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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0061, 1945-12-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0226

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 226 Date: 5 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 61

ITEM 1 Reformation of the Peers' School - Mainichi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
How will the selection of applicants for entrance to secondary schools he made? The selection, of course, will he made pursuant to the instructions of the Education Ministry. The details, however, have been left to the discretion of each school. In this connection, the important feature is that the written examination is left to the discretion of each school. This is noteworthy because it suggests the comeback in the future of the examination for literary attainment. The intention of the school, however, is to discover the pupils' capacities, as it is difficult to select a pupil by his achievements, due to the various handicaps caused by air raids, the mobilization of school children in war industries, the evacuation to the country, etc. The Peers' School, which has heretofore been opened only for the children of the privileged classes will now be opened to the children of the average citizen.
A partial revision oh the Peer's School Regulations appearing in the Imperial House Ordinance will be made as follows: From Article One: "The aim of this school is to educate the son (or daughter) of peers in obedience to the Imperial command" the words "of peers" were eliminated. From Article Four, the phrase which reads "Those who have finished the primary course will be admitted to the secondary course; those who have finished the secondary course will be admitted to the advanced course," was revised to "admitted upon selection". Through this revision, the sons and daughters of peers who have been admitted to the advanced courses without scholastic qualifications will be required to take an entrance examination together with the rest of the applicants in order to be eligible for advanced instruction.
ITEM 2 KYUSHU University Student Meeting - Asahi Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full translation:
KYUSHU University students at a 1 December general meeting in the auditorium of the Industries Department, discussed plans for the establishment of a self-government system, advancement of student welfare, and the institution of movements for the political enlightenment of the people.
The following proposals were drafted, then turned over to the President with a demand for an immediate reply:
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SOCIAL SERIES: 61 (Continued)
ITEM: 2 (Continued)
To establish a self-government system:
Force 9 change in the attitude of professors who persist in keeping most matters secret.
Permit student participation in University administration by means of a student committee.
Dismiss incompetent professors.
Establish a self-governing body in the Industrial Association.
Encourage the sincere consideration of school problems by University authorities.
Abolish the system whereby attendance is considered in grading examinations.
Extend the loan period on library books, permission to take books out of the library, and publication of banned books.
Permit the organization of an autonomous literary association.
To promote student welfare:
Set up a committee for procuring foodstuffs.
Organize a purchasing body.
To launch social movements!
Establish a social sciences research group.
Recognize student activity in social movements.
ITEM 3 Resignation of [illegible]Middle School Principal - Mainichi Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: M Ohno.
Full translation:
ONO, Tokushiro, principal of the SENDAI First Middle School, in spite of the Allied directive ordering abolition of all military education in all schools, abolished only JIUJITSU and not KEKJITSP from the school curriculum. Moreover, both the SHIOGAMA National School and the Young Men's School retained some wooden guns for use in military training.
These facts were revealed on 27 November by the Occupation Forces' Military Police. The TOHOKU Local Administrative Affairs Bureau (TOHOKU CHIHO GYOSEI JIKUKYOKU) promptly dismissed ONO, and is at present deliberating on action to be taken against MACHIDA, Shizeo, principal of SHIOGAWA National School, and FUJITA, Tsutomu, principal of the Young Men's School, both of whom have already been put to work by the Occupation Forces. (TK - Article appears in 4 December English edition of NIPPON Times in substantially the same form.)
ITEM 4 Diet Members the Japanese Cultural World by TAMOGAWA Tetsuzo - Yomiuri-Hochi - 3 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
In the past it was the fashion of Japanese society to make derogatory remarks about Diet members. The present fashion of the Japanese people is to put the GUMBATSU and officialdom in disfavor and comment on the disorderly conduct of demobilized soldiers. But not all officers and officials are bad and not all demobilized soldiers are disorderly, but such is the world! If a certain class falls into of disrepute, even those without blemish in that particular class are condemned and dragged down with the rest. The same applies to the Diet members. Not all are bad; there are many fine men among them.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 61 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
This unsympathetic condemnation and reproach is only possible because the mud slingers feel above those whom they accuse. Whether this is desirable for the present and future JAPAN is another question. In this connection, the close relation between the Diet members or politicians in general with the so-called cultured class is worthy of study.
In the Tokugawa Period the so-called cultured class was limited to those versed in the teachings of CO[illegible]CIUS. Tokugawa statesmen were elected from among this class. After the MEIJI Restoration, this "cultured class" came into disrepute and was replaced by those who had superficial knowledge of European and American culture. Both these "cultured" classes as a rule possessed of little knowledge of things Japanese. They were superseded shortly before and during the war by Shintoistic ultra-nationalists. All these "cultured" classes, however, knew nothing of Japanese and world realities. Therefore, the politicians elected from among these "cultured", or artificial, classes lacked all real political perspective.
The Japanese "cultured" class and their politicians were, therefore, both at fault, for the prerequisite of real politics Is the understanding of realities. The Japanese people do not trust their Diet today, but the reason lies, not so much on the question of war responsibility of the Diet members, but rather on the awakened political interest of the people.
