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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0048, 1945-12-01.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0167

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME CPMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 167 Date: 1 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 48

ITEM 1 Metropolitan Police Board Decides to Control TOKYO Black Markets - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Nov 45. Translator. Y. Akabane.
Summary:
In order to control overflowing street stalls which present not only confusion but afford hot beds for black marketing, the Metropolitan Police Board issued instructions on 26 November to all the police offices in TOKYO, the context of which is as follows:
1. Guidance of stall merchants trade associations. -
In order to strengthen self-control for these associations, their branches must be established, one in each police jurisdiction, and stall merchants must obtain permission from the branch prior to opening stalls. Branches must have overseers, who control offenders and act as advisers to applicants who intend opening stalls.
2. Arrangements of stall area. -
At present, stall merchants number 600 in SHINJUKU, 500 in ASAKUSA, 450 in GINZA, 300 in UENO and over 3,000 in all TOKYO. Each of the chiefs of the police offices shall decide places, extensions and prohibitions of stalls within his jurisdiction. No stall can be opened outside the designated places.
3. Prices, -
Compared with a certain period after the war, prices of commodities sold at these stalls have shown marked reductions and are approaching those of free markets. However, some articles, including perishable foods now out of control, are still sold at exorbitant prices. Stalls must show prices of goods sold and no goods are allowed to be sold before passing a price examination.
ITEM 2 MAINICHI Conference of Shareholders - Mainichi Shimbun - 27 Nov 45. Translator. H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
With a view to bringing about a clarification for the responsibility of the war and a democratization of the MAINICHI Newspaper Company, president TAKAISHI and other directors resigned. An extraordinary general meeting of the shareholders was held on 26 November when new directors and inspectors were formally appointed.
In preparation for this formal appontment the following measures were taken:

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SOCIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Following the resignation of all directors, a meeting was held by 14 comittee members selected from TOKYO, OSAKA and SEIBU offices and included Messrs. TAKATA, SHIKAKURA and YAMADA, to consult about the appointments of new directors. Because of the decision reached this meeting, a committee, whose members were selected by all employees of the three offices, has recommended the new directors, Their selection has been based on the permise that the directors must be the representatives of the emplyees and not the owners. Consultation with the former directors was made, and no objection was revealed. Thus all measures were taken in accordance with the full consent of the employees.
At the extraordinary general meeting of shareholders, the following directors and inspectors were newly appointed." Directors, NAGATO, Masaji, KANDA, Itsuo, HONDA, Chikao, KAMO, Katsuo, TSUKADA. Ippo, HIRANO, Turo, NIITANI, Shigezo, and KUSUYAMA, Gitaro. Inspectors; OOISHI, Kiwamu, NAKAJIMA, Sukebumi and NAKATA, Yoshio.
ITEM 3 Scientific Education of Children - Asahi Shimbun - 27 Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
For the purpose of investigating a new method of scientific research and education, the Scientific Bureau of the Education Ministry opened a joint meeting of the Conference for Educational Research (GAKUJCTSU KENKYUKAIGI), and the Society for the promotion of Japanese Science (NIPPON KAGAKU SHINKOKAI). On 22 November, another meeting of scientific educationists took place. This meeting dealt with primary and middle schools and resulted in the following decision:
1. International exchange of science.
The Conference for Educational Research was very active during the war in developing and improving instruments of war. But it must now return to its original function of scientific research in all fields and must also attempt to raise Japanese science to former levels through international exchange of ideas.
2. Unification of control over scientific studies.
The Imperial Academy (TEIKOKU GAKUSHIIN), the Conference for Educational Research, and the Society for the Promotion of Japanese science shall act as one body for better unification cooperation in the future.
3. Independent allotments for research expenses.
No fixed allotments have been given to universities, and the amounts alloted for books and laboratory equipment have been very insignificant. Sufficient expenses must be allowed to universities for the promotion of science.
4. Promotion of cultural science.
Cultural science must be respected as its sound development is the prelude to the reconstruction of a cultured nation.
5. Foundation of scientific education.
School hours must be shortened to give students enough time to study and experiment by themselves. Each school must establish its own methods for educating and unified method of education must be avoided.
6. Examinations.
In entrance examinations, for instance, the authorities should place emphasis not on memory or previously acquired knowledge but on the ability of the student to approach problems from a scientific viewpoint.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
7. Reform of scientific education in girls' schools.
This may be accomplished by doing away with the former attitude of indifference and raising the level of these schools to that of the middle schools.
8. Establishment of combined science classrooms.
To cope with the scarcity of teaching materials and facilities, local scientific museums must be established and utilized as joint scientific classrooms.
9. Re-education of teachers.
To raise the lowered standards of teachers, special facilities for their re-education must be established in addition to existing educational institutions. To improve the training for teachers, solicitation of superior teachers and reform of normal school educational methods are urgently required.
ITEM 4 The New Trend toward Student Strikes - Tokyo Shimbun - 27 Nov 45. Translator. K. Miyazaki.
Full Translation:
Since the war, students strikes have been occurring frequently their causes and conditions gradually becoming practical and intellectual rather than emotional. The strikes occurring immediately after the war demanded investigations into school management and retirement of principals and certain professors, but those were solved by the order from General Headquarters, demanding that militarists be removed from educational work and replaced by democratic educators. But other problems such as the management of HOSEI university and the matter of the students union at NIPPON medical university are arising. These aim at student participation in governing the school. We do not look upon these with favour, but the desire of students participate in school management is apparent. The following is a statement by the Board of Education in regard to this matter.
We are very much concerned with the student strikes but understand that it would be bettor to leave matters to the schools themselves. However if the case cannot be settled by the Board of Educators, we will gladly offer our assistance. We hope that students will make wide use of the Educational Information Bureau, which was established on 21 November. We feel the need for action in the cases, presented by Hosei and Nippon universities, demanding student participation in school management. We want every student to have enough pride to leave a school if he finds out that the school is poorly managed or different from that which he expected. At present many problems arise because there are no spiritual or practicalities between schools and students. However, we cannot agree with the idea of student management of schools.
ITEM 5 Text Book Bureau Chief Punished - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45.
Full Translation:
In accordance with the principle of establishing a new official way, that is, regarding the good and punishing the bad, the Education Ministry has decided to punish Mr. Arimitsu, Jiro director of the Text-Book Bureau of the Ministry for negligence of his duties with the confiscation of one month's salary. The matter obtained the approval of the Cabinet meeting yesterday and it will be announced in the Official Gazette tomorrow.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
On November 10 the MacArthur Headquarters issued a directive ordering the suspension of the printing of copies of the school text books now in use but this order was not obeyed in full.
On 16 November while several of the MacARTHUR Headquarters visited the TOKYO Book Company under the guidance of members of the Text-Book Bureau, the former discovered that prohibited text-books still were being printed and pointed it out. The Ministry of Education found it necessary to clarify the responsibility voluntarily and decided to punish the bureau chief. This is the first time an official of CHOKUNIN rank should be .punished on a matter pertaining to routine affairs.
ITEM 6 YOKOHAMA Consumers Cooperative - Association - Tokyo Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
A large scale Consumers' Cooperative Association is being planned by the YOKOHAMA municipal authorities in an attempt to establish a new organ to deal with the collection and distribution of perishable foods. The aim of this project is to protect the citizens' livelihood, which has been menaced by soaring prices and unequal distribution of foods since the Government's official prices were lifted.
The co-operative will handle the purchasing of foodstuffs from the producing districts as well as their distribution to the ultimate consumers, by co-operating with the central wholesale market.
The membership of this association will include all citizens. There will be a membership-fee of 20 sen per person per month. The city will contribute 50,000 yen as a subsidy, thus the fund of the association will amount to 170,000 yen. The Headquarters will be located in the municipal office, and every Ward Head will be a branch manager.
ITEM 7 KOREAN School opened in TSUCHIURA - Mainichi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: M. Ono.
Full Translation:
The prefectural Headquarters of the Korean's League in JAPAN (Nippon Zaijyu Chosenjin Renmei Ken Honbu), setting up its office at TSUCHIURA city, was permitted to establish tie Korean's school (CHOSEN GAEKO) for Korean pupils only in the city of Tsuchiura by the Supreme Headquarters, They will teach the Korean language and many other things necessary for the people of tie independent state.
ITEM 8 Increase of Buyers in the Country Continues inspite of new ration system - Asahi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: K. Miyazaki.
Full Translation:
Confusion resulting from the increase in numbers of buyers since the free trade of fish and vegetables is reported on the SHOSEN, SOBU, KEISEI, TOB TOJO and KEIO railways. There is no change in the numbers of passengers TOBU, TOJO, KEIO railways and a 12 percent increase on the government railways and the SOBU, KEISEI railways. The amount of baggage carried in the passengers' car has decreased since a checking system was instituted now it amounts to only 3 or 4 kans per person. Probably it is because the prices in the country have gone up and people who used to go toward IIYAMA now go toward NARITTA.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 8 (Continued)
The reason for the increase of buyers is that despite the fact that free trade is allowed the prices in the city are too expensive for ordinary people; so they go to the country in order to purchase goods cheaper in spite of all the trouble they nave to go through.
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