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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0132, 1945-12-29.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0558

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 558 Date: 29 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIBS: 132

ITEM 1 MIYAZAKI's Temporary Measures for Schools - Provincial Newspaper Hiuga Nichi Nichi Shimbun (MIYAZAXI) - 20 Dec 45. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full translation:
The children of the national schools in the city of MIYAZAKI are temporarily learning in houses, because most of the school buildings were burned down in air raids. In April of this year, school children there numbered approxomately 12,000, while in June or July when the air raids became severe, the number decreased to about 500. After the end of the war, about the beginning of December, the number increased to 9,700. As the result of the increase of families repatriated or of those who came from larger cities, the daily increase in the number of children averages three per day.
All the school buildings in the city, except those of the MIYAZAKI, the First MIYAZAKI and the KOJYO national schools, were destroyed in air raids. Now, the children of the national school attached to the women's department of the MIYAZAKI Normal School and the Third MIYAZAKI National School are working at the First MIYAZAKI National School; those of the Sixth MIYAZAKI National School are at the MIYAZAKI National School; those of the OMIYA and SHO National Schools are at the public hall or temples; those of the Second MIYAZAKI National School are at their one wing which remained undestroyed; those of the national school attached to the male department of the MIYAZAKI Normal School are at the exercise hall of the MIYAZAKI Agricultural Technical School.
The problem regarding the increase in the number of school children and the shortage in the number of school buildings is a matter of worry for the parents and learned men in the city.
The MIYAZAKI municipal authorities said, "The construction of temporary school buildings is desired, but it is thought that the expense for the temporary ones will amount to more than half the permanent ones. Consequently, only the re mining school buildings are to be repaired during the current year at the estimated cost of about 200,000 yen.
ITEM 2 Problem of Vagrant Children - Provincial Newspaper Kobe Shimbun (KOBE) 20 Dec 45. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Summary:
A recent investigation of vagrant children in the cities shows their number to be about 170,000 in the Nation, with 6,500 in HYOGO-Ken alone. Therefore, the Prefectural School of Agriculture and Engineering at UOSUMI-Mura, AKASHI-Gun, HYOGO-Ken is accomodating those vagrant children and will bring them up to be honest and able men. The home education method is given in the school, dividing 156 children (24 girls) into 13 homes. In each homo, 12 or 13 children are being brought up in the

