decreasing Birth Rates on Account of Food Shortage - Provincial Newspaper (Nagano) Shinano Mainichi - Jan 46. Translator: J. Kinoshita
The prefectural census for NAGANO-Ken for 1 November is published as follows; Unproductive age (1-13), 700,344 men - 33 per cent; Productive age (14-6l), 1,254,109 men - 59 per cent; Post-productive age (62 and over), 165,119 men - 8 per cent;
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SOCIAL SERIES 155 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Increase in population as compared with February 1944 is about 174,000 (33 per cent) in children, about 290,000 (30 per cent) middle aged persons, and about 5,500 old age persons. Females exceed males in the ratio of 100 to 84.9. It is remarkable that macrobians above 90 years old have shown a great decrease since the previous census. The influence of the present food difficulties and inflation is appearing as a decline in birth rote and increase in death rate, as in previous times of depression.
ITEM 5 The Police Board and Crime - Tokyo Shimbun - 7 Jan 46. Translator: T. Ogawa
The crime and fire records of TOKYO this year show the biggest figures the Metropolitan Police Beard has ever seen. During the period from 1 to 5 January, more than 10 cases of murder, assault, burglary, theft, and fire were reported at the Detective Section and the Fire Department of the Metropolitan Police Board. Investigations show that there has been a great deal of carelessness on the part of the victims.
Citizens must be more careful and must give all possible help to the authorities concerned when whey accident occurs. Vigilance Committees have been formed recently by neighborhood associations in some parts of TOKYO. The authorities hope to organize such committees all over the Capital and to give them the necessary guidance. Speaking on how to guard against robbery, detective A of the 1st Detective Section of the Metropolitan Police Beard made several suggestions.
Inside the house: Do not keep cash, savings passbooks, and seals in one place. Make the inside of the house as dark as possible, and the outside as light as possible. Despite the lack of material, doors can be fastened securely with a little ingenuity.
Outside the house: Avoid going out alone if possible. When you realize you are being trailed by others, try to get rid of them as quickly as possible. Don't dress in such a manner that you cannot run. If you are caught, remember the characteristics of the culprits and do not disturbed any possible evidence in order to help the police authorities in finding traces of the criminals. Report the ease at once and give full assistance to the police authorities.
Fourteen cases of fire have boon reported between 1 and 4 January, including seven houses, covering 387 tsubo which burned down, and one use house covering 13 tsubo, which was half destroyed. The causes were attributed to careless handling of electric heaters, foot-warmer and overheating of chimneys. The majority of fires occured in SHITAYA, HONGO and TOTSUKA areas, in the raid devastated areas, and in suburban residential quarters. The Fire Department is endeavoring to restore its prewar strength. The farmer average time of 56 seconds which it took between receiving a report and the dispatch of firemen has been reduced to 26 or 30 seconds. We hope that citizons will report to us the outbreak of fire at once.
ITEM 6 Crimes in YOKOHAMA - Tokyo, Shimbun - 8 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno
Full Translation:
Around 0800 on 6 January, a burglar saying "I came here to receive a New Year's gift from you." broke into the house of ADACHI, Kazuo of KOHOKU-Ku, YOKOHAMA. The family gave him 150 yen; however, dissatisfied with it, the burglar took 3,000 yen out of the cabinet and ran away. Around 2000 on the dame day, a group of four masked burglars, armed with pistols and swords, broke into the house of ISHII, Fuji of TOZUKA-Ku and stole 120 yen. Around 2110 on the same day, a trio broke into the house of FUKAGAWA, Kinichi, of TSURUMI-Ku and stole four yen. Around 0610 on the same day, NAGANO, Shin, was attacked by two people on the
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SOCIAL SERIES 155 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
street of MINAMI-Ku and was robbed of his overcoat and 58 yen. Around twelve o'clock on the morning the dame day, a masked burglar broke into the house of KIZAKI, Shima, of ISOKO - Ku and threatened the family with a sword, taking 590 yen.
ITEM 7 Crime - Asahi Shimhun - 8 Jam 46. Translator: M. Ohno
Full Translation:
Various groups of burglars and theives, who appeared in the southern areas of TOKYO on the evening of 5 January, committed many acts of violence on the night of 6 January, in the NAKANO and KOENJI areas. Three man, one of whom was masked, broke into the house of NAGASAKA, Joyozoro, of NAKANO-Ku and stole 85 yen; 30 minutes later, YAMAZAKI, Hidomatsu, was attacked by a trio on[illegible]a street in NAKANO-Ku and sustained injuries which will take two weeks to heal completely.
Around the same time, a young woman, about 20 years old, rushed into the dining room of YAMAMOTO, Nonosuke, of YOTSUYA-Ku, crying, "Help me; two men are chasing me!" As soon as she had escaped by the back door, the couple broke into the house and found five go of sake. While they were drinking the sake, an M. P. rushed into the house and seized one of them.
