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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0101, 1945-12-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0406

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 406 DATE : 20 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Situation in the Coal Mines - Asahi Shimbun - 15 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Full Translation:
The Government plans to produce 650,000 tons of coal in December, 990,00C tons in January, and 950,000 tons in February, but, to supply the needs of the Nation's railways, gas companies, factories, and civilians, at least 1,500,000 tons per month are necessary. The following is an investigation into production in the HOKKAIDO, KYUSHU and JOBAN coal mines by an ASAHI correspondent:
Production; Compared with prewar production, average coal production in three HOKKAIDO mines is: YUBARI Coal Mine - one-fifth; DAIYUBARI Coal Mine one-eighth; MIUTA Coal Mane - one-seventh of prewar capacity. The total production figures of the three mines combined show, however, a drop from a previous 350,000 tons in prewar days to only 30,000 tons now. In KYUSHU, total coal stocks in the various ports were as follows;
End of September - 1,500,000 tons; end of October - 900,000 tons; end of November 640,000 tons.
Stocks in the coal mines were: end of September - 1,120,000 tons; end of October 970,000 tons; end of November 880,000 tons. The actual total coal production during October and November in all the KYUSHU coal mines was only 80,000 or 90,000 tons.
Coal stocks in HOKKAIDO amount to 700,000 tons, half of which are no good, the other half stocked away inconveniently. The total Japanese coal production in October amounted to 540,000 tons, and in November to 510,000 tons. The main difficulties impeding coal production are labor shortages, labor conditions in the mines, damaged condition of the mines, and a decrease of transportation facilities.
HOKKAIDO coal mines are now trying to set up plans for increased production. For example, the YUBARI Coal Mine can produce with its present labor power 1,000 tons per day. By distributing coal miners to points easiest and most lucrative for mining, and increasing the number of miners from the present 5,500 to 7,000, they expect to be able to increase production to 1,500 tons by the middle of January and by the end of March, with another labor increase of 1,500, to 2,000 tons per day. Those coal mines showing a comparatively high number of coal miners and poorest production results are those mines worked by the voluntary service corps. The YUBARI Coal Mine plans to build 2,000 to 2,500 workers dwellings by autumn of next year.
Food Situation: The two main reasons for the present labor shortage are the food shortage and low wages. On account of the food shortage, the coal miners are forced to buy food on the black market. The result is that the daily rate of attendance of workers in mines on an average is

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SOCIAL SERIES: 101 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
now only 60 to 70 per cent, while in some KYUSHU mines the rate has dropped to 20 to 30 per cent. The YUBARI Mine workers alone have withdrawn 1,270,000 yen from their savings during November to buy food on the black market. Coalminers of the HOKKAIDO MITSUI Mine demand a staple food ration of seven go for themselves, and four go three shaku for each member of their families. They claim that five go for miners and two go throe shaku for each member of their families is not enough. In the JOBAN Coal Mine, miners come with empty stomachs and demand food if they are to work.
The HOKKAIDO Government Office for coalminers reports that only 3,000 koku of rice from NIIGATA has arrived to supply coalminers. Coalminers in KYUSHU are forced to buy on the black market an average of three sho of rice, five sho of wheat, and ten kan of potatoes per month, Many skilled miners are quitting because of the food shortage. In the JOBAN Coal Miners, miners were promised increased food rations after 1 December, but the promises were not fulfilled. These miners are forced to buy on the average of 100 kan of potatoes on the black market, and despite this, coal miners' families are suffering from malnutrition. However, an increase of rice ration to five go has already had favorable results in the JOBAN Mine in increasing the daily attendance rate. But, miners in general are demanding a further increase to seven or eight go, basing this claim on the computation that a miner needs 4,000 calories of food daily.
Labor Unions: Labor unions have become very active in the coal mines. The second strike of the DAIJUBARI Coal Miners' Union has ended in a full victory for the coal miners. They had demanded wages of 11.75 yen underground, and 8.39 yen above ground, special contracts to be fixed between the mine office and labor representatives, a work day of seven hours with a one hour rest period, and approval of all expenses by the labor union.
At the MITSUI MIUTA Coal line the labor union organized on 3 December made the following demands: a 15 yen minimum wage, guarantee of food supply by the company, publication of company accounts, and placing goods to be rationed under union control.
The labor unions generally avoided strikes during their disputes and demanded labor participation in mine management, while the managements tried to retain their old monopolistic hold. But, on the whole, both the companies and tie miners' unions are in favor of turning over privately-owned coal mines to the State for operation.
Wage Question: The Government indicated a wage of 12 yen, but miners are demanding 15 yen or more. Some mines have already agreed to pay 15 yen. As a result of the wage negotiations the HOKKAIDO Coal liners' Association Union has come to an agreement to supervise the entire coal production in HOKKAIDO. The price of coal has become a very complicated question. Present government subsidies are too low and coal mines are working at a loss while many need repairs. Production costs differ from mine to mine, so that it is difficult to fix equitable and uniform prices. If the control price should, however, be lifted, some mines are bound to fail under free competition.
Voluntary Service Corps: These Service Corps from all sections and classes of the people arose with the idea of returning home after three months of mining. However, they need three months to become adjusted to their work. One woman laborer in the JOBAN Mine laughingly declared
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SOCIAL SERIES: 101 (Continued)
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that some of the new Voluntary Service Corps of railway workers are really a pitiable sight as they can not even do the work of a mining woman, and collapse when they are asked to carry a seven foot pole.
ITEM 2 Prof. Miura Nominated Chief of Kyoto Imperial University Hospital Asahi Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Dr. MIURA, Hyakushige, Professor of Psychiatry, will shortly be appointed Director of the hospital attached to KYOTO Imperial University as successor to Dr. HATTORI, Syunjiro.
Dr. MIURA was born in SHIZUOKA-Ken and is now 55 years old. He graduated from the medical department of KYUSYU Imperial University in 1918, was appointed an assistant professor at KYOTO Imperial University in 1924, obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1929, and was appointed a professor at KYOTO Imperial University in 1935.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0101, 1945-12-20.
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