The sane is the case with the Japanese press. The Japanese press claims to reflect public opinion while it looses itself in trivial mud slinging. Even their reports are stereotyped and therefore seem to lack real insight. Prof. YOSHINO, Sakuzo, commenting on parliamentary and dictatorial politics said that in parliamentary politics at least those who commit mistakes at once become evident, while in dictatorial politics the roots of the evil are kept secret until the State collapses. The Japanese people lack real political training, so it is inevitable that many faults will exist in their parliamentary politics. Yet, whatever the faults of Japanese parliamentary politics, it will be better than dictatorial politics. While it is an easy matter to criticize ether people, nevertheless, criticism is necessary, for only thru such critical education will the Japanese people awaken to political realities well as their political responsibilities.
ITEM 6 Asahi Lecture Meetings on Japanese History - Asahi Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full translation:
To rebuild a democratic state of JAPAN, a scientific study of its national history is necessary. Accordingly, the ASAHI SHIMBUN has made plans for lectures on national history in its fourth "ASAHI Academic Public Forum", starting on 7 December and lasting for four days. The lectures will he divided into first and second sections, with the schedule as follows: First Section - 7 December (Friday) at 1300, "Establishment of Proper Historical Views" by TSUCHIYA, Takao; 8 December (Saturday) at 1300, "Scientific Study of Japanese Ancient History" by WATAWABE, Yoshimichi. Second Section - 14 December (Friday) at 1300, "Historical Development of Democracy" by HIRANO, Jitaro; 15 December (Saturday) at 1300, "Historical Development of Japanese Capitalism" by SHINOBU, Seizaburo.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 61 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
These lectures will be given at the auditorium on the fourth floor of KYOIKU KAIKAN, near the KAND-JINBOCHO streetcar stop. Any question will be answered by the lecturers, and those interested are requested to submit such questions to the hall office. Tickets priced at four yen for both sections are available at the ASAHI SHIMBUN office.
ITEM 6 Criticism of HATOYAMA's Democracy - Mainichi Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
While the Japanese people worry about how they are going to eat, the rest of the world is making rapid progress in all fields of human enterprise, such as scientific, political, and economic. On 27 October, President TRUMAN declared 12 new principles of American foreign policy based on world peace and allied cooperation.
The only way for the Japanese people to exist is by cooperating with the ALLIES in accordance with the principles stated by President TRUMAN. For the Japanese people, the case of GERMANY is a tragic example of what happens when a nation tries to capitalize on Allied differences.
The Japanese people must adapt themselves to the new trends of world politics by cooperating with Anglo-American liberalism and democracy, as well as the Soviet labor-democracy and the new democratic and independent CHINA now in the process of unification. The narrow isolationism expressed by the Japanese press and public opinion, and reflected in the Diet oratory are, therefore, all the more to be regretted.
Not one Japanese newspaper has made the constructive principles of President TRUMAN's foreign policy a subject for discussion. It is this insular policy of JAPAN, lacking the true substance of international cooperation, which has brought about not only Japanese defeat, but has been the true cause of the war as well. Such narrowness is especially apparent in HATOYAMA (TN: Leader of the Liberal Party) and his speech of 29 November in which he stated that Japanese democratic policy must have Japanese restrictions. In other words, he is trying to erect a fence between JAPAN and the rest of the world, while what is most necessary at the present for the Japanese people is that all such fences be burned.
JAPAN must adopt all the 800d points of Anglo-American and Soviet democracy. JAPAN must especially endeavour to acquire American, Soviet and Chinese culture and promote friendly relations with these three states. The new Japanese constitution and form of government must, therefore, be adjusted in such a way as to facilitate such a friendship with AMERICA, the SOMIET UNION, and CHINA. Only such a revision of the Japanese Constitution will enable the Japanese people to survive.
Naturally, every country forms its own special kind of democracy based on its own history. But as TANAKA, Shozo, has pointed out, the strange Japanese way of trying to achieve civil liberties not through the people, but through the rulers, is fraught with dangers.
In the Past, the Oriental Liberal Party of 01, Kentaro, tried to start a liberal movement for civil liberties among Japanese workers and at the same time made it a principle of his party to assist the independence movements of Koreans, Chinese, Siamese, and Annamese, thereby going beyond Japanese boundaries.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 61 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
His movement, however, ended prematurely. His legitimate successors were the internationally minded Japanese socialists, KINOSHITA, aoye, and KATAYAMA, Sen.
The Japanese people can live only by adoption of international progress and pursuit of international trends. In other words, JAPAN must adapt herself now to the international progress and trend by converting all her industries to State enterprises and adopting Socialism.
England and France are already on their way to attain these ends. Only a planned economy and Socialism can save Japanese, industry and economy: from the present production sabotage and raise the cultural level of the Japanese workers. Land reform must be effected on the principles of SUN-YAT-SEN, and those now in effect in the Soviet land reforms East of the [illegible], achieved by liquidating the JUNKERS.
JAPAN has no reason to suffer any longer under her feudalistic land proprietors. Those nations not abreast of world progress will be squashed by alien powers. The Japanese people must realize this and effect a complete democratic reform from below.
ITEM 7 Case of Infanticide - Mainichi Shimbun - 3 Dec 45. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full translation:
The body of a male child of 12 or 13 strangled with a shabby cotton towel, was found yesterday in a fire-devastated lot at 1-407, MOTOGIcho, ADACHI-ku. The body has net yet been identified.
The body was dressed only in a MOMPE and some rice paper wrappings. It is believed the child was strangled by its mother, driven to despair by hardship.
Distribution "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0061, 1945-12-05.
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