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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0058, 1945-12-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0211

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
NO. 211 Date: 4 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 58

ITEM 1 Selection of School Applicants - Asahi Shimbun - 30 Nov 45, Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
The method, of selecting applicants for advanced and secondary schools next spring has been decided upon and instructions have been issued by the Education Ministry to the parties concerned. The method, on the whole, is similar to last year's. It differed, however, from the latter in that it permits a written examination and also permits the students to attend school from their own home districts, or from the home districts of relatives or acquaintances, thus easing the housing situation. In addition, the applicants next spring will include those who have been repatriated from abroad, as well as demobilized soldiers. Despite the fact that the withdrawal of the "increased wartime admission" is expected, the desire for learning among youths is still as marked as ever. Under these circumstances the entrance exams to the advanced schools will probably become more difficult than ever next spring.
Regarding secondary schools which are located in those districts where the population has greatly increased, due to the postwar population changes, it will be difficult to gain admission; whereas, in many urban districts, where the population has diminished, it will be less the difficulty to enter schools. At any rate, the forthcoming entrance examination will not be an easy one. This situation compels the elders to change their old-fashioned ideas by getting a thorough knowledge of the schools of the new era. The new method of selecting applicants is as follows:
Advanced Schools -
The applicant should consider carefully which school to attend, considering the present situation as records food, lodging, transportation, and so on. It is recommended that he choose the nearest school, or at least one in a district where he can get lodging.
The selection of applicants will be based on the 1945 method. The document drawn up by the principal will be the first stage examination. The second stage will be written, oral and medical examinations. It has been decided, however, that hereafter these four factors will be combined for grading purposes. The first selection will be based on the principals' reports as well as the written examinations, leaving two or three times the number of students at capacity. Then the second selection will be made through oral and medical examinations, by which incompetent applicants will be excluded.



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SOCIAL SERIES: 58 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)

In other words, the "higher" written examination means, in one sense, returning to competitive standards. It also aims to compensate for difficulty of selection when grading is based on the principal's report alone. The written examination, however, will serve to judge the applicant's combined ability. The principal's report is required to fill in the ranking order of recommendation, in order to give it, apparently, more value. Such routine, however, will not be forced. In some cases, the written examination can be omitted. For instance, the girls' colleges, which have selected applicants by the principal's reports alone, will not always be required to hold written examinations.

The unified questions required of the Government Colleges by the Education Ministry, which were used last year, were a success. But they will not be expected hereafter due to the lack of printing facilities.
The period of selection is from April to the early part of May next year. Applications will be accepted after the middle of March. The Government Colleges will agree upon the date of examination, as before, while [illegible]of similar kind will follow their [illegible]
The admi[illegible] [illegible]the secondary business schools were limited [illegible]during the war. This limitation will be lifted next spring any competent student can apply.
Entrance examinations for normal schools will be conducted as before, a special system having been adapted.
Secondary schools
Considering lodging, food and transportation, every precaution should be taken in handling the application.
The testing method for admittance is the same as always. The school district system and the combined test system will be practised. However, as a matter of fact, this will be difficult, due to the remarkable change in the situation of various districts caused by the war damage. In such cases, the most suitable method will be taken in accordance with the local situation, and the simple written examination policy will be extended. Also, in some districts the restoration of written examinations is so desired that the usual examination system might be adopted once more.
The principle of testing methods will be based strictly on the following three points, viz., "the schoolmaster's report," oral examination," and "medical examination." Written examinations will be used as an auxiliary aid to the oral examination. Children with a physical deficiency caused by air raids will not be omitted, as a rule, at the time of medical examination. This principle will also held true for the applicants for advanced schools.

