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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0083, 1945-12-14.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0321

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPRME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 321 Date: 14 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 83

ITEM 1 Economic Condition of Students in 4th High School in Kanaza wa Provincial Newspaper HOKKOKU 30 Nov 45 Translator: OGAWA tonage
Summary:
At the Fourth Higher School in KUNAZAWA-Shi, ISHIKAWA-Ken, at investigation, has been made into the living conditions of students according to the HOKKOKU MAINICHI. The investigation was planned through the initiative of Mr. MUROBUSHI, TTetsuse, a student of the Department of Literature of the same school. This investigation was carried out on 25 November among the 658 students in attendance.
The following data were revealed:
Kind of Housing: (in percentages), Parent's home, 26.1; boarding-house, 38.9; special boarding-house, 5.9; dormitory, 29.0. The figures apparently show that 73 per cent of the students, living away from their parent's home, are lighting against the shortage of housing and food.
School expenses (In yen per month):

In Dormitory In Boarding-house In Special boarding-house Average
Room-rent & ordinary Board 30 76 81 62
Additional Board 138 47 123 111
Books & others 76 58 52 62
Total 244 181 256 235


The minimum amount was paid by students who are boarders their monthly expenses amounting to an average of 80 yen. However, this is the case when the students attend school from the homes of relatives or acquaintances. Among the students who are lodging in a professional boarding-house, there is the following examples:
Room rent Ten yen;
Board - 60 “
Additional - 160 “
Food Books - Two “
Newspapers - 7 “
Movies & others - 15 “
electric-heater - 7 “
Total of 264 “


80% of the students investigated (not including these who attend school from their parent's home) were paying more than the above mentioned amount. In the above case, the additional food prices alone already exceeded half of the other expenses. Furthermore there are some covetous landladies who ask their boarders to offer one to of rice per month for a additional food supply with the throat that otherwise lodging will be refused. A student at a dormitory pays monthly expenses of 632.5 yen.



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SOCIAL SERIES: 83 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)

Summary:

In this case the items of the expense are as follows: Room-rent-2.50 yen; board-30 yen (approximately) for three meals a day; additional food prices-200 yen; books-200 yen and other expenses-200 yen.
Carrying lunch or not; (students at the dormitory are omitted): carrying-48 per cent; not carrying-52 per cent.
Those who go home, on Saturdays to obtain better food. Among students of the dormitory and borders it yes-28 per cent; No- 70 percent.
Room heating condition in winter months: Good-9 per cent; Fair-37 per cent; bad 54 [illegible].
Health condition: a. Weight (compared with that of 16 September, i.e. during the Summer vacation) increased Four [illegible]; Same-23%; Decreased-73%.

b. Subjective heath condition: (in Percentages) Good-Ten; Fair-40; Bed-50; (bad means undernourishment in the stage of feeling a slight fatigue in mind and body).
Are you satisfied with the present situation of living? No-100 per cent

