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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0074, 1945-12-10.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0287

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 287 Date: 10 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 74

ITEM 1 Customs in, America - Nagasaki Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: K. Myazaki.
Full Translation:
Captain MORUNA, head of the educational section of the Allied Military Government occupying SASEBO, gave an interesting talk on American characteristics and education during his discussion with Mr. TERADA, chief of the educational department in that city.
Concerning American characteristics, he remarked, "everyone of our people has special qualities for performing his duty completely, which is built on a strong desire to become a leader. At the same time they treat others with friendliness, and it is common sense to avoid anything that other people dislike."
In regard to general principles of American education, he stated, "The girls and boys in America start reading with mursery tales, and when they reach fifth grade in elementary school, they begin to take up science. The idea behind co-education is that the management of schools is more economical, and equal opportunities is offered to boys and girls. In high school training self government is given. There are no rules about home education. First of all, parents give practical examples in life and they also make use of daily news and magazines as their everyday teaching materials. In domestic work, use is made of the electrified kitchen, electric cleaners, sewing machines and iron and, as almost everything in the house is electrified, women have much spare time for self accomplishment and social training.
ITEM 2 Recent Conditions in Manchuria - The Niigata Hippo - 4 Dec 45. Translator: J. Kinposhita.
Full Translation:
Mr. YOSHIDA, Yoshio, a member of the Manchurian Heavy Industrial Company, having escaped from HSINKING on 27 September, arrived in TOKYO recently after a troublesome journey of about two months. He made some comments about conditions in MANCHURIA, chiefly about HSINKING.
"We perceived the approaching outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War by the removal of every headquarters of the Kwantung Army and evacuation of their families. But the report reached the general public only after their evacuation was completed. When the general public began to hurry their own evacuation movements, the war broke out. Military activities in building gun positions in HSINKING and other towns increased the confusion, especially at railroad facilities. The sight of mothers with their children utterly bewildered was found at almost every station. The most tragic of all were the people in the northern area of HARBIN. A considerable number of them were killed

