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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0104, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0430

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 430 Date: 21 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 104

ITEM 1 TOKUSHIMA occupation force make public meetings meet their approval - Provincial Newspaper, Tokushima Shimbun (TOKUSHIMA) - 16 Dec 45. Translator: J. Kinoshita.
Fall Translation:
A directive was issued by the Military Police Headquarters of the Occupation Force in MATSUYAMA for EHIME—Hen. The directive states that any meeting of the general public, either private or official, should be reported to, and acknowledged by, the Military Police Headquarters, except meetings for purely social purposes, or special meetings previously reported.
The details to be reported are: aime of the meeting; date and place of the meeting; matters to be discussed at the meeting; names, residences, and professions of the promoters and speakers; and, the number of people expected.
The report is to be submitted to the Police Department of the Prefectural Office or the nearest police station five days before the proposed date. However, the prefectural authorities desire that the report be submitted as soon as possible.
ITEM 2 Changes In Japanese National Holiday and School Text Hooks In Connection with GHO Directive on Shintoism - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
The abolition of state control over the Shinto religion was ordered by Allied Headquarters on 15 November. The present directive prohibiting State Shintoism aims at a fundamental change in the hitherto existing idealogy of worshiping the Emperor as a "living God" and considering the Imperial Household as the center of Shintoism. In consequence, the various Shinto rites which have long been carried out by the Imperial Household in the form of national festivals are to be considered in the furture as private ceremonies. Preparations are now under way in the Imperial Household Ministry to revise the ordinances relating to Imperial festivals, and other related Imperial activities in compliance with the Allied Headquarter directive.
The procedure for the revision is now in progress and in the hands of a committee consisting of councilors of the Ministry, with the Investigation Section and Ritual Department as central agencies. Since the wholesale revision of the Voluminous Imperial regulations will take some time, the Imperial ordinance pertaining to Imperial festivals will be revised first of all. Subsequently all Imperial festivals conforming to the new form will be observed beginning on the anniversary

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SOCIAL SERIES: 104 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
of the Emperor TAISHO, without waiting the date designated by the directive. The severance of Shintoism from the State means that the observance of different Shinto festivals will be private instead of state festivals; and for this reason, the following provisions must first be revised:
Article (8) of the ordinance relating to Imperial festivals provides: "Grand festivals shall be observed by the Emperor himself, accompanied by members of the Imperial families and officials [illegible]".
Article (20) of the some ordinance provides: "Small festivals shall be observed by the Chief retualist and the Emperor shall worship in person, accompanied by members of the Imperial families and officials".
As is seen from the above provisions, festivals have been observed with the Emperor as the central figure of State Shintoism. Secondary figures were members of the Imperial family and civil and military functionaries Therefore, in order to change Shinto festivals from State into private ceremonies, the Imperial Household must discontinue the practice of partisipating in its present capacity.
In regards to the question of those to be considered members of the Imperial family, there may be some doubts, depending on the interpretation given to "Imperial Household". If it is interpreted in a broad sence to include Imperial princes and princesses, there is no objection to the Emperor's observances in person of festivals, accompanied by members of the Imperial Household. On the other hand, if considered in the narrow sense, and interpreted as meaning only princes and princesses having direct blood relationship with the Emperor, problems may arise regarding this practice. If in the future, for instance, a prince should believe in Christianity and should refuse to attend the Shinto festivals, it could be considered an express contradiction to freedom of religion to compel him to attend the festivals on the strength of the ordinance relating to Imperial festivals. No such compulsion seems to have been made. Moreover, doubts are entertained as [illegible]the relationship between Shinto festivals and National festivals. For example, could the Foundation of Empire Day be celebrated as a national festival? Imperial festivals stipulated in the ordinance are divided into two groups, grand and small, and are fixed as follows:
Grand festivals (Article 9): the Foundation of the Empire Festival (11 February); Festival of the Vernal Equinox (day of vernal equinon); Spring Shrine Festival (day of vernal equinon); Anniversary of the Emperor JIMMU (3 April); the Festival of the Autumnal Equinon (day of autumnal equinon); The Autumnal Shrine Festival (day of autumnal equinon); and the Harvest Festival (17 October), making a total of 13 festivals including five not mentioned.
Minor festtivals (Article 21): New Year's Day Festival (1 January), Prayer Festival (17 February), Anniversary of the Birthday of the Emperor MEIJI (3 November), Sacred Music and Dance Festival at the Sanctuary in the Imperial Palace (middle of December), and the Emperor's Birthday, making a total of (9) festivals including four others not mentioned.
Of the above festivals, 13, including the New Year's Banquet (5 January), end the Empress Birthday Festival (6 March), are popularly known as Stele Festivals and have been so designated by the Government. It is the business of the Government to designate which are State Festivals.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 104 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The Imperial Household has no concern with this. Since the Anniversary of the Emperor JIMMU is "Foundation of the Empire Day" and the Emperor's Birthday is the Birthday of the present Emperor, there may be no objection in desigating these as State festivals. However, the festival of the anniversay of the Emperor TAISHO and that of the anniversary of the birthday of the Emperor MEIJI may well be treated as purely domestic festivals of the Imperial Household, since they are festivals for the Imperial ancestors.
School life and text books will be greatly influenced by the abolition of State Shintoism. The indoctrination in Shintoism is really thorough going in primary schools. Each school has a small shrine for worshipping, no matter how remote it may be. School children and teachers have long been accustomed to worship gods, salute the Imperial Palace in the morning, and receive daily indoctrination in Shintoism. The elimination of these practices from jevenile education will be by no means easy. The Education Ministry is going to issue general instructions within one or two days in accordance with the recent directive from Allied Headquarters, relating to the necessary reform in school life and the elimination of militaristic teachings from text books. This will be followed by detailed instructions on the concrete measures to be taken concerning this reform. In the meantime, the removal of shrines from classrooms and the discontinuance of all Shinto rites will be effected at once. The disposition of school shrines and special Shinto festivals will also be made immediately.
Some of the items to be removed from textbooks are as follows:
"JAPAN", lesson 19 in the last volume of the "YOIKODOMO" series (TN: The Good Child).
"UJIGAMISAMA" (TN: Tutelary Dieties).
"YASUKUNI Shrine", lesson three in the second volume for fourth year ethics students.
"TAISHOSAI" (TN: A Court Festival), lesson 13 of the same book.
"Grand Shrines", lesson ten, third volume.
Moral teachings for students of the sixth year are permeated with the expression - "Japan, the Country of Gods", This phrase is to be eliminated also.

