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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0151, 1946-01-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0656

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 656 Date: 7 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 151

ITEM 1 Giving Land, to Tenants - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimpo (SENDAl) - 30 December 1945. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Full Translation:
In MIYAGI-Ken the examination committee of Land Reform (NOCHI SEIDO SHIGI - KAI) was organized. It consists of 25 committer members who are well-informed civilians and representatives of various bodies concerned with the coming land reform, in the middle of January. They held their first committee meeting on 29 December at the Prefectural Office. At the conference three main items were discussed, namely, the creation of landed farmers, the adjustment of tenancy affairs and the new progress of farming villages. The basic principles are as follows:
The creation of landed farmers:
The limit of area to be owned by the land owner and the landed farmer is principally three chobu (in the highland farming districts five chobu), which has been decided upon by the Farm Land Committee for every city, town, and village, taking into account the condition of the farm land. The farm land which the present land owner is permitted to own should be located near the town in which he resides, or in the neighboring towns or villages which are situated at a reasonable distance from his farming.
The newly-created land farmer should possess resident area, forest, and fields, which will contribute to his stability of livelihood end to the cultivation of the farm.
Upon the establishment of the landed farmer, the farm land should be purchased in one piece, but it may be divided after purchase.
The plan for the creation of landed farmers in cities town, and villages will be a two year plan. It will start with the expropriation of land from absentee and large landowners.
For the stabilization of the 1ended farmer, the following measures should be taken:
The repa[illegible]ment of the fund for the creation of landed farmer should be made suitable to his crops and to the economic situation.
Establishment of the right to hinder the stability of the owned land by transfer of mortgage, and so forth will be prohibited.



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SOCIAL SERIES: 151 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)
The attachment of the land by debts in cash will he prohibited.
The unreasonable debt of the landed owner will he adjusted.
Adjustment of tenancy affairs:
The control of the rice farm rent should he re-arranged in 1946.
The principle of control over the rent of the farm land should be decided and enforced as soon as possible.
New progress of farming villages:
The division of the farming village should be promoted in order to insure the healthy progress of the existing farming villages and the newly cultivated farming villages.
The promotion of village industry should he considered according to the farm products in the district.
The farm product should be encouraged and backed by the farmer.
The organization of farmers by means of a farmers co-operative union should be promoted.

ITEM 2 Clothing, Food and Housing Situation in Shikoku - Provincial Newspaper Kochi Shimbun (KOCHI) - 1 January 1946. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Extracts:
Clothing
The national control of textile goods by the coupon system will remain in force for the time being. Over the new year military clothing will be distributed at low prices to war sufferers and food producers. Nine thousand rolls of silk cloth, 600 of thread, 20,000 dozen cloth goods and 28,000,000 dozen knitted goods are to be delivered throughout four Kensin SHIKOKU in the near future.
Textile goods in the hands of the Government amount to about 900,000,000 pounds. Of this the principal amount of silk manufactures will be used as exchange for imported foodstuffs, and the remainder is expected to be released for home consumption. The manufacturing ability of the Japanese fibre industry has been lowered to 35 per cent of its pre-war standard, with a monthly output of 76,000,000 pounds. The Government is planning an output of 1,500,000,000 pounds this year, According to reports, the machinery of the fibre industry is not included in the reparations. Silk is the only home-produced raw material. Pulp for staple fibre from SAGHALIEM is no longer obtainable, and raw cotton cannot be imported without the permission of General Headquarters.
Because textile goods are regarded as collateral for the importing of other necessary commodities and for reparations, the supply is not expected to be sufficient this year. Increase in production depends solely on the active efforts of the Government and the capitalists. Therefore, the effort of those who hinder reconstruction should be stopped by the people. This is the key to the solution of the clothing problem. Under the existing distribution system, the general public has no priority in delivery, so they must manage with what they already have.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 151 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Food
The food situation this year is desperate and no good solution has been suggested. The amount of rice in stock in the prefecture at the beginning of this year is 39,708 koku, and official purchases of rice is expected to be 24,000 koku in January 19,000 koku in February, and 19,000 koku in March. On the other, hand the monthly supply is estimated at 33,338 koku. So the shortage will be most critical between March and July. The importing of rice from the neighboring prefectures is also by no means reliable, due to the poor shipments in KAGAWA-Ken and EHIME-Ken, and the bad crop in TOKUSHIMA-Ken. In addition, transportation difficulties aggravate this crisis.
To get through this dangerous situation, an emergency food measure conference is urgently demanded by public opinion, and it is reported that Governor NAGANO, representatives of every political party, and other authorities concerned will confer on this problem early in January.
Housing
The reconstruction of KOCHI-Shi is said to be at a standstill. This is due to the delay in the first stages of construction. The 470 pre-fabricated houses, 20 of "A" type, 300 of the "B" type, 100 of the "C" type, and 50 of the "A" type designed by the welfare office which are now being prepared in the prison workshops, are expected to be complete in March. So far, 72 of the municipal temporary emergency houses have been built out of the 150 which were skeduled. The remaining 78 houses are expected to be built by 20 January. Work on the second lot of 150 houses will begin in early January and end by the middle of February.
Architects and the Housing Association (JUTAKU EIDIAN) are endeavoring to complete the job as soon as possible, in spite of various difficulties rising from the increase in the price of materials and labor.
ITEM 3 Poor Conditions of Schoolmasters and Need for a Nationwide Teachers' Union - Provincial Newspaper Niigata Nippon (NIIGATA) - 3 January 1946. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Summary:
The ridiculously low salary of Japanese school teachers has been pointed out by Second Lieutenant SUPEASU* of the Political Department of the Eighth Army. In the United States masters in primary schools are paid an annual salary of $2,000 on an average, and all of them are members of the Primary School Teacher's Union, which was established some 30 years ago to promote their mutual assistance.
In NIIGATAWA-Ken however, the average monthly salary of a teacher is 70 yen and the end-of-year bonus is only 100 per cent (50 to 70 percent in local districts). This income is not enough, even for their bare home expenses, inasmuch that prices are so high. Demands for an increase in pay have been made many times, but in vaine, because a ten yen increase for every one of the 10,000 teachers in the prefecture, including secondary school teachers, amounts to 100,000 yen, which is too much to be borne by the groaning tax payers.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 151 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The prefectural authorities, in spite of their good intentions, cannot take any decisive measures. Therefore, they organized Teachers' Union of their own accord, at the end of lest year, to improve their conditions. The existing Teacher's Mutual Assistance Association (KOIN GOJO-KAI) of the NIIGATA branch of the JAPAN Education society (DAI NIPPON KYOIKU-KAI), which has funds totalling 80,000 yen, does nothing to assist them or promote their everyday interests. An exception is made in extraordinary cases such as marriage, child birth, death of any member of tin family, and so forth. Though they have organized a union, the ultimate result of their efforts is problematic because the right to appoint and dismiss teachers is in the hands of the governor. Therefore, teachers all over JAPAN should join the Teachers Union in TOKYO and lend it their support.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0151, 1946-01-07.
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