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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0114, 1945-12-23.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0478

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No 478 DATE 23 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Keisei Electric Railroad Employees' Participation in Railroad Management - Mainichi Shimbun - 2l Dec 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
The KEISEI Electric Railroad Labor Union, which has demanded a five-fold increase in wages, adopted the new stratagem of taking their wages from the fares which they collect.
Under this new system of conducting a strike, the efficiency of rail transportation is improving remarkably because of the efficient handling of trains by the 2300 employees.
The demand for a five-fold increase in wages is by no means excessive, according to Mr. KATO, Kenichi, chief of the Labor Union. He said that the daily wages of the employees is much too low. A man who gets two yen per day, for instance, would got 450 per month, including various allowances, if the new rate is granted. This would mean an actual monthly income of 300 yen excluding taxes, savings, and insurance fees. The present income amounts only to 60 yen.
The latests efforts of the KEISEI Labor Union to negotiate with leaders of the Company on 4 December were in vain, and the employees went on an unusual strike by taking over the entire management of rail transportation, completing speedy repairs of 20 cars in three days. They intended to show the difference between the efficiency of the company and their own efficiency. The repairing of brakes, motors, and windows was completed in three days and nights. There is no absenteeism, as before. As the result of this, in addition to the daily regular runs of 13 trains, in rush hours between UENO and AOTO, there were three extra trains and two reserves. The shortage of conductors and motormen was made up by cutting down on holidays. These efforts of the employees show the possibility of co-operative management by the laborers and managers. The sum total of the fares collected from 14 December to 18 December by the strikers was 22,916,90 yen. The monthly expenditures of the company in wages was 120,000 yen.
The leaders of the strike stated, "the whole amount of our wages is earned by us in a half month's time. We cannot see why the company refuses to comply with our reasonable demands."
ITEM 2 Commercial Schools to be Revived - Mainichi Shimbun - 21 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
The unification and readjustment plan of secondary schools will be enforced soon by the metropolitan authorities. According to the papers, it has also been planned to restore some commercial schools, which had been converted into technical schools during the war.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 114 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
however, that the plan is drawn up in such a way that the date on which this will occur is fixed so that applicants may have plenty of time before submitting their applications. It is also learned that no increase in the capacities of the schools is included in the plan.
ITEM 3 Examination Measures for Middle Schools in Tokyo - Asahi Shimbun - 21 Dec 45. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Full Translation:
In addition to an outline of methods to be used in selecting secondary school applicants in TOKYO for the coming school year as published on 3 December, the date of selection, details of the selecting method, and directions for applicants wore made public by the Metropolitan Office 20 December. There will be only one selection, which will begin on 5 April. The results will be published on 10 April. This decision will also apply to every municipal secondary school in the three neighboring prefectures, KANAGAWA, SAITAMA, and CHIBA. It also includes the junior course of every high school under the seven year system and secondary schools administrated by higher normal schools in the metropolis.
Written applications and school records are to be submitted from 5 to 20 of March. No changing of schools will be allowed 50 days following the application period. The restriction in choice of schools is abolished by the removal of the school ward system. Because of the reduced number of applicants, everyone will be able to enter any school which is suited to his ability.
A second selection of applicants will be made if the number of applicants is below the authorized number. The names of schools which will select secondary applicants will be published about 2 April. The method of selection will be based primarily on an oral examination, but written examinations will also be permitted. The questions asked in the oral examination are expected to be simple and easy to understand.
If an applicant's school record is incomplete, this fact should be indicated on his application. Physical defects are acceptable if they do not interfere with the applicant's work. Those mho were severely injured during the war are advised to submit their application to the Guard School in the KUDAN Metropolitan Middle School. For war orphans who desire to receive an education, the necessary funds for school expenses will be furnished by the JAPAN Educational Service Association (NIPPON KYOIKUEI-KAI).
ITEM 4 All Japan Teachers Union Holds Meeting to Unify Teachers Associations and Effect Better Treatment - Asahi Shimbun - 21 Dec 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
The TOKYO Teachers' Union (TOKYOTO KYOIN KUMIAI) will hold an inaugural meeting at the YOTSUYA DAIROKU Primary School on 23 December. This Union is a part of the All-JAPAN Teachers' Union.
The following times will be discussed at the meeting: 1) five hundred per cent raise in pay; 2) positions of all teachers should be determined by a single standard; 3) aid to teachers and students who are war victims; 4) establishment of purchasing unions; 5) participation in education administration by the Union, 6) school principals to be selected by vote; 7) reinstatement of teachers who were forced to
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SOCIAL SERIES: 114 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
resign; 7) revival of food supply system in schools.
The Union also plans to unify the JAPAN Teachers' Union (NIPPON KYOIKUSHA KUMIAI) and the All-JAPAN Teachers' Union (ZENNIPPON KYOIN KUMIAI), which are now opposed to each other on the problem of the Emperor System. The TOKYO Teachers' Union proposes to dissolve the two unions and establish a single union whose membership will consist of all the teachers in JAPAN.
ITEM 5 Japanese, Red Cross Nurses go to New Guinea - Tokyo Shimbun - 21 Dee 45. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
A farewell meeting for 20 nurses of the JAPAN Red Cross was held at the AOI Hall in SENDAGAYA, TOKYO on 20 December. The nurses are to leave YOKOHAMA on the KIKAWA-MARU for NEW GUINEA, where a number of sick demobilized soldiers are awaiting them.
ITEM 6 Character and Future of Shinto Shrines - Tokyo Shimbun - 22 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
In connection with General Headquarters' directive on Shintoism, it cannot be too strongly emphasized that the idea that Shintoism is not a religion and only of recent origin dating to the beginning of this century, is a grave error. The Japanese people have always gone to their Shinto Shrines to pray, to make vows, to take part in festivals and rites. It is true that some of the Shinto Shrines deify great men among the Japanese people, but, the others deify their multitudinous gods. The majority of the Shinto Shrines, especially in the villages, are dedicated to the god of agriculture. It is true that since the MEIJI Restoration, the appointment of village Shinto priests had to be sanctioned by the prefectural governor, but, this was largely a matter of form. The village Shinto priest was, therefore, not a state official, but, a villager, pure and simple.
Shintoism is of a very manifold nature and comprises many forms of belief, some of them very ancient and traditional, others new. State Shintoism comprises only one if its many aspects. The General Headquarters' directive puts an end only to the recent artificial impositions on Shintoism. It is to be assumed that the Shinto priests of the different sects and shrines will create some sort of Bureau of Shintoism to keep in touch with each other and the believers will group themselves in associations and bodies. [illegible]the above measures are adopted, state subsidy will be unnecessary and most probably Shintoism will prosper even more than heretofore. There are, however, a number of Shinto Shrines, without public support, partly maintained artificially as state organs of Shintoism. Such shrines will not be able to maintain themselves. Shintoism as a religion is, therefore, in no way impaired by the General Headquarters' directive; on the contrary, it is to be assumed that the removal of official shackles will bring out the individual characteristics and traditions of the Shinto Shrines more clearly.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0114, 1945-12-23.
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