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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0082, 1945-12-14.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0318

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 318 Date: 14 Dec. 1945


ITEM 1 Reviving Recreational Facilities in Niigata-Niigata Nippo-6 December 1945. Translator: Miyisaki, H.
In the city of Niigata, which suffered little damage from air-raids, recreational facilities are now being revived, and as of 5 December the curfew has been abolished and bars allowed to remain open during the day. It seems that the restoration of recreational facilities is the quickest way for the people to return to an atmosphere of normal times. An American movie is being shown for the first time in six years and there are 24 theaters open thus far. Gafes and tea rooms are rapidly increasing in number. There is only one dance hall which is open for occupational troops but dancing is becoming popular among Japanese. Well known peace time resturants are re-opening in their former locations. There is even talk of opening private homes for use as club houses. The number of GEISHA girls is supposed to be reduced and some used as waitresses.
ITEM 2 Land Reform Bill Discussed-Chubu Nippon Shimbun-6 December 1945. Translator: [illegible]baney, Y.
The land reform bill, one of the three major bills presented to the present session of the Diet, was submitted for discussion at the plenary session of the Lower House on 5 December. In view of it's importance, there may be lively discussions, as it involves the land question which has [illegible]been considered most difficult to solve. The questins regarding compulsory purchase of farms over five cho, and the payment of rent in money instead of in commodities will be local points. The following are some of the opinions of Diet members, tenants, and landowners in central Japan.
Diet members: Mr. HIRANO, Rikizo, Socialist, is in support of the compulsory purchase of land and the payment of rent in money, although the previsions of the law contain many defects. It is undeniable that farmers are disappointed because land owners' holdings have been increased from three cho to five cho. As the result of theis increase 1,500,000 tenants will have to remain in their tenant status. The designation of agricultural associations, notorious for their antidemocratic leanings, as the universal purchasing organ of farms is asurd. Land owners are given the right to appeal when they cannot sell their land, but this is contrary to the spirit of the law and unexpected difficulties will result therefrom. When land owners refuse the sale of land, the prefectural governors have the right to compel them to sell. This right should be held by the Agricultural Minister in view of the political inefficiency of the prefectural governors. The purchase price must be lowered a little, and the compensation of 150 yen per tan for rice fields and 90 yen per tan for other farms is too favorable to the landowners. The expenses for this item amounts to more than 2,000,000,000 yen and should be give to tenants in s[illegible]idies instead.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 82 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
According to Mr. AINO, Tokiichir[illegible]Progressive, the idea of increasing production by making tenats landed farmers held by government officials and urban dwellers. However his long experiences in villages, has taught him that something exist in the farmers psychology which is not understandable to persons of other occupations. It is not necessarly the case that farmers are more diligent in cultivating their own farmers nor is it true that te[illegible]farmers are loss diligent because they do not own their farms. Of course there may be some exceptions, but the creation of landed farmers will not result in much of an increase in production. The questions of land must be solved by strong farmer's unions in [illegible]with local conditions. He further stated that the Government bill ignores the farmers feeling and entertains little hope of its accomplishing anything.
Land owners: Three landowners[illegible]opinions were collected, the summary of which is as follows: We have nothing to say, as the presentation of the bill reflects the [illegible]policy and the demands of the time. If permitted [illegible]s expect that the land owner's point of view might be fully understood, Anyone feels [illegible]mental about land which has been in his family for generations. Lands of owners in these districts are neither as large not as productive as lands in other districts. The land purchasing price must be reconsidered, taking into account the increase in the [illegible]of various commodities including farm products.
A land owner in [illegible]says that difficulties between farmers and land owners during the war will be removed and we feel relieved. However, the [illegible]bill involves serious difficulties to both small and medium land owners [illegible]tenants. [illegible]nd owners have to return surplus land to the Government while [illegible]ants will be deprived of their tented farms, which naturally will [illegible]nse [illegible]ieputes with regard tenancy and property rights.
Another land owner living in [illegible]said[illegible]The Government intends to redistribute farms by compulsory purchas from absentee land owners, but as these owners desire to return to their farmer and cultivate them it is questionable [illegible]agricultural associations will settle the problem. In view of the fact that [illegible]tendency toward competition among tenants, due to the shortage of food, is very conspicuous of late, it is a bit pre[illegible]to [illegible]landed farmers in such a hurry".
Tenants: We are glad of the [illegible]taken by the Government at this time in presenting the [illegible]Reform Bill to the Diet. The realization of the Bill will greatly contribute to the supply of rice the farmers are able to produce. Attachement to the sell cannot be understood by those having to experience with cultivation. We hope first that three cho will be enough for land owners. Secondly, since the average limit of purchasing power of tenants is believed to be about one cho of land, farms to be purchased over this limit must be limited to the size of the farm now under cultivation by the tenant. Instead of absentee landowners returning to their farms, owing to the food crises, it is more desirable to satisfy the tenants who will do their utmost to supply sufficient food. Lastly, tenants are, generally speaking, rather indifferent as to the limit of land holdings of owners, but beel uneasy at the demand of the owners for return of their farms. Therefore the recognition of tenancy right is desirable.