In addition to this, textbooks now used by secondary schools will be inspected and revised accordingly.
ITEM 3 Contrast between Rich and Poor. Barracks with 9 People and New Houses without a Resident. - Mainichi Shimbun - 18 Dec. 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
Extracts:
The winter, which war sufferers fear the most, is now here. All the Government measures for spring and summer housing policies are now of no pratical use. The President of the Reconstruction Bureau, Mr. KOBAYASHI, said in the Diet that now that control on lumber has been lifted, people must build barracks by themselves, [illegible]MITO, for instance, 80 or 90 per cent of the houses were built through private expenditure.
The emergency barracks planned by the Government do not exist, and yet there is no rationing of building materials. Complaints of war sufferers against the Government are growing with the increasing cold in war damaged areas.
Here is a good contrast between the rich and poor: at KOJIMACHI, 6 Chome,
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SOCIAL-SERIES: 104 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
a poor barracks and a newly built cottage stand side by side. In the barracks, nine people of a barber's family are living together in a small three-met room where a terrible draught blows in through the sheet zinc roof. The barber wanted to move his six children to a military barracks opposite his house but owing to the leaky roof, it was not fit for his children to sleep there. Moreover the children wanted to be with their parents.
Just behind the barber's hut is a regular house built through private expenditure, of course, at black market prices. Looking inside, there is no sign of any person. The outside of the building is complete, but the inside matting is not yet finished.
People in the neighborhood say that these buildings would cost 100 yen per[illegible]tsubo including carpenters' wages of 80 yen per day. Poor war sufferers would never be able to afford such black market prices, inspite of the encouragement by the Government to build houses. The Government should take immediate steps to help these war sufferers.
ITEM 4 Criticism of Modern American Literature (Part I) - Tokyo Shimbun - 19 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Bestsellers are not in themselves a sure sign of literary merit, but, the fact that Louis BROMFIELD's newest book "Pleasant Valley" is a best seller proves his undimished popularity since he published "The Rains Cane" and "Bombay Nights". BROMFIELDS is at present farming in MANSFIELD, OHIO and his newest book deals with his farm, its neighbors and the farm work.
BROMFIELD loves FRANCE and calls it his second home. However, BROMFIELD loves not only FRANCE as he is a confirmed internationalist. He says that he loves all mankind, all races and peoples, creeds and religions. He claims that half of his friends are Indians and he spends every second winter in INDIA because of its strong appeal for him. BROMFIELD hate nationalism and provincialism. With Dr, JOHNSON, he believes that patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel.
Politically BROMFIELD is a confirmed upholder of democracy. With JEFFRRSCN, he is of the opinion that nations can show a healthy progress only under democratic conditions.
Robert SHERWOOD, known in JAPAN as the author of the moving picture "The Petrified Forest", is another staunch supporter of democracy and a virulent hater of fascism.
The political interests of these authors seems to be the best guarantee that they are the true upholders of the literature of their country.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0104, 1945-12-21.
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