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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0059, 1945-12-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0214

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENRAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 214 Date: 4 Dec 45.

SOCIAL SERIES: 59

ITEM 1 Epidemic of Typhus Feared Next Spring From Korea to Various Parts of Japan - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ninagi.
Full Translation:
Apprehension is growing over the probability that during the next winter there will be a violent epidemic of typhus as a result of evacuees' conflux between KOREA and JAPAN; crowed conditions among war-sufferers living together in barracks; and an abundance of fleas
The Welfare Ministry and other organizations concerned, under the guidance of General MacARTHUR's Headquarters, are now doing their best to organize a large health camp. Typhus germs will fine their way into JAPAN from the continent chiefly from KOREA, AOMORI, SAKATA, and HOKKAIDO. The carriers of this disease are lice which carry an infected person's blood.
Typhus infection causes alternate low and high body temperatures from 350° to 40° (centigrade), along with violent headaches. In many cases, about three days after the infection, the patient has a, brain affliction and in. four or five days, scarlet eruptions take place. In a week or so, inflamed blood vessels throughout the body finally cause death. These scarlet eruptions are certain symptoms of the disease. The death rate in middle age is from 20 to 40 per cent, and for old age reaches 70 per cent. Fortunately, children are least affected with it.
It is expected that the epidemic will break out In December and will reach its peak in March, April, and May. This was once said to be a most horrible disease, with high death rates, for which neither means of prevention nor remedy had yet been found. But recently, two very effective medical remedies for it have been discovered. In JAPAN, the Institute of Research on Infectious Diseases (DENKEN) has studied eruptive fever vaccine in mouse-lungs; the KITAZATO Institute for Research on Infectious Diseases (HOKUKEN) has studied an eruptive fever vaccine cultivated in mouse-brains; and the CHIBAM Medical University has studied vaccine cultivated in eggs.
All these vaccines are how being prepared in large quantities to use against the epidemic to come this winter. The shortage of these vaccines is to be supplemented from the stock in Supreme Headquarters. These almost-perfect preventive measures are to be taken with these vaccines for about 1,500,000 people in war-damaged districts.
As for the allopathic treatment, which was once said to be impossible, Mr. MIYAGAWA of The Institute of Research on Infectious Diseases (DEN- KEN) has stupid antimony and silver colloid treatments and found them fairly effective, but they are not used very widely. The most important in fighting this disease is the extermination of lice, the only carriers. Lice in clothing can be easily killed by soaking the clothes in hot water (60°) or by steaming them for a quarter of an hour.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 59 (Continued)
ITEM 2 President of Osaka Imperial University resigns - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: M. Ohno.
Full Translation:
Doctor MAJIMA, Toshiyuki, President of the OSAKA Imperial University, has expressed his intention to retire from his present post on the pretext of renewal of the university and because of ill health. it was announced at a council of the University held on 30 November.
ITEM 3 Proposal of Teachers Union to Ministry of Education - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
The JAPAN Teachers Union (NIPPON KYOIKUSHA KUMIAI) will held its in augural meeting on 2 December, attended by all school masters in TOKYO and its suburbs, including KAGAWA, Toyohiko, chairman of the Union; OOUCHI, Hyoe; KAWASAKI, Natsu; HANI, Setauka; KAWANO, Mitsu. The union's platforms and policies aiming at democratization of education, will be published. Realization of these aims will be demanded, of the Education Ministry.
Notable points in the platform, will be:
Immediate realization of the five-day week for our schools.
Officers in the educational circle and school masters should be selected by election.