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SOCIAL SERIES: 74 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
by attacks and air raids of the Soviet Array, and among them were often found mothers with their babies. When the termination of the war was declared on 15 August, such mieries were to be found all over MANCHURIA.
"As soon as the Soviet Army occupied HSINKING, they confiscated all the big buildings of the Manchurian Governmental Offices and firms for barracks and official residences and for their officers' billets. On account of this, the general public was faced with an extreme shortage of dwellings. Then banking organs were entirely inactivated.
"Now in HSINKING, Japanese are permitted to be outdoors as late as 2300. Prices of commodities in that city are as follows: rice, 5 yen per sho; bean-mash, 3 yen per kin; soy, 7.5 yen per sho; esculent oil, 25 yen per sho; beef, 25 yen per kin; sugar, 50 yen per kin; coal, 1500 yen per ton; twelve cigarettes cost 10 yen. Ordinary living costs sane 1,000 yen monthly, and accordingly, many a Japanese earns his living as a scavenger, a nightman or a coolie. Among middle class Manchurians, we could not find generally any anti-Japanese sentiment, but rather good will. The types of money allowed are Manchurian national notes, Korean bank notes, and the Soviet war notes; notes of the Bank of JAPAN are prohibited.
ITEM 3 New Policy in Teaching Our National History - Asahi Shimbun - 7 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
The review of our national history, which had been distorted by militarism and ultra-nationalism, has become a most important factor in the construction of a democratic JAPAN. At a meeting held yesterday afternoon by the committee in charge of the approval of of bills in the House of Peers, Mr. TANAKA, Director of the Education Burearn of the Education Ministry, made a statement in answer to an interpellation made by Count KURODA of the Research Association in which he gave the attitude of education authorities on the problem of how to deal with mythology, an extremely interesting subject, and on the manner of teaching national history. Mr. TANAKA abated that our national history has been described as a history based not on reality but on anti-historical, or distorted facts to conform with a certain ideology. Such abuses of true historical facts should be eliminated.
First, the truthshould be described in order to be able to study history in an unprejudiced manner. History, up till now, has been purely political in scope. More importance should be attached to its cultural and social aspects. The practice of describing the Nation's successes and concealing its failures should be abolished. Historical facts teach us a great deal if they are presented accurately.
The Director further explained that mythologies and national traditions, especially those connected with the foundation of our country and the "Divine Age" are very delicate problems. We must, however, make a distinction between those based upon historical fact and those which are not. Nevertheless, mythology and tradition will be introduced frankly as such because they have significance in explaining the racial characteristics of our Nation.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 74 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
It is also a mistake to consider only the democratic parts of our history. Our history could not be accurate if this were the case. Also it would not be right to over emphasize the part which democracy did play in the history of JAPAN.
ITEM 4 Students Must Continue Their studies, at Home - Tokyo Shimbun 8 Dec 45. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Upon receipt of the Transportation Ministry's directive ordering the temporary suspension of students' train passes during the period from 10 December this year to the end of next January as a result of the coal shortage, the Education Ministry announced the following suggestions to the country's school principals:
Since the suspension of students' train passes is not uniform all over the country but is conducted according to the conditions in the respective provinces, the middle schools must negotiate with the prefectural authorities, and the higher schools, colleges and universities must negotiate with the Special Local Railway Board to determine whether the students' train passes may be used or not.
Educational authorities desire that teaching at schools must not be discontinued even temporarily, because of the importance of education. As this suspension is only temporary, the students should adopt such emergency measures as walking to school, going by bi-cycle, or taking temporary lodging at relatives or friends' houses near school. A temporary change of teaching hours is also desirable, and the students who can not get to school by any method whatsoever must study by themselves at their homes under the guidance of the school authorities. Suitable steps must be taken in settling special provincial problems brought about by the scarcity of food and fuel.
Students must not use their passes on undesignated railway lines, because if passes are used in prohibited districts where all passes are to be kept in the station, it will be considered a violation of regulations.
ITEM 5 Freedom in Universities - Asahi Shimbun - 8 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full Translation:
Professor MINAMIHARA, Shigeru, who has been recommended as the fifteenth president of the TOKYO Imperial University to succeed Mr. UCHIDA, retiring president, formally accepted the recommendation, and official appointment is expected within a few days.
Professor MINAMIHARA said, "The new course of the University must be undertaken with a just understanding of so-called 'co-operative study and co-operative advancement' between professors and students, which must put this into practice and backed with all our power."
He also expressed his opinions summarily with regard to movements for the restoration of freedom which has been prevalent in not only the TOKYO Imperial University but all schools in JAPAN since the end of the war. His statements were as follows:
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SOCIAL SERIES: 74 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
"I hope the faculty and students will push forward always with a view toward reconstructing a new educational institution and discovering freedom in the true sense of the word. Groups not rightly understanding the current of freedom and democracy are liable to be backed thoughtlessly. It is not reasonable that they take a form of 'fighting' once in vogue because too much attention will then be given to a superficial trend. Schools are places of freedom of study; students must be conscious of the fact that the aim of freedom they are demanding is found here and do their best to establish worthwhile seats of learning. The responsibility of professors in this regard is great, and they must exert themselves to realize 'co-operative study and co-operative advancement' with a full understanding of its true spirit. The characteristic of the university lies in the possibility, for professors and students, of studying whole-heartedly, without uneasiness in living, and there the freedom of learning will also he found. Once 'co-operative study and co-operative advancement' was forced by higher authorities, and in some instances apparently with practical objectives. Although the level of students' scholarship is thought to be lowered due to the war, they, nevertheless, are very eager and sincere in their learning. This highly spirited and spontaneous aspiration for knowledge will not fail to lead the university to true freedom."
ITEM 6 Repatriation Figures - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 8 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
The repatriation of Japanese residents and demobilized Army and Navy servicemen from CHINA, South KOREA and the islands of the Middle PACIFIC Area has been making headway favorably by using former naval vessels and civilian ships, combined with the devoted effort of their crews. It is especially noticed that the repatriation work has been showing remarkable progress due to the co-operation of Allied ships by courtesy of the United States' authorities. The number of evacuees from overseas who have been sent home since the termination of the war aboard former naval vessels and Allied ships as of 7 December is 686,498. If this rate is kept up, the repatriation of the demobilized servicemen and civilians from abroad, which, at first, were estimated to take three years, might probably be completed in less than two years.
The following are classified figures of civilians and servicemen repatriated from abroad during the half-month period from 16 November to 30 November, as shown by various areas:
A. Repatriates on former naval vessels:
OGASAWARA area: 2,490 (Army); 2,049 (Navy); None (Civilian).
OKINAWA Area: 2,862 (Army); 994 (Navy); 10 (Civilian).
SOUTH KOREA Area: 8 (Army); 1,494 (Navy); 14,523 (Civilian).
THE PHILIPPINES: 1,992 (Army); 165 (Navy); 219 (Civilian).
THE MIDDLE PACIFIC Area: 4,162 (Army); 3,118 (Navy); 486 (Civilian).
B. Repatriates on civilian ships:
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SOCIAL SERIES: 74 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
IZU Area: 5,471 (Army); 1,393 (Havy); None (Civilian).
OGASAWARA Area: 500 (Army); 500 (Navy); None (Civilian).
OKINAWA Area: 1,457 (Army); None (Navy); 35 (Civilian).
CENTRAL CHINA Area: 92 (Army); 12 (Navy); None (Civilian).
NORTH CHINA Area: 92 (Army); 12 (Navy); None (Civilian).
SOUTH KOREA Area: 1,566 (Army); None (Navy); 77,527 (Civilian).
THE PHILIPPINES: 3,502 (Army); 350 (Navy); 306 (Civilian).
C. Repatriates on Allied ships:
OKINAWA Area: 4,674 (Army); 668 (Navy); 26 (Civilian).
NORTH CHINA Area: 20,669 (Army); 4,841 (Navy); 1,000 (Civilian).
SOUTH CHINA Area: 290 (Army); 430 (Navy); None (Civilian).
THE PHILIPPINES: 7,289 (Army); 3,939 (Navy); 2,159 (Civilian).
Grand Total 177,483.
DISTRIBUTION: "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0074, 1945-12-10.
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