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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0122, 1945-12-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0508

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 508 Date: 26 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 122

ITEM 1 Toyama City measures to eradicate Black-Market - Provincial Newspaper Hokkoku-Mainichi Shimbun (KAMAZAWA) - 15 Dec 45 Translator: NISHIHARA H.
Summary:
TOYAMA-Shi, which was burned during the war, aims to make its citizens life more comfortable, and has decided upon the following plans:
Public bath house. -TOYAMA-Shi aims to rebuild 7 bath-houses, and will give 25,000 yen to each keeper of a bath-house to defray the cost of reconstruction.
For the present, one dinning hall is planned which will be open to families who have many children and to those who cannot eat their meals at home. In the future, two more dining halls will be opened.
Early next year, "TOYAMA-Shi will open a public market selling fish, vegetables and daily necessities.
It is also Planned to make salt by an electric process, which, at first, aims to produce 70 tons a year. Later, the quantity will be increased.

ITEM 2 Plea for Korean Independence - Provincial Paper KOBE SHINBUN, KOBE - 16 Dec 45 Translator: A[illegible]ABANE Y.
Summary:
Although it is well known that the Korean Independence Movement was widely extended not only in KOREAN but even on the Japanese mainland, the real aspects have been hidden from the eyes of the general public in JAPAN. The following are notices told at the request of KOBE SHIMBUN by some young Koreans, who took active part in the movement.
Mr. AN, Tojun (age 23). My uncle assassinated Prince ITO at the HARIEI staion when he was 20 year's old, so I have had special interest in things Japanese. I became anti-Japanese when I was a second year student in TAIKYU middle school at the age of 16. I read a book entitled "You and I" compiled by RI, Sakka, known as the Korean FOLSTOI when I was a fourth year student, and I was awakened to racial consciousness. This influenced me to undertake the so-called underground movement with my colleagues. We were indigrant at the Korean policies of JAPAN which aimed at the erasure of Korean history, colonial domination and innumerable other vices. There were only 12 of us at first, with Mr. RI, Tou as head. He was then studying at the TAIKYU normal school and was later sentenced to 7 year's penal serivtude as a sacrifice for the Independence Movement, and has now been released only due to the termination of the war. We held secret meetings underground once a week and wrote anti-Japanese poems, but were arrested by Japanese detective on a clue from a photograph taken showing the comrades.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 122 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
I was sentenced to one year six months penal servitude and imprisonned at TAIKYU and KAIDEN, where the torture was very cruel. I had needles forced under my finger nails and flesh. I was kept uspide down and mustard was forced into my nostrils. I was released temporarily from prison because of tuberculosis contracted during my long confinement but I was shadowed by detectives. After deep consideration, I came to a conclusion that it would be reasonable to campaign for independence, disguised as a pro-Japanese, but this would be quite difficult as I was a Korean. I came to JAPAN secretly in 1943 and entered KANSAI University. While in JAPAN, I was always changing my location for fear of arrest, as of war against Japanese militarism and government policy. I was very much moved at hearing the Imperial broadcast on 15 August. I feel sorry for my Comrades who sacrificed their lives for the cause of Korean independence. Japanese young men, I like you; I disliked only Japan's Korean policy. Although the road to realization of a new JAPAN to be constructed through the pains of the defeat may be thorny. I hope we will push along assisting each other.
Mr. RI Shoki (age 20). I graduated from a Japanese commercial school and was a long-distance running champion. While in school I read the prohibited lifeist pediorical "Fighting Flag" Since 1944, I have been engaged in the Independence Movemnet. I was arrested by seven detectives at the TOKYO Station on 31 January last and sent to the KOBE Police Station where I saw the grief of homeless refugees, being tortured, hand-cuffed and forced to sit on an abacus to be rushed right and left. I was imprisoned on a charge of disturbing the peace. Several of my comrades were getting up and independence movement in Russia, so at ontetime I tried, to go there to join them but in vain. While in prison, I was in the same room with a few leftists and students of AIMEJI High School and I knew that it was quite easy to buy off prosecutors and other prison officials. I was surprised at the skill of the special high police in drawing confessions from suspects through various psychological methods and by asking captions questions.
I contracted consumption and was released from prison on 19 July. On 14 August, I was taking a walk in KOB[illegible]when a B-29 scattered many handbills inscribed, "JAPAN accepted POTSDAM Declaration" and "Not Bombs", at which I could not help crying loudly with joy and deep emotion. I have many Japanese friends and know JAPAN well, but JAPAN'S Korean policy was by in no means good.
Mr. BUN, Token (age 29). I am head of the youngmen's department in the league. I came to JAPAN when I was 18 years old and studied at night schools, working in a gum factory during the daytime. As a result of my study of Korean history, because I dissatisfied with JAPAN'S Korean policy such as discriminative treatment, exploiting colonial policy etc, especially the disregarding of the admondion of the Emperor MEIJI to respect impartiality and universal brotherhood. JAPAN gave us only one of the three national duties. We were obliged to live with only a three month supply of rice for a year and even trip tickets were not given. In order to oppose these policies, the Western JAPAN Korean Students Society was organized and active underground agitation was started by over 36 students. One of my friends was arrested while he was reading the biography GHIANG, KAI-SHEK on the train. I was sentenced to two year's penal servitude in compliance with Article 7 of the Security Maintenance Law. When the sentence was announced at the court, I cried "I am ready to be buried bravely as a patriot, but please abolish discrimination for the sake of over 28 million Koreans".
