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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0153, 1946-01-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0670

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 670 Date: 7 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 153

ITEM 1 Women and Crime - Provincial Newspaper, Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 31 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Women and their relation to crime are dependent on the two questions of the inclination of women in general toward crime and, on the other hand, their role in the prevention of crime. The reply to the first question is that all over the world statistics show that women are far less inclined to crime than men. The average figure is one woman criminal to five male criminals. In JAPAN the rate is still more favorable. In the decade of the 1920s, the rate was one to eleven and in the decade of the 1930s one to eighteen. The reason for this low rate is twofold: In the past women in JAPAN worked predominantly at home and were therefore economically more protected. Moreover, they are undoubtedly more morally inclined. In JAPAN, offenses of women are mostly gambling or lottery frauds, next followed by causing fires because of carelessness, petty larceny and abortion. Economic crimes of Japanese women are most prevalent among women between 30 to 40 years of age, the reason being usually desperation of how to feed a large family. The crime rate of married women is higher than that of girls, but lower than among divorced women and widows. The crime rate for both men and women is much higher in the cities than in the country.
The role of women in crime prevention must be looked upon from two aspects, moral and legal. Morally, Japanese women predomenate in their role as crime preventers. Most juvenile deliquents in JAPAN are found where the mother is dead or the family life has been broken up. Where a husband is a criminal, the wife is found to be avaricious or extravagant. Also, legally, Japanese women have already proved their worth beyond dispute by their work in reformatories and should prove their worth in the future especially as judges dealing with juvenile deliquency.
ITEM 2 Review of Japanese History (conclusion) - Yomiuri Hochi - 6 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
YOMIURI: Now, we will discuss the restoration of TAIKA.
Mr. IZU: From ancient days when there were no social classes, the age of serfdom gradually developed. The difference between social classes developed as a result of the degeneration of some of the people who had formerly been equal. This accounts for the appearance of the Japanese state in ancient days. It developed only very slowly, utilizing the remains of the family system. Since there was not in Japanese society sufficient productive power to form cities, the populace grouped into bodies, such as village co-operatives, then scattered all over the country.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 153 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Among these bodies, YAMATO, TSUKISHI and KANTO conquered and ruled rather extensive areas. Over a period of time, YAMATO influence overpowered others and subsequently ruled over the whole country. But even then village co-operatives continued to exist everywhere. In the court of YAMATO, there were, besides the Imperial Household, the MONONOBE and OTOMO families which had great power. Accordingly, I do not believe JAPAN was under the absolute rule of the Emperor before the restoration of TAIKA. The movement on the part of the Imperial Household to place the whole of JAPAN directly under the rule of the Emperor is nothing but the renovation of the Court of SUIKO or the TAIKA Restoration. In the course of such a process, local families such as OTOMO and MONONOBE, which were in charge of the Imperial guards, were conquered or overthrown, and the influence of the Imperial Household developed. Just at this time, Buddhist and Confucianist ideas were imported from the continent of ASIA, contributing greatly to the completion of our national government. The TAIKA Restoration completed our national Government, overthrowing local families, through application of the Chinese idea of unifying a large country by despotic influence, which constituted the foundation of political thought in CHINA. In short, the TAIKA Restoration was a movement by which the state gradually developed. A Japanese form of feudalistic government was finally given perfect form or structure, and as a result, there appeared a high degree of authority vested in the Emperor as witnessed in the era of NARA, and the political control prevailed fairly well throughout the country.
Even in the NARA era, taxes imposed on farmers called "freemen" were as heavy as before, and the farmers remained in a state of semi serfdom, though they were called freemen. Therefore, they gradually fell into the feudalistic methods of operating their farms as SOEN (TN: Manor). The unification or the completion of the enslavement of society as a whole is considered the accomplishment of the TAIKA Restoration.
YOMIURI: What about the Emperor State system thus formed? Did this lead to the feudal system?
Mr. NISHIOKA: The feudal system is thought necessarily to accompany the land system. Before the TAIKA Restoration, there were village co-operatives, bodies occupying lands on which these bodies developed. The occupation of lands in this case was in no way in the form of possession, but the emphasis was placed on the production or the fixed right of profits, and the land was occupied jointly by families or villages as co-operative bodies. By the TAIKA Restoration, the occupation was divided into individual lots, creating the individual farm system. This individual, farm, or rather its profits, were, in reality, permanent and belonged to the landlord. The people were apportioned a fixed amount of land, and their descendants were allowed to retain it. In such a way, land occupation was approaching the conception of land ownership, though these two were not essentially the same. The manor system was formed with the individual farm as its basis. Owners of such individual lands were heads of villages, who provided armed forces as protection against the various elements arising out of the weakness of the political structure. They finally became warriors, among whom there was natural selection by armed force, resulting in rule by these warriors. The KAMAKURA Government, headed by YORITOMO, was thus formed, and its formation gave us a rough type of feudal politics.