Five school days a week is the prevailing system in AMERICA, the purpose of the system being to give students and teachers enough spare time to study on their own, and to make school life more pleasant.
At present, the system is actually practiced in JAPAN at many schools because of the food shortage. Therefore the association's demand will serve to unify the system.
In connection with the second item on the platform, the association revealed its opinion that the former procedure of appointing officials and school masters by the decision of the authorities, impeded the development of self-governing organizations in the educational sphere.
ITEM 4 MUSASHINO Primary School Education Reorganized - Mainichi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
MUSASHINO 2nd Primary School has decided upon a new educational policy recently. The new policy aims chiefly at eliminating militaristic education, elevating the moral senses, promoting a progressive spirit, pursuing truth and encouraging scientific research, and improving formal education. In accomplishing this, the Imperial intention expressed in the Imperial Rescript on Education, the Imperial Proclamation of Termination of War, and the Imperial Covenant will he enforced. The Imperial Covenant was issued by the late Emperor. Its purpose was to provide for the industrialization of the country by providing for training in the various practical arts.
Under the new program, children will also be given chances to go out on field trips or to see movies. Athletics and physical exercises will be encouraged. Utilization of school libraries as an additional means of education is planned. Teaching which emphasized militaristic ideas, however, will be eliminated. Books on the maintenance of a national structure and the establishment of a moral sense are to be
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SOCIAL SERIES: 59 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
supplied. T let the child know the cause of our defeat, democracy and politics are also scheduled to be taught. In addition to all of these, a "Mainichi Simbun for Little Folks" will be used in order to enable the children to keep up on current affairs.
ITEM 5 Is KABUKI Feudalistic? By MOTOYAMA. Hagibune - 2 Dec Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
The November KABUKI show in the TOKYO Theater was closed the middle of the month. The reason stated was that the play given was too feudalistic. Whether or not KABUKI is really feudalistic is worthy of deeper discussion. An Investigation into the history of KABUKI will show that the KABUKI Theater never enjoyed the protection of feudalistic governments. On the contrary, KABUKI has repeatedly hear suppressed by the authorities. It orginated among the people and has always been supported by the people. It is, therefore, undoubtedly an art of democratic origin. If "TERAKOYA" is forbidden on the grounds of being feudalistic, probably "CHUSHINGURA" and most other historic plays of the KABUKI Theater will be prohibited, too. However, it must be pointed out that these plays became popular not because of the feudalistic oppression portrayed in them , but because they sympathize with the weakness of human nature under this oppression. The plays were written and produced in a feudalistic age, however, so the playwrights and producers often had to camouflage their revolutionary content and pretend they supported the feudalistic order. That is the reason for the mistaken impression that KABUKI is feudalistic.
However, it may become unavoidable that the production of many KABUKI plays will be temporarily prohibited. The word "temporary" is used, because it is improbable that this present foolish attitude will continue forever. Education, a raising of the cultural level of the Japanese people, and a review of their history will also bring change in the present attitude toward the KABUKI Theater. Questioning the future of the KABUKI is the same as questioning the future of the Japanese people, for KABUKI is an inseparable part of their historical and cultural evolution. In conclusion, it must be painted out that many KABUKI plays, including the "TERAKOYA" and the "CHUSHIPGURA", have become famous not so much on account of their Purely literary merit and content, but because of the 300 years of glamorous tradition in their production.
ITEM 6 The Coal Situation - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The coal famine is now going from bad to worse, causing profound anxiety in all directions and a large scale retrenchment in railway service and a stoppage in the coal and gas supply to industries and private kitchens is immenant.
At this juncture, the Commerce and Industry Ministry has decided upon a coal distribution plan for December, according to which the total amount of coal to be distributed for use in December is to be 949,000 tons, of which 535,000 tons are to be appropriated from new production while the remaining 414,000 tons from present stocks.
In consequence of the above, coal supply to general industrial plants, except in special cases, will be stopped and even gas supply for domestic use will also be stopped sooner or later. It is absolutely necessary, as a means to weather such a coal crisis, to send laborers to mines at once and to have more ships for transporting coal.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 59 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