Around the same time, at KAMEARI, KATSUSHIKA-Ku, trio threatened a young woman about 20 years old with postols and tried to rape her. A military Police rescued her and arrested the trio. Around 2300 on the same night, a group of five thieves tried to intimidate KIYODA, Kinsaku, on a street in NAKANO Ku. A policeman struggled with the robbers; however, they ran off with his sword. Around 0100 on 7 Janrary, a trio broke into the hero of HARAGUCHI, Ichiro, of USHIGOME-Ku and bound the family with ropes, threatening them with pistols and kitchen knife. They stole 30 suits, a watch, and 800 yen.
ITEM 8 Nozaka - Japanese Communist Leader from Yenan - Yomiur Hochi - 8 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert
It is reported that the Japanese Communist Leader from YENAN, NOZAKA, Sanji, has already departed from FUZAN. The Japanese Communist Party is preparing a big welcome. The Social - Democrats are said to be prepared to form a unified popular front upon NOZAKA's return.
The return of NOZAKA, just at the moment when the SHIDEHARA Cabinet is on the verge of a breakdown, is given the same importance by Foreign Prees Correspondents as the arrival of Mourice TORREZ in FRANCE. Under the ca able leadership of Mourice TORREZ, the Communist Party has wan the support of the masses in FRANCE and has become the leading political party, havin established a cealetian cabinet. The question is what effect will the arrival of NOZAKA have on JAPAN. The SCAR directive excludedes the old ruling class from public office, and the Japanese people are new demanding the f[illegible]rati[illegible]n of popular front. The leaders of the Social-Democrats repeatedly refused their proposal by the Japanes Communist Party to form a united popular front, but the formation of much a front programing despite this refusal. An Associated Press report from KEIJO brings a statement from NOZAK to the effect that he desire the coalition fall democratic parties in JAPAN and that the personnally will work to the best of his ability as a member of the Japanese Communist Party. The Social - Bomocrat KATO, Kanju, declared in this connection that he wishes to discuss with NOZAKA intimately for a long time and has great expections of him, as he is well versed in international matters.
YOMIURI * HOCHI has obtained a short biography of NOAZK as reported from YENAN. The gist of the biography is what he selected as his them
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for his graduation essay from the KOBE Commercial University, when he was only 19 years old, on the subject, "Socialism." After his graduation from the KOBE Commercial, University he [illegible]ntored KEIO University, where he was second in his class and won the highest praise of Dr. KOIZUMI for his essay on "Revelutionary Labor Union." When the Russian Revolution occurred in 1917, his thoughts definitely turned toward marzist socialism. He then went to England to study labor unions, and when the English Communist Party was founded in 1920, he at once become of the Party in MANCHESTER as the Communist Representative for LONDON.
He was then expelled from ENGLAND and want to PARIS. In 1921 he went as a representative of the union of Japanese Labor Associations to MOSCOW. He then returned via BERLIN to JAPAN and took over the editorship of "Labor," the magazine of the labor unions," and at the invitation of the KEIO University, he gave a three-months lecture course on the international labor question and international social conditions. Among his pupils were NORD and AKIZASA. In 1922 when the Japanese Communist Party was formed, he at once joined it, leading the left wing of the labor unions. He was then arrested in a Communist roundup in 1923. When he was set free, he at once joined the underground movement and at the same time became the President of the Research Institute on Industrial Labor, in which capacity he edited a magazine on industrial labor, called, "International."
When there was a split in the Japanese labor unions, in 1925, NOZARA led the left group and formed a conference of Labor Unions. He then contributed to the editing of the magazine of the Japanese Communist Party, "The Proletarian Newspaper" (MUSANSHASHIMBUN). As a result of this activity the Industrial Workers and Farmers Party (RONOTO) wen 200,000 vates in the 1928 general election, which was the climax of the leftist movement at the time, for 15 March a wholesale arrest of 3,000 Japanes Communists followed. He was able to obtain a parolo due to illness. In 1930 the control executive committee of the Japanese Communist Party decided to send him as their representative to MOSCOW. NOZAKA went to Moscow in 1931 and attended a meeting of the executive committee of the Comiaterm, presenting a report on "the Situation in JAPAN and the Missein of the Japanese Communist Party." In 1935, NOZAKA was elected as a member and at the same time President of the Central Excutive Committee of the Cominterm. In 1936, NOZAKA then drafted the directive to the Japanese Communist Party for the establishment of a popular pert in Japan. In 1943, NOZAKA suddenly appeared in YENAN where he assumed the leadership of the union for the Liberation of the Japanese People.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0155, 1946-01-09.
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