ITEM 2 Conditions of Japanese in Java - Yomiuri Hochi - 30 Nov 45 - Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
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SOCIAL SERIES: 58 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
A telegram from the chief of staff of the OSAMU division, Japanese Army in JAWA, was delivered to the Vice-Foreign Minister, reporting the actual situation of the Japanese people in JAVA. According to the report, a total of 80,000 men were in critical circumstances, caused by friction with the Indenesian Troops, and the food shortage. The report further revealed that about 37,000 out of 80,000 persons in all JAVA, were living in HANDOENG BOBORU, and BATAVIA. In SOEMARANG, troubles occurred between Japanese and Indonesian troops, and the ALLIED POWERS sent the Japanese to BATAVIA to avoid more serious clashes. However, 1,000 persons were left and were believed to be cooperating with the ALLIED POWERS in SOEMARANG.
The majority of about 40,000 Japanese in the middle part of JAVA (except SOEMAHARANO), the eastern part of JAVA, and MADORA Island were imprisoned in the [illegible]military jail or factories by Indonesian troops. Some of these kept in proison without enough food and clothes in app[illegible]the same condition as criminals. The Japanese Army was making [illegible]effort to rescue them but, since communications had ceased, and there was action between the ALLIED POWERS and the Indonesian troops at some areas near SOEPABAYA and MAGURAN, rescuing the Japanese, in the confusion, seemed utterly impossible.
The number of women left in JAVA was 827 in the western part, 870 in the middle part, and 558 in the eastern part, totaling 2,250. They were on duty in military hospitals situated in sections dominated by Indonesian troops, and were considered to be in a very dangerous situation. Male Japanese numbering 4,160 in JAKARTA, 1,000 in BANDOENG, 350 in SOERABAYA and 3,000 in SOEMARANG, were employed by the ALLIED POWERS as laborers.
Due to the forced removal of the Japanese and plunders of the Indonesian troops, no staple food was stored in all JAVA for the Japanese, except in the western area. Here there were stored enough food to tide them over for several months. Things were in bad condition in spite of the efforts of the ALLIED POWERS and cooperation of the Japanese. Between the end of the war and 20 November, 492 Japanese were murdered and 148 were reported, missing. Indonesian troops took every measure to establish an independent state, and pillaging groups were raging in various areas.
Living conditions, for 80,000 Japanese in JAVA is becoming more and more dangerous every day.
ITEM 3 Soldiers Return from Truk Island - Yamiuri Hochi - 1 Dec 45, Translator: M. Ono.
Full translation:
Four demobilization ships, making a total of twenty transports arrived from TRUK, the ARIMASAN MARU from the PHILIPPINES, KOEIMARU from PONAPE and the American ship GEORGE NORRIS from ISHIGAKI Island, arrived from URAGA on 29 November. 4,555 servicemen and civilians landed.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 58 (Continued)
ITEM 4 Conference of the Japan Education Association - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45 Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full translation:
The JAPAN Education Association (DAINIPPON KYOIKUKAI) held a committee meeting at 1000 on 1 December at the Education Public Hall (KYOIKU KAIKAN) in HITOTSUBASHI, KANDA, and made its report upon the revisions of the association statutes and also held a discussion on the measures for disseminating political knowledge to the public.
In addition, the meeting discussed proposals to improve the welfare of teachers. The important points of the proposals are:
Salaries and ranks of all teachers, from university professors to national school teachers, should be based on one scale, and every one should have the oppertunity of rising to the highest rank and pay in accordance with his ability and experience.
Opportunities to receive education in higher schools should be given the teachers while they hold their posts in schools.
To secure daily necessities for teachers the following plans should be realized (a) Working suits, rubber soled "tabi", shoes, rain coats, bicycle, and other items necessary for work in schools and for labor services on farms, should be allocated. (b) Farms for teachers and other such personnel to provide food should be established. (c) Strong encouragement should be given to school teachers in organizing purchasing guilds.

The association further proposes that the salaries should be raised to the combined sums of the former salaries and that temporary allowances now should actually he paid.
ITEM 5 Japanese Rabble Troops in Philippines As Told by Two Japanese Returnees-Asahi Shimbun - 2 Dec 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
Summary:
First-Class Private NAKAMURA, Joji, and a former ASAHI correspondent in the Philippines Mr. IIDA, Seiichi, who arrived with 200 Japanese repatriates at KAGOSHIMA on 16 November aboard a Japanese destroyer, male the following remarks at the Broadcasting Association on the state of Japanese prisoners in the PHILIPPINES:
The camps at KANLEAN are built on open sugar-cane fields with accommodations for 5,000 people.
The ration of cigarettess is 10 per day, and the food ration, set for 20,000 people, was much better before than after the end of war, when many soldiers were brought there and the number was increased to 110,000. And yet they gave us 3.00 grams of rice, butter milk, meat, vegetables, and banned food every day.
The treatment there was quite fair. American Army doctors were giving medical treatment to semi-conscious prisoners who had been found starving in the wilds and had been carried into the camp on litters by AMERICAN soldiers.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 58 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Japanese soldiers, in general, gained the impression that they had been deceived by their superiors and showed a deep hatred towards the officers who used to eat all the rice they wanted, while the privates were living on tree leaves and roots - and the stories were that the officers fled, leaving the soldiers at the front. ASAHI, MAINICHI, and YOMIURI newspapers sent to the prisoners through the ALLIED FORCES were quite welcome.
Immediately before the end of the war, 90 per cent of the Japanese soldiers were starving to death. Some soldiers in the mountains shot at one another and lived on the flesh of their companions.
The reason why there was so much misery lies in the fact that the Japanese military discipline was not so good as we had expected. The officers drove us on to work as if we were cattle, and the officers' flight from battle, leaving the soldiers at the front, made the Japanese Army a collection of rabble.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0058, 1945-12-04.
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