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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0062, 1945-12-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0230

call-number: DS801 .S84

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No. 230 Date: 5 Dec. 45


ITEM 1 Japanese Farmers not interested in Woman Suffrage - Megasaki Shimbun - 4 Dec. 45. Translator: C. GiIbert
Full Translation
The Japanese agricultural association conducted a poll in 1200 villages and rural towns on the question of woman suffrage and found that only 1.6 per cent of the Japanese farming population showed interest in the question. The following reasons were given for this lack of interest:
1. Peasant women have little political interest and if they should exercise their rights to vote, it will be only for their sweathearts or near relatives. 2. Most peasant women have no idea, whatsoever, of the meaning of women suffrage. 3. Peasant women are so occupied with field and housework that as long as the present family system continues they will never have the time to interest themselves in political questions. 4. Peasant women have never had any political education nor the opportunity to obtain it.
ITEM 2 American Officers Impression of Japanese Primiary Schools - Nagasaki Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Captain Banado of the Civil Education Section of the Occupation Force in SASEBO, press reporter Lieutenant KOKKA and six others, on 19 November the OKUBO Primary school in SASEBO and gave the 4 following impressions:
The mutual affection between teachers and pupils seems very deep. The teachers seem to have a deep understanding of their profession and make earnest endeavours in carrying out their work. The self-rule class made an especially deep impression, and it was deemed desirable that this type of class be promoted, as pupils learned to express and control their own thoughts. It was voted that the pupils studied diligently without paying any heed to diversions. It also made a deep impression that the pupils were evedently happy in their studies as well as exercises.
ITEM 3 College Students and the Food Crisia - Yomiuri-Hochi - 3 Dec 45 Translator: T. Ogawa.
The current food crisis, accompanied by the lack of housing, which threaten the students life in the capital, is disclosed by the YOMIURI-HOCHI. The paper further reports the real aspects of students