Mr. HANI: Although the Japanese feudal system was not well developed, it is quite clear that it was a feudal system in essence. It was made nationalistic roughly during the TAIKA era and took on a form of s[illegible]rf system. However, the feudal system arose through the TAIKA Restoration, I believe. In the feudal ages, the Imperial Household was in
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SOCIAL SERIES: 153 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
a position similar to a feudal lord. In the feudal system, the proletariat formed the lowest social class, and farmers were placed above them, ruled by feudal lords who were generally called "the hierarchy". There were monarchs in this class. Until the MEIJI Restoration, the Imperial Household from ancient times sometimes occupied the monarchical position and sometimes it did not occupy such positions, depending on social vicissitudes. In some ages, it merely held a position similar to that of a small feudal lord. As is well understood in reading ancient Japanese history (TAIHEIKI), there was a time when people or even feudal lords did not know of the existence of the Imperial Household. In these days of old, there were monarchs ruling feudal lords, apart from the Emperor, such as the KAMAKURA Government, the ASHIKAGA family, or the TOKUGAWA shogunate. Moreover, even in the Imperial Household there were disputes, dividing it into two parties, such as the wars in the era of HOGEN and HEIJI and the disputes of the southern and northern courts. So the Imperial Household was at first a mere feudal lordship. Later it occupied a position of monarch over the feudal lords. However, at certain times it was driven out of its positions for a period of time.
It must be pointed out in this connection that there was even in JAPAN a popular movement in the age of civil wars to get rid of feudal rule. A so-called free city, as seen in EUROPE, appeared in SAKAI, where citizens went so far as to construct a republic of their own in order to liberate themselves from the heavy burden of feudal taxation. Thus, JAPAN experienced a popular movement for the emancipation of the proletariat to raise themselves to the status of free citizens. This was, however, once more suppressed by feudal lords desiring to consolidate their rule over the whole of the Country. These feudal lords were TOYOTOMI, Hideyoshi, OTA, Nobunaga, and the TOKUGAWA shogunato. Free cities were destroyed as they appeared, though they numbered only a few, and the feudal system grew larger and larger all over the country. Out of the fear that if this feudal system wore exposed in the light of historical development of the entire world, it would quickly collapse, the shogunate government closed the country to foreigners. Under such circumstances, the era of the TOKUGAWA shogunate forcibly maintained the feudal system, continuing it until the MEIJI Restoration.
ITEM 3 The Outlook for Charity Organizations and Their Work - Tokyo Shimbun - 7 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary:
A clerk of the Livelihood Consultation Office said, "Needy persons must have the will to support themselves. Without their will, all measures will be ineffective. All people who come to this office are not ashamed to receive help and this attitude is different from that of the old days. If they can not be given enough aid, they blame the authorities. Some of them who could do without help came to this office because they think it is more convenient to be given something."
Another clerk of the office said, "They must realize that JAPAN has fallen to a fourth grade country. The Japanese people should lead frugal lives. They must support themselves, even if they are forced to become black market merchants. It is due to the lack of will to live that they go astray and commit burglary after spending nights at the UENO Station or other places. The most important aid would be to encourage in them a will to live."
From these statements, we find bureaucrats shirking from responsibility, but also we must admit that the public is taking very slow step toward
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SOCIAL SERIES: 153 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
a new way of life. It is true that many things stand in the way war-sufferers and repatriates cannot find a house to occupy, and one can not live on the salary of a regular job. How can they find a way to support themselves? This point will be a most important problem in 1946, for which the public should find a solution.
Another clerk said, "Five months have elapsed since the end of the war, and the air raids occurred long ago. The war-sufferers should have found ways to support themselves by now. The rescue movement should be carried on in another direction. The war-sufferers should expect no more from the aid movement."
From spring of 1946 on, the rescue movement must be turned toward repatriates who found their countrymen very unfriendly and encountered a miserable housing situation, on their return to JAPAN. Many repatriates come to TOKYO without money and clothes. The Japanese public must find ways of living for them. The rescue of the repatriates is far less difficult than that of war-sufferers. TOKYO Authorities have such means as consulting offices, short-time lodging places, the rescue domitories, and so forth, which must be enlarged and made more numerous. But there are difficulties in executing this plans.
