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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0070, 1945-12-10.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0265

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 265 Date: 10 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 70

ITEM 1 Disscussion of the Land Reform Bill - Mainichi Shimbun,- 6 Dec 45.Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The rural land reform bill was submit bed for discussion before the Diet on 5 December, it is important as a subject of public interest. There is considerable hope for a new JAPAN in which the former agrarian system will be abolished by the redistribution of farm land and the abolition of rent in kind (produce) in favor of money. However, the bill still contains many points favorable to landowners and therefore it is doubtful if the tenant farmers, eagerly demand their freedom, will be satisfied, although the intended reform is a forward step towards the country's reconstruction, it contains many unanswered questions such as the limit of land, holdings, ways of land sale, etc. The following are some of the opinions of tenants, landowners and absentee landowners: Tenants, Mr. ITO, Hikotaro, FUKURO-MACHI, SAKATA. (age 42). "I have long been endeavoring to create a group of landed farmers. However, I have come to the conclusion that it is impossible to attain my objective without official sanction, therefore the present land reform bill is most welcome, and it must, by all means, be carried out. In the spring of this year, 130 tenants in my village applied for about 250 CHO of cultivated land to make themselves peasant proprietors, but obtained only 7 CHO, and even this land is not formally registered due to difficulties between the city and the agricultural society. The limit of land ownership is 5 CHO according to the bill, but this has been fixed, from the landlord's standpoint which I believe it is tenants who should be given first consideration. The universal purchase of land by agricultural societies is highly regarded but its operation must be handled carefully."
Mr. KINNO, Tosaku, Odajima-mura, Kitamaurayama-gun, Yamagata perfecture. (age 53). "I am now a tenant farmer on a farm extending 1 CHO 2 TAN which belongs to three owners. It will aid me if they are preparer to relinquish ownership, however, if they cultivate it I shall be at a loss as to where to seek a farm. Attention by the Government in this connection is desired. The rise in rent by black-market transactions will be unavoidable in relation to the request for the return of tenant-lands. Also, serious disputes are expected concerning the return of tenant lands in localities, like here, where there are to many tenants per farm. What we desire of the Government is the price lowering of lands to be redistributed to tenants. It is further desired that the new land law be so constructed as to remove the uncertainity once experienced by poor tenants when obliged to sell purchased, land due to farming difficulties."
TAKAHASHI, Shire, KAJI-MURA KITAKANBARA-GUN perfecture. (tenant land covers 2 CHO of rice field and 2 TAN of others). "Our

