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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0042, 1945-12-01.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0143

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 143 Date: 1 Dec 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 42

ITEM 1 Dr. TATE Suggests 3 Questions Regarding Solution of the Japanese Population Problem - Nagasaki Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: K. Hinagi.
Summary:
Dr. TATE, [illegible]inoru, the head of welfare Ministry for Population and Race says that the solution of the population problem in JAPAN today is one of the most urgent questions to be considered.
In this connection, he points out that the three most important items are the rise in the number of employed, equal distribution of the population and full utilization of marine produce. The total Japanese population in June 1946, will be 80,000,000, according to his estimate. The density of the above population in the whole arable area of the present territory of JAPAN would be 16 per cent, that is 1320 persons per square kilometre, the highest density in the world.
If the densities were calculated in proportion the whole areas of the territories, Belgium and Holland would come first, but the extent of the arable land in JAPAN is far below that of those two countries. Judging from the present state of Japanese industry, the rate of the employed could never be above 38 per cent of the total population, meaning that there would be 6,400,000 unemployed. Efforts must be made, therefore, to raise this pitiful rate of employment to at least 40 per cent by promoting all sorts of industry and utilizing all possible resources.
What are then the concrete measures to be taken to relieve the situation of surplus population? The primary necessity is for a well balanced distribution of population. The Pre-war TOKYO population, for instance, was more than that of 6 northeast provinces combined. If this plan were realized, it would mean the best possible distribution in all Japanese territories, and if the density of population in HOKKAIDO, for instance, were doubled, it would go far towards the settlement of population as well as the food and housing problems.
Improvement of the physical standard of the Japanese people should be accomplished. More food containing albumen is at present absolutely necessary, but as supply of cattle is limited in JAPAN, the most advisable source is marine products.
As for birth control, the doctors say that at present the birth rate is declining and the death rate is rising, so it has not much positive significance in social politics.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 42 (Continued)
ITEM 2 YOMIURI internal struggle - YOMIURI - Hochi - 23 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
On the morning of 22 November the new TOKYO mediation committee for labor disputes invited President SHORIKI to present his side of the case and asked the employees to present their case in the afternoon. However, the employees visited the chairman of the committee, KAWARADA, and Vice-mayor TAMURA in the forenoon and stated their attitude toward this committee by clearly declining the invitation.
This committee is acting as if it is already functioning, but one of the members selected as a labor representative, YASUHIRA, Shika-ichi, has not accepted his appointment yet and is absent from TOKYO on a trip to SHIKOKU. The employees' union of the ASAHI and MAI-NICHI SHIMBUN have sent messages of encouragement and support to the YOMIURI employees.
NIHON SANGYO KEIZAI employees' union sent two representatives to YOMIURI, offering support as well as monetary contributions for the YOMIURI employees' struggle.
Further messages of support were sent by the paper "Construction of New JAPAN" (SHIN NIHON KENSETSU SHIMBUN), the Research Institute for the construction of a New JAPAN (SHIN NIHON KENSETSU KENKYU CHOSA KAI) and the preparatory office of the New People's Society (SHIN MIN DOSHIKAI SORITSU JUMBI KYOKU). As a result of the public meeting on behalf of the YOMIURI employees struggle under the auspices of the preparatory committee of the Union for all Japanese newspaper employees (ZEN SHIMBUN TSUSHIN JUGYOIN KUMIAI DOMEI JUMBIKAI), a committee of readers in support of the YOMIURI employees struggle was formed.
On 22 November a meeting was held at the KANDA Public Hall under the auspices of this readers' committee on behalf of the YOMIURI employees struggle. The speakers, SUZUKI Mosaburo of the JAPAN Socialist Party, TOKUDA, Kyuichi and HAKAMADA, Satomi of the JAPAN Communist Party, SUDO Ryuji of the ASAHI SHIMBUN and KATA-YAMA of the NIHON SANGYO KEIZAI, centered their speeches on the new TOKYO mediation committee and, pointing out the reactionary character of this committee, voiced their absolute opposition to it. They stressed in particular that they considered the chief of the mediation committee KAWAHARADA as one of the men responsible for the war and emphasized that such a committee must not become a defense organ of the ZAIBATSU and KANRYO (bureaucrats).