In reply to the question refering to concrete measures for the improvement of present life, 95% of them wanted to Study at home and not attend school for a period of six months or a year. Among the other desires, the leading ones are as followes: (1) Abolition of the winter term examination; (2) Abolition of attendance rate checking (They went absence from school for the purpose of getting food supplies permitted); (3) Lessons should be given everyday in the morning only; and (4) Saturday should be made a holiday.
ITEM 2 Elementary School Childrens Health Conditions in NIIGATA NIIGATA NIPPO 6 Dec 45 Translator: GILBERT C.
Summary:
Schools throughout JAAN are, according to reports, closing. For two on months or more as a compulsory Winter holiday because of the Food shortage An investigation into health conditions of elementary school children in NIIGAWA*Ken reveals the following facts: 70% of the children in the cities are fed on porridges, while 25% receive rice meals once a day, and only 5% are receiving rice three times a day. Despite these figures the average weight of the school children has shown an increase during the months of September and October. In October and November, 75% of the first grade boys showed a weight increase, and only 25% a decrease; 61% of first grade girls showed a weight increase and 39% a decrease. In the higher grades no noticeable change in weight has been observed. In the rural districts 40.7% of the children showed weight increase, 32% weight decrease, and 26% remained unchanged. Children whose parents are engaged in farming or fishing show weight increases up to 50% and decreases of only 23%.
ITEM 3 The Japanese Defeat, in the Philippines TOKYO SHIMBUN 10 Dec 45 Translator: OGAMATA.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 83 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Summary:
A TOKYO SHIMBUN correspondent, who was at the front in the PHILIPPINES for ten months with Japanese troops and who was repatriated on 5 December aboard the destroyer, "[illegible]," paints a real picture of JAPAN'S defeat in the LUZON Area.
On January last when the so-called" decisive battle of the PHILIPPINES" was about to reach its final stage, the following story was circulating in [illegible]. The commanding officer of the Japanese troops in SAIKAN committed harakiri, because he was driven into a tight spot by the American forces. Whereupon the Japanese commander was cast into hell. The enraged warlord protested before the God stating, "I can't see any reason why I was cast into hell, since I committed suicide after having fought with all my strength against General MacARTHUR, "You might have done your best against MacARTHUR, the God replied with a smile, but .you have done nothing against the two other generals". "NO", answered the Japanese commander,. I am sure there were no other generals. If there were, who on earth could they have been. Well, explained the god, they were General Motors and General Electic". This wise crack fully explains the cause of JAPANS utter defeat.
Indeed, JAPAN had been destined to be defeated. The correspondent atributes the real cruse of JAPAN'S defeat to the Japanese Nation's low level of scientific knowlege and the low cultural level of the people in general. He also denies the so-called mental strength which was always so stressed by the military clique of JAPAN. The "new and powerful airpalnes" about which the Japanese Army and Navy highly boasted, have not proven to be "new and powerful" at all. The fighting spirit of Japanese soldiers dereased tremendously when they discovered the above mentioned fact. Military discipine became conspicuously loose, when staff officers tried har to protect themselves by abandoning the operation. This finally led the Japanese troops to the biggest stampede ever seen in the history of war. We were defeated by the poorer of machinery, not by the quality of the man and the mental power. I believe that we must recognize this fact thoroughly before we start the reconstruction of JAPAN.
Since the fall of 1944, the Japanese Naval air forces had to use the so-called "suicide squad" to challenge the UNITED STATES command of the sea and air, in the PHILIPPINE Area. Having been at CLARK FIELD, the base of the [illegible]a fliers, I have had an opportunity to witness on several occaisons the departure of these young fliers who would never return. Every I witnessed such scenes, I couldn't help regretting the inferiority of our regular air force and the awkwardness of their tactics, which always forced them "to resort to such emergency stops," the correspondent concludes.
ITEM: 4 Heroic War Dead return alive YOMIUI-HOCHI. 11 Dec 45. Translator: NISHIHA[illegible]H.
Summary:
While demobilized servicemen are returning to JAPAN, various preciously unknown, frets are coming to light. Most important of them is the problem of the "Living heros who have been considered dead."
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SOCIAL SERIES: 83 (Continued)
ITEM 4 Continued)
Summary:
A great number of soldiers considered dead are those who belonged to units which made final suicidal attacks. About 50 soldiers who had been regarded killed in action on IWO JIMA returned to their homes. While being a pleasant event for their families, the sentiments of the soldiers are quited doubtful. Mr. "X" came home to find it as he had been officially reported as dead and recorded as such on the census register. His younger brother had succeeded him to the head of the home, and was married to his wife to whom a child was born. This may be an extreme example, but similar occurrences undoubtedly will take place. After a commander ordered his men to die in honor, and the suicidal stack was made, the Imperial Headquarter regarded all the members of that unit as dead. Then they officially reported their deaths as soon as possible for the benefit of the bereaved families. It was considered to be inconsistent with the spirit of the Japanese military mind to hope that they were alive under such circumstances.
It is the custom of enemy forces to report the names of war prisoners. However, the Japanese war prisoners used false names, and, therefore, it was very difficult to identify them. The most complicated problem in this connection is their claim to rights as living men. The First and Second Demobilization Ministries, the Soldiers Families Section, and the Provincial Rescue Bureau, are taking steps to cancel the formal reports of their deaths, and to promulgate a ministrial ordinance in connection with the re-establishment of their rights. The ministries also hope to explain the reasons for these errors and to apologize to the public at the current session of the Diet.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0083, 1945-12-14.
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