ITEM 3 Teachers' Minds must be Democratized-(Provincial Paper) Chubu Nihon Shimbun-9 December 1945. Translator: Minagi, Kunizo.
The AICHI Prefectural assembly had its second session on December [illegible]In reply to the interpellation by [illegible]on the curtailment of officials and on birth centrol[illegible]Governor [illegible]said that there are
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SOCIAL SERIES: 82 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Cries from the general public that the number of present officials should be cut down 50 percent. Personally speaking the staff of Provincial affairs Offices, who are in closest touch with the peope, should be formed of the most competent men.
The problem of birth control, according to the head of the provincial home affairs, MATSUSHITA, depends on the definite policies of the Government.
Assemblyman KAWAMURA interpellated about the democratized system of education for school boys who have been given military training; the insufficient democratization of the thoughts of teachers which causes school strikes; the method of strengthening education, which was neglected during the war; and the system of entrance examination to secondary schools next spring.
The Head of the Home Affairs Section, MATSUSHITA, replied that most important item in democratizing schools is that of democratizing the teacher's [illegible]. The shortage of mental training is to be supplemented by the periods hitherto allotted to fencing or judo (TN. JUJITSU). The entrance examination of next year will be the same as that of last year; that is, will be made the selection according to the reports from primary schools on the boys merits.
ITEM 4 Primary School Teachers Living Costs; Subsidies from Parents is the only Life Line-(Provincial Paper) Chubu Nihon Shimbun-9 December 1945. Translator: Minagi, Kunizo.
Income of Primary school teachers are hardly enough for their sustenance. KITAMURO Provincial Affairs Office in Aichi Prefecture made a detailed investigation of 21 schools and revealed that of 265 headmasters and teachers, maximum income is 120 yen; the minimum for the qualified teacher is 71 yen; lady assistants is 30 yen; the average is 64 yen 24 sen.
According to investigation the whole income of a family of six people, including salary bonus and other allowances per month, is 141 yen 67 sen. Through tremely feugal living the monthly expenditure amounts to three times that of the income in which emergency fees, such as medical and school fees for one girl and two boys are not included. Rice and wheat at black market prices, which takes the whole sum of income must be bought in fairly large quantities.
The fish prices after the abolition of official prices, are exhorbitant. To take any vegetable from the school garden raises complaints from the parents of school boys and consequently a radish must be bought at 2 yen 30 sen. In the bachelor's case with the income of 71 yen, 70 yen is partial payment for his bearding in house fee beside the monthly payment of 5 sho of rice. The shortage is supplemented by his parents.
ITEM 5 Investigation [illegible]Conditions of Nutrition of Tokyo Citizens-Asahi Shimbun-11 December 1945. Translator: Ohne Masashi.
Full Translation:
Men suffering from malnutrition have been investigated by the TOKYO Meropolitan Office, and further investigations will be made on a large scale in compliances with the new directive from Supreme Headquarters. Thirty three thousand persons or 1.2 percent of the total number of residents in the 35 wards or TOKYO were selected from various neighborhood associations or neighborhood group associations. They will include both sexes, young and old, and will be examined for malnutrition by more than 3,300 dectors in 472 corps. The eating habits of 16,500 persons, belonging to 4,125 families out of the above-mentioned examinees, will be studied further for three days.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 82 (Continued)
ITEM 6 Shortage of Coal affects Tokyo Hospitals-Asahi Shimbun-11 December 1945. Translator: J. Kinoshita
The present shortage of coal is threatening hospitals in TOKYO. In the Imperial University Hospital not even one [illegible]of coal is being stocked, and no substitute fuel [illegible]as yet been distributed. To alleviate this crises wooden mousse in the hospital have been broken up for use as fuel. There is no steam in sick rooms, and the most disheartening thing is the prospect of being unable to provide meals for patients in the very near future.
The S[illegible]AKO Hospital, regretting the shortage of gas; said that they were recently obliged to refuse an urgent case of Acute Apendecites carried in at midnight. In there dental department, they cannot make false test[illegible]Surgical operation are carried out only two days a week. On that day operations are carried out from 0400 to 2200 so that this overloading results in the absence of doctors and nurses on the following days.
In the JUM[illegible]DO Hospital, steam de[illegible]ction of surgical tools is pro[illegible]ibited because of the coal shortage. Operations are being limited to two or three out of 30 cases. An operation carried on in a cold room is dangerous because it leads to increased bleeding, which will cause inflemation of the images.
The activities of hospitals in TOKYO are too low because of both the shortage of coal and the lack of drugs.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0082, 1945-12-14.
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