The speeches were met by a deafening ovation from the spectators, and they demanded that support be given to the continuance of the YOMIURI employees' struggle.
ITEM 3 Tokyo Imperial University Economic Department students demand student representation in teachers' conference - Mainichi Shimbun - 23 Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabano.
Summary:
A mass meeting of .the students of the economic department of the TOKYO
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SOCIAL SERIES: 42 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Imperial University was held in the lecture room 38 1300 on 22 November
At the outset, an explanation was made by Mr. IDE, a committee member concerning the speech he delivered to welcome Professor OUCHI at the previous meeting. According to Mr. IDE, his speech was misunderstood in some quarters, and some inferred that he wished to expel President UCHIDA, but this was due to his inadequacy of speech. Actually it was aimed at the abolition of the presidential system which had prevented Professor OUCHI's immediate reinstatement when he had been acquitted. Mr. IDE said that he never thought of expelling President UCHIDA.
The following draft for reform was submitted for discussion. It was drawn up by the new committee of the Economic Students Association (KEIU KAI):
Problems concerning economic course.
Reconstruction of Economic Students Association (KEIYUKAI) - to change it into an autonomous organization.
Public election of student committees.
Participation of student representatives in regular faculty meetings. The discussion in these meetings was held strictly secret, and this practice must be abolished.
Abolition of class system.
Decrease of required subjects and strengthening of elective system.
Increase in adaptability of lectures to students' opinions.
Release from studies.
Problems concerning the University in general.
Public election of the president.
Attitude of academies.
Business improvement for the students department.
Abolition of regulations regarding speeches and meetings.
Students' participation' as library office holders.

f. Improvement of treatment by the faculty and staff, relief to Assistant Professor OTSUKA and betterment in treatment of assistants.
Problems concerning students' livelihood.
Establishment of students' consumption association.
Improvement of students' dining room.
Purchase of dormitories and big residences in order to raise the status of students by social life.
Relief for children and brothers abroad and extension of educational enterprises.

After heated discussion, part 1. was adopted, and parts 2 and 3 were postponed until the next meeting.
ITEM 4 TOKYO MAINICHI SHIMBUN employees form union - Mainichi Shimbun - 23 Nov 45 Translator: T. ogawa.
Summary:
The All-TOKYO Employees' Union of the MAINICHI SHIMBUN, which is to be organized as an all-TOKYO employees' autonomous organization
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SOCIAL SERIES: 42 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
yesterday held a general organization meeting at 10 a.m. in the grand council room of the company's TOKYO Head Office. After approving the Union's agreements, there was read a proclamation which stated "We hope to establish the autonomous activity of the press in order to guarantee the livelihood of employees as well as to build up a really free and democratic MAIINICHI SHIMBUN SHA". Then the election of officials took place, and strong opinions were given by each of the representatives presented.
Meanwhile a resolution including such items as sending a letter of encouragement to the YOMIURI strikers, radical democratization of the articles of the union, reform of company's function and personnel, widerange increase of wages, fundamental reform of welfare facilities, etc, was approved. Representatives of the OSAKA Head Office, the ASAHI SHIMBUN and the YOMIURI-HOCHI then delivered congratulatory speeches. The representative of YOMIURI also expressed for the strikers words of gratitude in reply to the letter of encouragement.
ITEM 5 20,000 Yen Burglary - TOKYO Shimbun - 23 Nov 45. Translator: T.ogawa.
Summary:
A trio of burglars broke into the home of SHIGEJI KAJI, an employee of the CHIBA Small Machinery works, living at 814 SHIMURA[illegible]NO-CHO, ITABASHIKU yesterday around 1230.
The burglars veiled their faces with "FUROSHIKI-like material, threatened the residents of the house with naked, swords and robbed the victims of 20,000 yen. After seizing the money, the masked trio fled.
ITEM 6 Theft - TOKYO Shimbun - 23 Nov 45. Translator: T.Ogawa.