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SOCIAL SERIES: 122 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Many leaders of the Korean Independence Movement died dog's deaths, and leaders in KANSAI are no exception. Many of my seniors and friends sacrificed themselves for the cause. However it maybe, the fountain of the Korean Independence Movement is now flowing with torrentially.
ITEM 3 Illegal Trade in American Army Cigarettes - Provincial Newspaper Bocho Shimban (YAMAGUCHI) - 16 Dec 45 Translator: CHMO M.
Full Translation:
Today when the shortage of tobacco is acute, persons in jewelry stores or souvenir shops haveing frequent contact with occupation personnel are requesting tobacco instead of money for their merchandise. They are selling the tobacco at the exarbitant price of 30 yen a pack which they obtain for 25 yen from occupation personnel. Consequently, the YAMAGUCHI Tobacco Monopoly Branch Bureau (YAMAGUCHI SEMBAI SHIKYOKU) sent out the following warning: "There are many people in the city smoking occupation troops cigarettes. Those persons having cigarettes, without Government marks on them are to be prosecuted for violating the Tobacco Monopoly Law. But due to the present situation, we feel that it is not right to judge these violation in such a strict manner. So the authorities gave their tacit permission to those men who accept cigarettes with the good will of the occupation personnel. Recently many people are obtaining cigarettes at exorbitant prices and smoking them openly. As the distribution of Japanese tobacco will gradually be increased it is expected that fewer persons will be found violating the law.
ITEM 4 Thefts in occupation Force Barracks. - Provincial Newspaper Bocho Shimbun (YAMAGUCHI) - 16 Dec 45 Translator: OHNO M.
Full Translation:
Thefts in the occupation troops barracks in the YAMAGUCHI-Shi have been occuring frequently of late On 14 December, TAKAKA, Hideo, of KINKO YAMAG[illegible]CHI, mixed in with workers of the occupation troops, and broke into the barracks. He stole seven packs of cigarettes and a quantity of cut tobacco, chocolate and chewing gum. As he was leaving he was discovered by an Allied soldiers and taken to the YAMAGUCHI Police Station.
On the same day, MORITA, [illegible]arumi, of KAMIDATEKOJI, YAMAGUCHI, stole one kan of work from a warehouse situated just back of an occupation troops [illegible]rrack. He too was taken to the Police Station.
The YAMAGUCHI Police Station sent out a warning as follows: ''Those who violate the honor of the Japanese by stealing goods of the occupation troops will be punished severely. Persons having close contact with occupation personnel must conduct themselves as true Japanese.
ITEM 5 Round Table Talk on Education (part one) (Provincial paper) - Provincial Newspaper Boch Shimbun (YAMAGUCHI) - 16 Dec 45 Translator: AKA[illegible]Y.
Summary:
Although the new educational policy in Japan has been indicated, the details and actual teaching methods are left to the teachers discretion.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 122 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
The following are some of the opinions expressed by five national school teachers of YAMAGUCHI-Ken, in response to questions asked by this newspaper:
Question: How will you change the hitherto authoritarian method to one more liberal and progressive?
Answer: 1st teacher-There are some children in any class whom teachers dislike, but it is necessary for the teachers to try to find their strong points. These children are apt to cause trouble. Teachers must solve these difficulties from the childrens' standpoints and not the teachers'. If teachers listen to the voices of the children, the latter will gradually be led to listen and obey what teachers say; but hereafter it would be better for teachers not to interfere too much in trouble arising among students, leaving them, as far as possible, to be solved by the students themselves. Children hate justice, and they are greatly ifluenced by their social surroundings. Therefore social education is also very important.
2nd teacher-Hitherto, the expression of childrens' thoughts has long been suppressed, prohibiting any thoughts inconvienient to the plans of the authorities. This attitude naturally led to an extreme paucity of original thoughts and ideals. Hereafter, children must be given and opportunity to hold open meetings at least once a month to say what they want to say, and teachers will teach them what is right. Children must be as free from interference as possible, but their sense of responsibility must necessarily be cultivated, together with freedom of action.
3rd teacher-Liberty is apt to be misunderstood as self-indulgence or looseness, and individuality as egoism. Likewise, some people have the mistaken notion that if children's freedom of action is respected their proper up bringing world be difficult, and that if their individuality is respected, they cannot be effectively disciplined. I believe it better to teach and fasten children rough-hewn, so-to-speak, in order to leave them opportunity to become men of excellent caliber, physically and spiritually strong.
4th teacher-Teaching for the maintenance of moral order must be introduce into JAPAN'S educational system. For instance, a students salute to his teachers should not come from the formal relationship between teachers and students, but from the bottom of the students heart, from the consciousness of his being educated. For this it is essential that the teacher's personality be agreeable. The present custom of making students salute any teacher is wrong. To give students the power to criticize is necessary, and for that purpose class tribunals, discussion meetings and so on would be invaluable.
5th teacher-It is necessary to show the students that we are an integral and irreparable part of society. Therefore, absolute obedience to rules of social conduct is required. The education hither to given was too narrow in scope and standardized. From now on we must teach our students to become mentally strong enough to combat social evils and injustices. Selfish utilitarianism has long been prevalent in JAPAN. Public moral have developed in EUROPE and AMIRICA as the people there adhere to individualism, whereas in JAPAN morals have degenerated through adherence totalitrarianism.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0122, 1945-12-26.
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