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SOCIAL SERIES 70 (continued)
ITEM 1 (continued)
farm-rent is the highest in the world and most of the tenants are not diligent. They did not do their best in increasing production end they become idle if the products of their herd work are exploited. I believe if tenants can be raised to the level of landed farmers, they will become diligent without any antipathy or jealousy toward landowners, resulting in the increase of production.
Landowners. Mr. HONMA, Motoya, President of the SAKATA Shi Assembly. He is 62 years old and is the head of the HOMMA family of SAKATA Shi, long noted, for being the largest landlord in JAPAN and head of the HOMMA Agricultural farm, "The HOMMA family has not only been insisting on the liberation of tenant farmers but opened its farms to tenants since 1927 selling land to good tenants at moderate prices. However, I still retain about 1,500 CHO of farm land against 1,700 CHO of twenty years ago, the 200 CHO being converted into peasant proprietorship. This is chiefly due to the warm relations existing between the HOMMA family and tenants. I one might call it feudalistic, but the spirit of gratitude has served to establish a firm spiritual connection between the two. I firmly believe that 90% of my tenants are not sorry about their status to my family and this attitude will not change, despite the agrarian reform. However it may be, I can not support the principle of allowing the wholesale purchase of farms by agricultural societies which are incapable of handling a large scale business. The direct transactions between landowners and tenant based on mutual co-operation is far more preferable. In my case, technical guidance, assistance in land improvements and self protection are being given to tenants and the results are very satisfactory. The HOMMA family is ready to co-operate with the national policy and I will not regret the reduction of my land ownership to 5 CHO from the present 1,500 CHO, if that is the result."
SHIRASE, Masae, KANAHARA-MURA, KITAKANBARA-GUN, NIIGATA prefecture. (He is the largest landowner in NIIGATA prefecture and has over 1,624 CHO covering 17 cities and villages, and his tenants numbering 2,087. He is a graduate of the KEIO University and opposed to the frequent recommendations of the prefectural authorities in regard to the creation of peasant proprietorship). "I have no objection to the present land reform as it means the construction of new farming villages, but I foubt whether the governmental measures for the liberation of farm lands are fully directed to meet expections. I think it may be very difficult for the farmers to pay taxes, and secure fertilizer as well as other materials necessary for the cultivation of their farms. Even if tenants become landed farmers, it is actually meaningless if they are forced to part with their forms due to financial difficulties. It is also doubtful whether tenants really welcome the present, farm land reform."
Absentee landowners. Viscourt MISHIKA, Tsuyo. "It was reported by a certain newspaper the other day that I am the second largest absentee landlord in NASUNOGAHARA, but that's not true. I opened my farms there about 5 years ago to tenants at a price- thirty times the amount of rent and now 99% of the former tenants are landed peasants. According to the draft of the present reform, the price of farms is 48 times the rent, therefore my price was far cheaper. Now T have about 10 CHO and I transferred ray census register to NASU, so I am not an absentee land owner. At present my farm of 10 CH0 is divided and cultivated by several tenants. who, since they are laid, and work rent free, are not tenants. It goes without saying that the present government steps are welcomed by, and I am proud of my foresight in selling the land to tenants a few years a ago I hope that stipulations are inserted prohibiting farmers from selling their land for a fixed period. This is in view of my unpleasant experience for the farms I had sold cheaply were emmediately resold by the buyer."
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SOCIAL SERIES 70 (continued)
ITEM 2 Co-educational Plans - Asahi Shimbun 6 December 1945. Translator: T .Ogawa.
It was announced yesterday by the Education Ministry that an epoch-making plan in our history of education was decided upon at the Cabinet Session held Tuesday. The aim of the plan is the reform of womens' education in order to provide them with more culture and intelligence. I The low level of womens' education in JAPAN has, been due to an archair tradition. Although it is difficult to suddenly discard the present system, the plan was drafted in order that it may be realized as scan as possible. In the plan the following points are emphasized:
An open-door policy for advanced educational institutions.
Equalizing the curricula in women's secondary education to the male level.
Adoption of a co-educational system in university education.
Adoption of college educational extension system for the average women. It is understood that the fundamentally "new policy of women's education" based on the creation of women's higher schools, will eventually be established. However, the ultimate aims of the reform have been stated in the announced plan, such as:
Equal opportunity of education for both sexes.
Equalization of curricula.
Mutual respect by both sexes. Of especial significance is the mention of "mutual respect by both sexes" which Includes that the new plan is meeting the requirements of a new era. However, we must realize that the new program has not been created favoring equal rights of the sexes. This idea of co-education clearly reflects upon the nationality and tradition as well as the fact that American and the Japanese democracies are of different character. In other words, the spirit of "Japanese Womanhood" is extremely vital permeating all courses of education beginning with education in primary school up to the university. The advanced status of women is an indication of an advanced education.

The new policy coming into effect as of April is as follows:
The foundation of a womens university: Out of the existing women's colleges, suitable ones will be promoted to the status of women's universities. The womens university in JAPAN up to now has been merely a name, actually it was a college. Those possessing the same qualities as mens universities will be endorsed by the Government. The "JAPAN Women's University," and the "TOKYO Women's University" will become the prominent candidates.
Realization of a co-educational system at the universities: In conjunction with the foundation of women's universities, woman will be admitted to the government, public and private universities, consequently a complete co-educational system will be established.
appointment of womens colleges as "higher schools." There will neither be womens higher schools established, nor will a co-educational plan be adopted in mens higher schools. However, specific girls colleges, and from higher courses or post-graduate courses attatched to girls high schools appointments will be granted by the Educational Ministry as substantial womens higher schools. Graduates from such appointed schools (including post graduates) will have the same qualifications as the graduates from men's higher schools in the rating of applications for entrance to a university. The leading government, public and private schools in the above category, including the women's higher normal school, will be granted such appointments early next spring.
Elevation of curricula at girls' high schools: For the most part

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SOCIAL SERIES 70 (continued)

ITEM 2 (continued)

they will be elavated to the same level as men's secondary schools. In lessons on English, mathematics and Japanese, etc. the hours and textbooks will be raised, to meet the level of the middle schools.
The prolongation of the course at youth's schools: The present course at the youth's school for girls is from 3 to 4 years. It will be increased from 4-5 years next spring, the same as boys schools.
Open-door policy of lectures for the average women: The lectures at universities and colleges will be opened to the average women who are not regular students regardless of qualifications. They will be admitted as special students. At the same time an extension will be opened as an adult educational institution for the purpose of elevating the cultural standard as well as political and scientific education.

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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0070, 1945-12-10.
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