A clerk again said, in this connection, "We have no more commodities and materials. We have distributed all articles in stock. Without commodities and materials how can we give aid to repatriates?
They must find ways, somehow, to aid miserable people without commodities. There are increasing numbers of those to whom they must give help; those who will receive no pensions after February; the unemployed, vagrants, orphans, and paupers. Now is the time when social workers should come forth. The Salvation Army's Neighborhood Aid Association has started movements, and an open-air public nursery was established. The Soul Salvation Mission Troops (KYUREI DENDOTAI) are active and [illegible] [illegible]al work in factories. Religious groups are expected to start a movement.
Another clerk remarked, "In AMERICA, social work is very well developed, but in JAPAN, ow[illegible]the family system, relatives and friends usually take care of those who need help. But lately this tendency seems to have changed. I know all the people are destitute, but I really hope to give help to [illegible]and friends."
Re-building of Jam[illegible]social life will be completed if those, who need aid, try to [illegible]themselves, and those, who need no aid, try to give assistance to the destitute masses.
ITEM 4 Surgeons Busy Due to Increased Traffic Accidents - Tokyo Shimbun - 7 Jan 1J5. Translator. J. Kinoshita.
Summary:
Owing to the number of accidents due to the increase in traffic, surgeons and bone-setters in the Metropolis are having a busy time. A certain surgeon has, on an average, two or three cases everyday, and another listed road casualties between 25 and 31 December. The majority of cases are abrasions, fractures, and laceration of the skull caused by being knocked down by a car, or by luggage falling from a vehicle. One surgeon emphasizes the need for more care, improvement of car equipment and better traffic control.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 153 (Continued)
ITEM 5 Crimes - Asahi Shimbun - 7 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full translation:
Between Christmas Eve and the end of the year activities of burglars increased in the Metropolis, especially at KAMEARI. But, with the coming of the new year, burglaries have somewhat decreased in number as a result of the activities of the MP's. However, since the evening of 5 January, groups of burglars have appeared in the districts along the CHUO line to the south of TOKYO. During the same night, three cases of robbery, and one case of burglary, occurred. In most cases violence was used. Thus suburban residents have been seized with fear. The following is a description of the above burglaries:
Around 1900 two robbers threatened MATSUOKA, Hiroshi, with a pistol in a street near KICHIJOJI-2,701 and stole a wrist watch and 790 yen. Thirty minutes later, in a street near the spot where MATSUOKA was accosted, the couple robbed KOMINO, Shotaro, of 180 yen. At about 2300, on the same night, near the MISONO bridge at NAKANO-Ku, a group of ten robbers beat SAMUGAE, Keisuke, on the face and head and robbed him of a wrist watch and 1,400 yen. Around 2200 of the same night a burglar broke into the house of TOMIDA, Suketaro, of KOENJI, threatened the family with a pistol and fled with 1,000 yen. Around 0330, on 6 January, a trio broke into the warehouse of the SADOSHIMA Metallic Company in NIHOMBASHI-Ku, and fled with a truck laden with five tons of sheet iron valued at about 44,000 yen. SAKAMAKI, Yoshizo, and HOD, Shigekichi, were attached at KAMINAKAZATO, TAKIKOGAWA-Ku, by two robbers who came along in a large truck, and robbed them of a wrist watch and 870 yen. Around 1030, on the same day, two men broke into the house of K[illegible], Toki, of EKODA, NAKANO-Ku, threatened the family with a kitchen knife, and fled with 35 yen.
On 5 January, KANEKI, Takumo, 27, a prisoner in the TOYOTAMA prison, escaped from the FUKAGAWA Works where he was working under the supervision of a jailer. At 1650, on the same day, he fled with a truck laden with three bags of corn.
The strangled be[illegible] [illegible]a grey-haired old woman was found in a well in the ruins of the house of KAZAMI, Akira, of SHINAGAWA-Ku, The body was identified as that of JUMYO, Kiyo, 66, of the same ward. A post mortem was held am the TEIDAI Hospital. JUMYO had left her house about 25 of December, after having had a quarrel with her son.
ITEM 6 Repatriation of Ker[illegible]Resumed - Mainichi Shimbun - 7 Jan 46. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full translation:
The repatriation of Kereans in JAPAN had been suspended since 30 December, by a General Headquarters' directive, but the suspension order was removed on 5 January, end the repatriation of Koreans was recommenced from that day to continue as before.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0153, 1946-01-07.
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