The coal production and distribution for December is as follows, according to plan:
HOKKAIDO:- Production 150,000 tons, appropriation from stock 84,000 tons, total 234,000 tons; of which 31,000 tons will be sent to HONSHU; 55,000 for railways and 43,000 for civilian use are reserved for consumption within the HOKKAIDO, except that for mines themselves, ships and occupation forces.
KYUSHU:- Production 280,000 tons, stock 300,000 tons, total 580,000 tons; of which 70,000 tons will be sent to KOREA, 18,000 to HONGKONG, 217,000 to HONSHU. For consumption with in KYUSHU, 550,000 are alloted to railways, 60,000 to the JAPAN Iron Works and a certain amount to gas companies, except that to mines themselves, ships and. occupation forces.
HONSHU:- Production 105,000 tons, stock 30,000 tons, total 135,000 tons and in addition to this 31,000 is expected from HOKKAIDO and 217,000 from KYUSHU, making a grand total 383,000; most of which is intended for consumption in mines, ships, occupation forces, railways, gas and fertilizer manufacture
With a view to tiding over the coal-crisis, the Welfare Minister issued instructions to prefectural governors, authorizing them to put in action, on and after December 10, the power to requisition laborers, in accordance with the urgent Imperial ordinance relating to labor supply in conduction with the acceptance of the POTSDAM Declaration. Demobilized servicemen and ex-miners among formerly requisitioned workers are to be designated. Although the above step has been taken in consideration of the fact that the result of the miners recruiting activities now going on will be roughly known within a few days, applicants up to November 30 numbered only 7,900 against 130,000 as contemplated by the Welfare authorities, of which 70,000 are to be recruited by the end of the year and 60,000 from January to March 1946. Even if applicants are collected as expected, it may be questionable whether they can sent to the mines ran idly, in view of the shortage of transportation. Both sides, the lack of arrangements on the part of mines such as dormitories or lodgings and wart of leaders and so on is supposed to cause a lack of miners locally.
Although the present step has been taken as inevitable, because of the, imminent crisis, it is the policy of the Welfare Ministry not to resort to forced power as far as possible. The Transportation Ministry has agreed to give possible assistance in regard to the transportation of these mine laborers, but not much hone can be entertained, as the railway authorities are now driven to extreme measures due to the extreme congestion of passengers. Laborers are required, to dig out coal and trains are required to send laborers, but the trains required, do not move due to the lack of coal. A bad situation indeed!
With the slogan that coal for railways must be secured by the hand of railway staff, approximately 1,150 employees select from among the staff of the TOKYO Railway Bureau are scheduled to leave here for the JOBAN mines to work in the shafts under the leadership of Mr. TANZAWA, railway inspector. The coal reserve of that Bureau was only 5,925 tons on November 30 while the coal required daily is 3,300, of which 2,500 is, consumed to operate trains, and 2,200 tons is coming from JOBAN district. The railway volunteer miners are expected to dig out coal totaling 400 to 800 tons daily the rate of a half ton a day per person. They will continue their work at 'least till the end of January next and the director of the Bureau and. other leaders occasionally will go to the mines to encourage these volunteers.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 59 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
In this connection, It is noted that the coal commission of JAPAN Social Democrat Party (NIPPON SHAKAI-TO) has passed a resolution purporting to increase coal production by organizing labor unions in every mine all over the country, in consideration of the disorders and riots which might possibly arise due to the application of forced requisition of labor by the government, whose counter measures for the coal-famine are not opportune and suitable. The representatives of the Party had an interview with the Finance, Industry and Commerce, Transportation, and Agriculture and Forestry Ministers in the Diet on December 1 and handed over the following resolutions:
Prompt organization of a labor union in every mine to promote the increase of coal production.
Securing of foodstuffs and other daily necessities for mine workers, giving at the time the right of their distribution to the union.
Organization of liason between mine labor unions, fishery guilds, agricultural societies, etc.
Establishment of priority to superior and efficient mines in distributing material necessary for mining.
Materialization of state control of mines.

Furthermore, Diet members of HOKKAIDO, JOBAN, CHUGOKU, KYUSHU etc, opened an urgent meeting at 1100 on December 1 to discuss measures for easing the coal shortage and decided to present a resolution to the present session of the Diet, demanding the revival of abandoned, mines, solution of food problem for miners, immediate decision of government compensation, revision of miners wages, and coal prices, autonomy of coal controlling societise find so forth. These members of the Diet will have an interview with Mr. OGASAWARA, Commerce and Industry Minister on December 3 to convey their opinions in this connection.
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