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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0149, 1946-01-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0640

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 640 Date: 6 Jan 46

SOCIAL SERIES: 149

ITEM 1 Impression of KANAZAWA. City by American Officers - Provincial Newspaper, Hokkoku Mannichi Shimbun (KAMAZAWA.) - 1 Jan 46. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
HOKKOKU MAINICHI SHIMBUN invited fire American officers (Lieutenants SUPOA, LOUIS, HERBERT, DALTON and JACKS) to dinner. The officers thought that KAKAZAWA was a finer city than KYOTO. They were served KANZAWA-style foreign food which they mistook for Japanese food and liked very much, when asked what Japanese food they liked best, all agreed on SUKIYAKI. They did not like raw fish. They were surprised that there was no art gallery in KANAZAWA. When asked whether they thought democracy possible, considering JAPAN's poor resources, they replied that no country had all the resources it required and that JAPAN must make an effort to overcome her shortages and attain complete democracy, and that for this purpose education was more vital than anything else.
They then talked about American efficiency. The officers said that when necessary they had worked 24 hours a day and they never wasted their time. The newspaper representatives told the American officers that everybody was impressed by the fine behavior of the American troops in KANAZAWA to which the American officers replied it was the same everywhere.
ITEM 2 Crime and Crime Prevention - Asahi Shimbun and Mainichi Shimbun - 4 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary;
Owing to successful co-operation between the KYOBASHI and KATSUSHIKA. Police Stations and the TOKYO Police Station, a group of 13 thieves was arrested. Three of the thieves are former members of the Special Attack Force, two are demobilized servicemen, and two are civilians who were in military service.
The names of those arrested are: ADACHI, Yukichi, aged 30 ox-convict; MIYATA, Etsujiro, aged 33; OSHIMA, Toshio, aged 21. SHISHIDO, Risaburo, aged 23; AOKI, Yoshiie, aged 24, former member of the Naval Special Attack force; (These five men live in a boarding house called SANKOKAN at MATSUDO-Shi.) KAWAI, Kiyoshi, aged 24, former member of the Army Special Attack Force, of 30, 1-Chome, KANASUGI, SHITAYA-Ku; MATSUZAWA, Mamoru, aged 22, of 17, TAMUBA-Cho, SHIBA-Ku; KIZUKA, Yoshio, aged 23, a demobilized soldier of 1328, SHIMURA MAE-Cho, ITABASHI-Ku; KOBAYASHI, Tatsuo, aged 19, a civilian formerly military service; HAYASHI, Hana, of 307, NAGATO-Cho, ADCHI-Ku; MACHIDA, Mitsuharu, aged 24, former member of the Army Special Attack Force, of MIDORI-Cho, NAKANO-Cho, SHIMOTAKAI-Gun; YAGANO-Ken, APAI, Junicai, aged 19, of 26, YANAGI-Cho, USHIGOME-Ku; WATANABE, Shoji, aged 21, of 99, TAKIHARA, HIEMURA, IWASE-Gun, FUKUSHIMA-Ken; and TAKAHASHI, Chusaku, aged 26, FUJIWARA, SHIOKAWA-Mura, OGATA-Gun, NAGANO-Ken.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 149 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
On 29 December, AOKI, KIZUKA, MACHIDA, and TAKAHASHI broke into the house of YOSHIDA, Eiichi, aged 47, a farmer of 372, KAMICHIBA-Cho, KATSUSHIKA-Ku, who talked with the burglars for seven hours. The burglars, waiting for the first morning tram-car, talked carelessly and gave clues. YOSHIDA noticed that the cigarette case of one of the burglars was military in style, that one of their daggers had a red sheath, that they lived in a boarding house at MATSUDO-Shi, and that they appeared to be vagrants. The clues were reported to every police station by the KATSUSHIKA police which received the reports from YOSHID.
According to a confession of KOBAYASHI, Tatsuo, who was arrested by KYOBASHI Police for burglary, his friends were living in SAUKOKAN, a boarding house, at MATSUDO. A policeman went to the house and arrested AOKI, Yoshiie, who had a dagger in a red sheath, and son-fessed to the robbery at YOSHIDA's home. As a result of AOKI's confessions, the remaining burglars were arrested within five days. The leader of the group, AOKI had been an employee of NANYO KOHATSU KAISHA since he was 16 years old. He entered the navy at YOKOSUKA in 1943, was later ordered to service in TSUCHIURA Air Force, and participated in the MARIANA and PHILIPPINE Sea battles. In August of last year, he returned home, but again came to TOKYO, due to the destitute condition of his family. He went astray after spending several nights at the UENO Station.
According to the MAINICHI, they confessed the following crimes: (1) KAWAI, WATANABE and AOKI stole, on 10 December, 550 yen from a man, aged 50, who lives at KOBIKI-Cho, KYOBASHI-Ku; (2) The same three men on 25 December, stole JO yen and watch from a man, about 30, who is said to be a national school teacher, and who lives at KITASHIMA-Cho, ASAKUSA-Ku; (3) KAWAI, AOKI, ADACHI and KIZUKA stole a military overcoat and 21 handkerchiefs from a men aged 22 at MINAMI SENJU-Cho, ASAKUSA-Ku on 27 December; (4) The same four men robbed a man, aged 26, apparently a company employee, of a military overcoat at ASAKUSA Park on 27 December; (5) AOKI, KIZUKA, MACHIDA, and TAKAHASHI broke into the house of YOSHIDA, Eiichi, and stole one hyo of rice and several other items. The police stated that they probably committed more crime.
ITEM 3 Evolution of the Japanese State - Yamiuri Hochi - 4 Jan 46. Tranolater: Y. Akabane.
Extracts:
Mr. IZU; We cannot say that myths and traditions contain no truth. They may include events which really happened. Frankly speaking, I think that contrary to the tradition that the Japanese are descendants of the gods, JAPAN was rather barbarous and uncivilsed and subsisted on fish and flesh. From the sociological standpoint, such a state is called a "family communistic society." Karious pieces of evidence lead us to suppose that their living conditions were very poor and that their family relations or societies were formed on the basis of the family system. This also happened in other countries, there being no social distinctions. It is impossible to see from the Ancient Chronicle (KOJIKI) or other ancient Japanese historical records, by what process JAPAN was united into one State. The study of various material in Chinese and Korean histories and of the general trend of world evolution, teaches us that riches were gradually accumulated in such family societies of equal footing, as a result of the development of productive power; someone was chosen from among these families as their chieftain to officiate in the festivals of the other families and to sit as judge over them, thus increasing his influence and power gradually. With this increase of power, these chiftains took possession of the wealth accumulated in their respective families and made their positions hereditary in