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SOCIAL SERIRES: 132 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
warm home atmosphere of the teacher's family. Lessons are given on an eight-year system as in the ordinary national school course.
However, the Individual characteristics of the educational method of this school lie in the education suitable to children's individual ability based upon the scientific examination of talent, character, knowledge, and environment. They are placed in appropriate classes regardless of age. Professional training is also given. Habits of labor and the joy of working are taught and experienced in co-operative farming with teachers and children on the school farm of about three chobu, each being allotted one se. The farming also contributes to their food supply. Girls have special lessons in housekeeping, sewing, and etiquette. Those who are mentally weak are given medical treatment.
A plan is under consideration to confer with every national school in the prefecture on the education and protection of abnormal children. Vagrant children wandering in the streets and market places are being sought to keep them from further degradation and guide them to enjoy a better life in freedom and love.
ITEM 3 Round Table Talk on SHINTOISM - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichinichi Shimbun (MIYAZAKI) - 22 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
In connection with the SCAP directive on SHINTOISM, several prominent personages of MIYAZAKI City, including the Chief SHINTO Priest of MIYAZAKI, the Principal of the MIYAZAKI Primary School, the Chief of the MIYAZAKI Provincial Chamber of Commerce, the Chief of the MIYAZAKI Textile Association, and a representative of the Prefectural Office, Section for SHINTOISM participated in the discussion. HYUGA NICHINICHI editorially comments at the outset that the Allied directive was of more than special interest to MIYAZAKI, for in no other Japanese province is SHINTOISM mere strongly entrenched than in MIYAZAKI-Ken. The SHINTO High Priest of MIYAZAKI-Ken states that as far as his ken is concerned, the belief of the people has not changed.
This was apparent at a recent SHINTO festival, since the number attending the festival differed in no way from other years. However, he thinks, it was a grave mistake on the part of the State Authorities to state that SHINTOISM is not a religion, since it was a deliberate falsehood to have misused SHINTOISM for the purposes of the war. The erection of SHINTO Shrines in schools and government offices was not only an overextension, but must be considered as lese-majesty against the deities. Therefore, as a result of the present directive, SHINTOISM will be strengthened as a religion.
With the exception of the HAKKO Festival (Festival of HAKKO ICHIU) and KENKOKU Festival (Foundation of the Japanese State) which were state festivals, all SHINTO festivals will be continued. The MIYAZAKI Shrine was supported in the past by the citizens and provincial people of MIYAZAKI. The Shrine will economize in accordance with the spirit of the times, but it has no misgiving about its financial upkeep in view of its past. The school principal stated that all religious education together with visits to shrines by the students will disappear.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 132 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The question of followers is then taken up. It is maintained for instance that most of the MIYAZAKI citizens are followers of the HACHIMAN and KOTO Shrines. If they were at the same time followers of the MIYAZAKI Shrine, it would constitute a dual allegiance. Therefore, it would be mere correct to speak of supporters and form a subscribing body. At present, the regular subscribers of the MIYAZAKI Shrine consist of only 1,700 members. It is, therefore, desirous of increasing the membership. The HACHIMAN and KOTO Shrines deify the same gods, so it would be possible to reduce the disbursement of the MIYAZAKI citizens by combining the festivals of the two shrines. The MIYAZAKI Shrine should, however, appeal to the whole Ken and Nation for support. Up to the present, the chief of the subscribers' society for the MIYAZAKI Shrine was the City Mayer. In the future, it would be advisable to select a suitable citizen.
ITEM 4 Strikes and Labor Unions - Yomiuri Hochi - 26 Dec h5. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
Our labor union movement has become active since the Allied Forces have completed the occupation of JAPAN. Having been stimulated by the impetus given by Supreme Headquarters, the movement has become rampant among the factories and offices all over the country. The movement of organizing a union by laborers has hitherto been suppressed both by the civil and the military police. It has suppressed by the Industrial Patriotic Association (SANGYO HOKDKU KAI), a Government-made union. All the feudalistic influences and the police regulations, however, which have been suppressing our labor union movement, have weakened or have been wiped out at present. Consequently, the labor union movement among the working classes, laborers, and farmers is becoming a nucleus in the reconstruction of democratic JAPAN.
There is an aim to form a union of various industries which may be grouped under one union. The coal mine workmen in the HOKKAIDO and KYUSHU areas have been leading this movement because of the damage caused by frequent air raids and the subsequent decrease of workmen in the TOKYO-YOKOHAMA area as well as in the OSAKA-KOBE area, where the moat active movement has been started. In HOKKAIDO, labor unions were organized at all the coal mines, headed by the BIBAI coal mines, which are operated by MITSUI and MITSUBISHI concerns. With the formation of the Federation of the Coal Mine Workers' Union of HOKKAIDO, a precedent has been set. Because of this union, there has already started the establishment of a collective agreement between capital and labor of all HOKKAIDO, indicating the triumph of all coal mine workers. It perhaps can be termed an epoch-making event in JAPAN that 47,000 laborers from 27 coal mines' have combined under one union. In the North KYUSHU area, organization of unions is also underway at the coal mines operated by the MITSUI and MITSUBISHI concerns. The lack of unification between unions, however, is obvious. For example, the compulsorily formed union by the mine [illegible]and autonomously formed unions by laborers are employed at the sane coal mine. Nevertheless, these separate unions are gradually making headway toward the organization of a unified union. It is expected that unions will also be formed shortly at the AKIKE, MEIJI and FUTASE coal mines.
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SOCIAL WERIES: 132 (Cnontinued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Next to the coal mines, labor union movements are active at metal industry-plants and at the printing plants of the TOKYO-YOKOHAMA area. Workmen of the ASAHI Electric Chemistry Company, TOKYO Gas Company. JAPAN Elaborate Machinery Company (NIPPON SEII KAISHA) f SHIBAURA Electric Works, SUMITOMO Communications Company, JAPAN Special Steel Company (NIPPON TOKUSHU KD KAISHA), I Sill I Steel Works, etc, have succeeded in organizing unions through furious strife.
Among the newspaper workers and printing plant workers, the ASAHI, MAINICHI, YOMIURI and TOKYO, as well as many other newspapers throughout the country, the Printing Bureau of the Cabinet and the KYODO Printing Company are planning to organize unions.
Concerning the traffic workers, the TOKYO Traffic Laborers' Union and the KEISSI Electric Railway Laborers' Union are the leading ones of their kind. The laborers of the TOKYO High Speed Electric Railways are also continuing a persistent struggle. Other labor unions now under organzation are the workers in the film industry, the TOKYO Food Distribution Association, the JAPAN Electric Power Company, the URACA Dockyard Company, the JAPAN Travelling Exhibition Company, and the Teachers' union.
The laborers usually clamor for an increase in wages, fair distribution of food and the establishment of a seven or eight hour working day, which apparently indicates how seriously inflation and the shortage of food are threatening the laborers' welfare. No case of defeat of the laborers has been reported yet. In may cases, the dissolution of companies took place, the first measures for such action being taken by the companies' executives.
It is worthy of cur notice that the participation of laborers in the companies' operation has been demanded recently. Following the example of the Yomiuri strikers, they are also succeeding in attaining this end at the BIBAI coal mine, the KEISEI Electric Railway, the SUMITOMO Communications, etc. The increase of wages, which is the main object of strikes, usually involves an increase of about five or ten times the present pay because of the current malignant inflation. Along with the increase of regular pay, they also demand an increase of various allowances. With the present fluctuation of prices, the livelihood of working classes can not be stabilized by the increase of pay alone. Therefore, they also demand the fair distribution of food or even the control of feed. It is considered a new phenomenon of labor union movement in endeavoring for better working conditions by getting a collective agreement with the employers, utilizing the collective bargaining which they have obtained by organizing a labor union.
The movement among the Government industries, such as railways and communications, are not so brisk because their movement is being suppressed by those remaining bureaucrats, capitalists and industrialists of reactionary tendencies. On the other hand a tendency to go on strike with the united front of labor unions is Sis possible.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0132, 1945-12-29.
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