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SOCIAL SERIES: 62 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
life in TOKYO, by checking with the Students Sections or directly with the students themselves. This was done with students of the TOKYO Imperial University, also the WASEDA, KEIO and NIHON Universites.
1. Boarding House Shortage:
Students are worried over the increasing shortage of boarding houses. The majority of professional boarding houses, which were located principally in HONGO, KANDA and WASEDA areas, were burnt down in air-raids, and private boarding houses are unable to rent a room to students because they are supporting too many members of their own families. Accordingly, students must resort to occupying homes of their relatives or acquaintances, or they are forced to share rooms with their friends. It seems, however, that some students are forced to stay in their country homes because they are unable to find any boarding houses in TOKYO.
TOKYO Imperial University: About 3,000 students, out of a total Of 8,500, are reportedly affected by the critical shortage of boarding-houses.
WASEDA University: The number of students here amounted to 32.000 in the pre-war period. Only 20 to 30 per cent of these attend at present, and the cause of this might be attributed to the uncompleted repatriation of demobilized soldiers from abroad. Even with this small number of students, the remaining boarding houses in the vicinity of WASEDA Area can not accomodate all of them. Therefore, the school authorities are trying hard to establish dormitories. Students of the Preparatory School are already accommodated in the former barracks of the SAKURA Infantry Regiment in CHI[illegible]A-KEN. The former workmens' dormitory of the Japan Rifle Company, at FUCHU and the Physical Training Hall at MURAYWA have been purchased to accommodate a large number of students. The housing crisis, however, has not yet been solved.
NIHON University: Out of 7,800 students, about one third are suffering from the shortage of boarding houses.
KEIO University: About 50 per cent of the students are attending because most of them have their homes in TOKYO. However, those who came from the country are also suffering from the lack of boarding houses. To make matters worse, the boarders are asked to supply their own rice and vegetables, It is an ironical phenomenon to see the sons of farmers from neighboring prefectures, who are able to supply plenty of food accepted everywhere without hesitation.
2. Foodstuffs:
The average charge for accommodations is 30 yen plus 60 to 100 yen for board. The ration of food, of course, is insufficient to satisfy the students appetite. This compels the students to go out in the country to buy their food from the neighboring farm districts. Eating outside will cost at least 150 to 200 yen per month. One of the ASEDA students even paid 500 yen month, it is said.
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The students boarding at the homes of relatives or acquaintances also suffer from the food crisis. They must [illegible]ay 150 to 200 yen per month for their board. The fact that the number of those students who attend school without carrying lunch with them has been increasing recently indicates how serious the current food shortage is. The number of students who have their homes in neighboring prefectures and are commuting from a long distance to tide over the food crisis has also remarkably increased recently. Some of them are attending school every day from CHIB[illegible]or NUNAZU. The trip takes from (3) to (4) hours one way, while the return trip will take from (6) to (7) hours because of the crowded trains. Even with this inconvenience, students prefer to attend school from their country homes, where there is an abundance of food. Such a trend is seen even among the students who, not having their homes in the country, board in the farming districts in order to alleviate the food crisis.
A co-operative consumers association already has been established at each school to cope with the present food situation. The NIEON University is purchasing food by motor truck, while KEIO is planning to give positive aid to the students. The number of students who leave school, owing to the heavy burden of food shortage, will increase, it is learned by the YOMIURI- HOCHI.
3. Fart-time Jobs.
An average family can not afford to pay the greatly increased schooling expenses, most of which consists of boarding the student at a cost of 200 to 300 yen per month. The students who desire to continue their study inevitable have to seek part-time employment.
Students of the Leterature Department usually seek jobs as private teachers. It is notable, however, as a new tendency, that some of the students at the Science and Engineering College of WASEDA do part-time work repairing radio sets or electric heaters. The opinion of the school authorities is that the students may choose any job so long as it does not lower their dignity as students. Soma of the KEIO Students are employed as interpreters for the Allied Forces. Such a job is recommended as the one most suitable to meet the current need. As an example of an unpermitted job, the paper reveals the tendency of black marketing by the students. Those are the sons of farmers from nieghboring prefectures. They are selling to other students farm products, such as sweet potatoes which have been brought from their homes.
ITEM 4 What Cultural Education Should Be by HOKI Saburo (Part l) - Tokyo Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: K. Miyazaki
"According to the Potsdom Declaration, the education of JAPAN is to, 'Serve to uphold the national constitution, to clear out the militarism elements, develop the culture of the people, construct a peaceful country and develop the peoples scientific reasoning power, deeping the idea of a peace-loving nation, raise the standard of the peoples intelligence, and render service to the world."
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"The same thing can be said of cultural education. On it depends the peoples improvement of their thought in order to reconstruct JAPAN and contribute to the peace of the world and welfare of mankind.
"The planes to put the above items in practice are as follows: (1) Establishment of the department of cultural education in the provinces; (2) A rapid organize [illegible]ion of young men's associations and women's cultural societies; (3) Opening of more schools; (4) Establishing all kinds of co-operative organizations; (5) Equipping and utilizing all libraries, museums etc; (6) Contributing efforts toward utilizing the town associations.
“Education is one of the elements which will settle the future JAPAN CULTURAL EDUCATION which is directly connected with society in general must be the main theme. In this respect I am very much interested in seeing what the educational authorities entends to put into practice. However, after having seen the notification and orders which have been issued so far, it was a great disappointment to find them so different from what I had expected. In short I find a lack of concrete ideas, or rather a lack of rationalism." (Quoted from the article by TSUDA, in TEIDAI SHINBUN)
What we worry about in this problem is its lack of a cultural basic for cultural education. What is required on the part of the people of JAPAN, who are to stand in world competition as a peaceful nation, is sound Judgement and knowledge of the world's politics and economics, the lack of which has already been disclosed to the world. It is necessary to our continued existence that the people of JAPAH understand this.
But what do we find around us? We do not know CHINA which we consider similar to us in culture and race. In spite of the fact that we speak about The Greater East Asia Coprosferity Sphere, we have no knowledge of the South Seas, and how much more do we know about the western world? Our knowledge in this respect is only slight, channeled, and certainly not concerned with peaceful pursuits. This is what the men of intelligence should consider at the start of reconstruction of JAPAN.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0062, 1945-12-05.
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