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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0089, 1945-12-15.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0350

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSALTOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No 350 Date: 15 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 89

ITEM 1 Correspondent's Report from the Philippines - Tokyo Shimbun, 13 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
It was certain that the "suicide squad" had been planned at first in anticipation of its effect to some extent. It was also understood that the use of this emergency measure would be limited to an extremely short period. In this connection, Vice-Admiral ONISHI, Commander-in-Chief of the First Aviation Fleet and the founder of the "suicide squad" told me, "The enemy's strength on the sea can he estimated at about 5,000,000 tons. So, I am quite sure that if we can sink 40 per cent of this, namely, 2,000,000 tons, then perhaps we can stop their advance by cutting them off from the rear. This must be done promptly. This is why I have decided to use the suicide squad."
The Admiral continued, "Such emergency steps, however, should be abolished as soon as possible." But the effect caused by this surprising attack suddenly decreased when the American forces reinforced their antiaircraft batteries and direct aerial defense and tried to lessen the danger by composing smaller groups of transports. Yet our tactless staff officers tried every manner of fake propaganda to conceal their incompetence as well as the failure of suicide attacks. In the Philippine operation the debut of our rocket bombers had been expected. This hope, however, was lost at last, because our aircraft carrier "UNRYU," which was loaded with this new weapon, was sunk off SHANGHAI.
By these utterly fake bits of propaganda, our nation's Judgment of the real tide of battle was misled, resulting only in needlessly prolonging the war.
The irresponsibility and lack of sincerity of those officers who were in charge of carrying on operations is never to be considered too lightly.
Upon getting information to the effect that American troops had landed at LINGAYEN, the suicide squad dispatched from Clark Field its four bombers, which had already been damaged on 6 January. Thus, having been exhausted to the last machine, they had to desert their base. We correspondents, too, were forced to march about 400 kilometers along with the "walking air forces," to Tuguegarao Field, located in Northern LUZON. There we had to wait for several days for transport planes in order to follow-up the main body of our troops which had already gone to FORMOSA. What we had seen there during this period was quite terrible. High-ranking commanding officers, mostly in the ranks of field officers and staff officers, all struggled in an attempt to get on the plane, taking with them