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SOCIAL SERIES: 149 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
order to pass on these riches to their sons. The chieftains gained in power and the strong conquered the weak. Thus, small collective bodies were scattered throughout the country and eventually the way was paved for their unification. The complete union is thought to have been accomplished by a family which originated in the YAMATO district.
From these internal developments and external wars of conquest, there aross, in each society, difference of individual status and property. The rich exploited and suppressed the working class, end thus arose the state.
I think that this state was perfected during the period between the era of the Emperor SUIKO (A.D.593) and the restoration of TAIKA(A.D. 645). The political administration seems to have reached its high point during the period between the restoration of TALKA and the NASA period.
Political Unification Under the Imperial Household
Mr. NISHIOKA: I am of the same opinion as Mr. IZU as regards the political unification of JAPAN under the Imperial Household. I suppose that the Emperors were in a position to govern politically every family group much earlier than is generally believed. There existed a form of family government even before the era of SUIKO. This was, of course, very primitive and loose compared with the presentatives of another country, the former considered the latter a tributary. Similar relations existed between Japanese Emperors and family groups, and the unification of the country by the Imperial Household was maintained in such a manner. The Imperial Household and their followers attacked those who did not obey their orders, in time they extended their political sphere of influence in this fashion.
Mr. BANYU: The word "family state" is apt to be misunderstood. The family state collapsed earlier and, instead, there arose a slave state. The Japanese Imperial Household was not the head of a family state. The family system disappeared and the slave system took its place. This smell slave state had its Emperor at its head.
Mr. NISHIOKA: I think this term "family state" may be rightly used. For example, in the case of JAPAN's expedition to KOREA the Emperor ordered a family head to take part in the expedition and he obeyed and started off, accompanied by members of his family.
Development of the Slave System
Mr. IZU: In my opinion, there was a period during which the family system existed without the state. This gradually changed into the slave system, and upon this basis the state gradually developed. Regains of the Japanese family system were found even in later generations. It may be said that the Japanese slave system developed under the cloak of the family system. Under the slave system, taxes were collected from the local populace and this naturally resulted in the formation of the state. Accordingly, the state thus constructed was a slave state and not a family one. This form of government had a powerful influence on JAPAN'S later development.
Mr. TSUCHIYA: I am of the same opinion as Messrs. HANYU and IZU. It is, however, doubtful whether the Japanese slave state was the same as the salve states of GREECE and ROME, which are considered typical.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 149 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Potential Slaves
Mr. IZU: That is the same as questioning whether the Indian or Chinese slave systems were very different from that of JAPAN. In GREECE and ROME, slaves were gathered in large number in mines or farms and made to work collectively, but such was not the practice in the Orient, where slaves were mostly employed as the servants of nobles, to produce articles necessary for these nobles, or as soldiers in time of war. At no time in JAPAN were slaves employed on a large scale for production purposes. The Japanese slave system existed as such because the Japanese upheld an economic system which heavily exploited them. The system whereby farmers gave a portion of their crops in kind to their lows has always prevailed in JAPAN. The Japanese slave system was not based on a large-scale slave economy. It may be fully explained by the fact that slaves, or rather the whole Nation was exploited as if they were slaves or semi-slaves, although the degree of slavery may have differed.
ITEM 4 Ministry of Culture Planning Cultural Institute for Students - Asahi Shimbun - 4 Jan 46. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
A Hall of Culture (BUNKA KAIKAN) is planned by KON, Hidemi, chief of the Culture Section of the Social Bureau of Education Ministry, in order to provide a place for study. A certain university hall will be used as the Hall of Culture. In this hall will be set up branch offices of every school's culture group or association dealing with literature, movies, drama, painting and music.
All student may use the facilities of the hall and they may receive guidance from those in charge, or study in groups. A library, picture gallery, a small hall with a stage a movie projector and other facilities will be installed to help the students in their studies. For instances, after students receive lectures on SHAKESPEARE's dramas, they can stage the dramas at the hall under the guidance of noted stage directors. In this connection, KON declared, "Aiming to carry out the plan, practical measures are under discussion. Everyone is giving the plan his earnest support, and I am Confident that it will be a, success, But the expenses of the organization present a most difficult problem as it is very difficult to obtain Government support. A fund of some 3,000,000 yen, or 300,000 yen a year, is necessary for the plan. I Hope some one will contribute to the organization."
DISTRIBUTION: "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0149, 1946-01-06.
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