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SOCIAL SERIES: 89 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
their bulky bags filled with private things. Thus, arms and ammunition were left behind. One captain had taken so much baggage with him that his orderly said, "I counted as many as twenty pieces, but there were so many, I don't know how many in all."
Under such circumstances our military discipline declined rapidly, similarly to that of the German troops at the time of World War I.. In a modern war, in which fire power and maneuverability have become decisive factors, we can never overcome "material quantity." In Japan's case, however, I should say that the cause of defeat might be attributed to a way of thinking which ignored this self-evident truth, rather than to the lack of "material quantity."
General YAMASHITA in his press interview answering the questions of newspapermen, said that JAPAN was defeated in "science." But science means not merely knowing the names of airplanes or their data, but means a scientific method of thinking applicable to all things about us. For this purpose it is necessary to cultivate our ability to think matters out by ourselves. When taken into war prisoners' camps, Japanese soldiers have exposed their inferiority of their character as individuals. Due to this, there were thefts and outrages seen in our camps. Seeing this, I felt keenly the evil caused by this crammed education, which forces the students to learn only the contents of textbooks by heart, instead of teaching them to think matters out themselves.
To build up a new democratic JAPAN, I cannot help but feel the necessity for improving these big mental defects.
ITEM 2 Diet Interpellation on Treatment of Scientists and Technicians - Mainchi Shimbun 13 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
In reply to the question asked by TAKEUCHI, Shunkichi, Independent, at the budget general meeting of the House of Representatives on 12 December, Director of the Cabinet Bureau of Legislature TANAHASHI stated, "Laws exist for the people, not the people for the laws, Accordingly, the people rate first, and laws next. Our defeat in the war is chiefly attributable to the complete misuse by the authorities of our laws. In our public administration, bachelors of law are considered almighty, and scientists are ignored. It is undeniable that the law's omnipotence and utter disregard of the importance of science in war was responsible for our defeat. I regret that the Technical Board was dissolved following our defeat, Although its dissolution was supposedly made in consideration of the possible opposition of the Allied authorities and others against atomic bomb research, JAPAN is permitted by Article 11 of the Potsdam Declaration to maintain its economy and is required to maintain sufficient industries to enable the Allied Powers to collect reasonable reparations in goods. The Declaration also has provision regarding JAPAN'S future foreign trade. In order to conform perfectly to the Potsdam Declaration, JAPAN must promote its peaceful industries, which necessarily requires a large-scale mobilization of all technical circles.
"I believe art and technique are fundamental requirements in constructing a new JAPAN, so in the forthcoming revision in choosing government
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SOCIAL SERIES: 89 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
officials, I will do my best to secure more consideration for technicians and experts, and encourage them by improving their treatment in such a way as to give them honor. We should do away with the old structure of subordination of technicians under officials graduated from law colleges. This, I believe, will result in the correction of the tendency, long prevalent in official circles, that applicants of bachelors of law and literature desiring to enter government services far exceeds those made by bachelors of engineering and other technical fields.
"As was pointed out by the Prime Minister, all engineering enterprises such as the construction of dams and the rehabilitation of peacetime industries require the work of technical experts, so they must be well treated in the government services."
ITEM 3 Settlement of Yomiuri Strike Yomiuri-Hochi - 13 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
General Headquarters published on 11 December the following statement on the settlement of the Yomiuri newspaper strike: "The struggle between the employees and employers of the YOMIURI-HOCHI which lasted over one and a half months ended on the 11th as a result of the efforts of an arbitration committee set up by the TOKYO City officials, and an agreement has been signed by the representatives of the employees and the employees, to which both sides expressed their satisfaction. This arbitration committee was set up in accordance with the policy of the Occupation Forces in JAPAN.
"The Yomiuri employees' strike was the first instance of an organized strike by a labor union which was settled by arbitration since the Allied occupation of JAPAN. The President of the YOMIURI-HOCHI, who was indicted as a war criminal suspect and interned on the 12th also signed the above agreement.
"The conditions of the compromise were not wholly satisfactory to the employees, but, as President SHORIEI threatened to dissolve or sell the paper, the employees agreed to the conditions."
YOMIURI commented: "The policy of General Headquarters exercised a great influence on the democratic struggle of the Yomiuri employees. In the first place, the Yomiuri employees were enabled to form their labor union through a General Headquarter's directive permitting the formation of such unions. The arbitration committee was also formed in accordance with the will of this directive. Yomiuri employees on their part acted in compliance with the will of General Headquarters that as far as possible strikes should not affect the public peace by carrying on voluntarily the publication of the paper during the strike.
"The Government declared their intention to form an arbitration committee to settle labor strikes on 4 November and Yomiuri employees stated their willingness to submit the settlement of their dispute to such a committee on the 8th. The TOKYO City officials then announced the formation of the arbitration committee on the 20th, but, the composition of this arbitration committee was unsatisfactory to the Yomiuri employees, so they declined, arbitration by this committee
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SOCIAL SERIES: 89 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
after a meeting on the 22d and proposed that a special committee be appointed to settle the dispute. The TOKYO City officials accepted the proposal on the 23d. On the 26th the proposal of the employees' representatives was completed by the joint committee of the TOKYO newspapers for the settlement of the YOMIURI dispute. However, as a Communist Party member was included among the proposed representatives, considerable difference of opinion arose between the Yomiuri employees. This led to several conferences as a result of which an agreement was reached, on 30 November that it did not matter whether or not a Communist Party member was appointed as one among a group of the labor representatives.
"In the meantime, the employers had also elected their representatives and the first meeting of the arbitration committee took place on 4 December. At the second meeting on 5 December Professor SUEHIRO, Gentaro was appointed chairman of the committee. Then the employers proposal was submitted. At the third meeting on the 7th the employees made their counterproposal and on the 10th the committee made their arbitration proposal. At this meeting President SHORIKI wanted to cancel some points to which he had formerly agreed and used threatening words which so enraged the committee members that Professor SUEHIRO and other members got up three times to leave the room. It was only after this heated conference that an agreement was reached on the 11th.
"The dissatisfaction rampant among Yomiuri employees indicated in the General Headquarter's statement, refers to President SHORIKI's demand that as a price of the reinstatement of dismissed Yomiuri employees, the Yomiuri employees agree to several of SHORIKI's representatives keeping their posts in the office. As an alternative, SHORIKI threatened to dissolve the YOMIURI-HOCHI and sell the Yomiuri property. The Yomiuri employees showed great dissatisfaction over this demand, but agreed in the end after an eloquent intermediation of the Communist labor representative, TOKUDA, Kyuichi. At the beginning of the arbitration, the inclusion of a Communist labor representative seemed to involve dangers for the settlement of the dispute, but, in the course of the arbitration the Communist representative showed great ability in reaching a compromise. This may well serve as an indication for the present policy of the Japanese Communist Party as a whole.
"The settlement of the dispute as a whole has been satisfactory, even though some representatives of SHORIKI have remained in office. The establishment of a Bureau of Management giving equal voice to employers and employees will work for a clear division between capital and management of the newspaper. To attain this goal, however, the employees must endeavor to strengthen their labor union to be able to make use of their newly acquired rights."
Professor SUEHIRO commented, "The arbitration committee desired to reach a full working agreement of capital, management and editing, the result attained has fallen short of this goal. As a result of the agreement reached, the employees' union, the Bureau of Management and the SHORIKI Welfare Section will have to deal with the capital of the company. To raise the quality of the newspaper, the employees' union must, however, uphold the ideal of the paper as a public organ and bow neither to the capital of the company or to any political pressure, nor let themselves be swept away by public opinion.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 89 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
"One of the chief problems is the decision of a labor contract to determine the fair treatment of the employees. This contract must be both scientific and easy to understand. This problem, however, concerns not only the Yomiuri employees but is the central theme of labor disputes all over the world. Yomiuri employees intend to co-operate in this matter with the ASAHI and MAINICHI newspaper employees' unions, and, after studying the economic condition of all newspaper employees and their wages, try to reach an equitable agreement with newspaper capital."
Professor SUEHIRO is, in conclusion, of the opinion that the arbitration committee will have to settle many labor disputes in the future, but, he does not think it advisable that each case be dealt with only individually. He advises the establishment of a scientific organization to study the Japanese labor question regionally so that equitable decisions according to local conditions of price and living standards may be reached.
DISTRIBUTION: "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0089, 1945-12-15.
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