Summary:
It has been disclosed that a tremendous quantity of military materials including 15,000 Kg of unpolished rice, 3000 Kg of polished rice, 3,080 bales of barley, 1,380 blankets, 780 pairs of winter uniforms and 1,380 pairs of shoes were concealed by personnel of the former Headquarters of the 1st Army, in a warehouse attached to the house of TAKEO, Toya of SHICHIHONGI-MURA, KODAMA-GUN, SAITAMAKEN, and in several other places in that vicinity.
The paper further reveals that not only in this village but also in other places over a considerable area, there is reason to suspect that hidden war materials might be discovered in abundance.
ITEM 7 KODAMA assets to be used for charity - YOMIURI - HOCHI - 24 Nov 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Summary:
The four ZAIBATSU were dissolved but many financiers who made profits during the war still retain their fortunes. In view of the democratization of economy in JAPAN, it is demanded that they contribute their profits to the public.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 42 (Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
In compliance with this demand, the KODAMA Financial Organization (KODAMA KIKAN) in SHANGHAI decided to dissolve its assets which are estimated at some hundred million yen. The KODAMA Financial Organization has submitted a detailed report of its assets to the General Headquarters of the Allied Forces.
Meanwhile, the organization plans to contribute 3,000,000 yen as part of its dissolved assets to rescue war orphans. In this connection, an organization called Education Institute (IKUEI GAKUIN) is planned to give shelter to orphans. It will shelter 100 at first and will give them a liberal and democratic education under kind teachers and nurses. It will occupy the two buildings formerly used as the UEMURA Science Research Institute, which cover some 240 Tsubo at DAIJIN, ONUNO, KITAKAMI-GUN, TOKYO-TO. This organization will start as soon as its founding is permitted. Also the establishment of dining halls is planned at an expense of 2,000,000 yen, to give food at reasonable prices to of Office workers and laborers. KODAMA Yoshio, of the KODAMA Financial Organization, will report to the American Strategic Bombing Research Institute on 26 November He is expected to decide upon the utilization of the assets in accordance with public opinion and in the most democratic manner.
ITEM 8 Farmers Sympathetic Toward Yomiuri Fight For Democratization - Yomiuri Hochi - 24 Nov 45. Translator: Lt. Matsumoto.
Summary:
Representatives of the farmers of KATSUSHIKI (TOKYO) presented farm produce to the employees of YOMIURI HOCHI who are now fighting for reorganization of the paper. With the present came a message as follows:
"We, the farmers, have been persecuted during the war. Mobilization took our men away. The Agricultural association required us to set aside farm produces under the crop quota system (KYOSHUTSU), leaving us with a food situation like that of the town folks. Half of our crops went for rent, and our request for lower rent was refused. Had we organized in protest, we would have landed in jail.
Your fight for democracy is viewed by the farmers as the first stop toward a democratic revolution which will help the farmers in the rental and land.
"There are many who say that the farmers are in the best position today, that they have no feed problem, and are selling surplus food at high prices. That conception is wrong in that they do not realize that the farmers must buy their essentials, such as farm implements, fertilizer, and work shoes at exorbitant prices. Selling part of their produce on the black market is inevitable.
"The recent abolishment of price control has resulted in extremely high prices of vegetables. The farmers should rejoice, but when we think of the poor laborers and salary earners, we fear the consequences. Such conditions will only result in the starvation of the city folks, who way even go as far as to make a mass attack upon the villagers.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 42 (Continued)
ITEM 8 (Continued)
"The only answer to increase production is land, implements and fertilizer. The capitalists are doing nothing for us. Therefore we are calling upon the laborers in the city to begin production of farmers' necessities.
"Democracy cannot be realized before the food problem is solved. The 60,000 unemployed must be put to productive work. We will produce food for the laborers. We do not want to increase production to feed the war criminals and the vagabonds. They are contributing nothing to the reconstruction of a new JAPAN. Those who support our cause need not starve.
"We firmly believe that a new JAPAN can only be built upon a democratic union between cities and villages, between laborers and farmers".
ITEM 9 Return from Starvation on TRUK - Tokushima Shinbun - 19 Nov 45. Translator: Lt. Katsumoto.
Summary:
"I left for the South Central PACIFIC as a member of an Airfield Construction Unit in October 1943. We landed on TRUK Island and for two months worked under daily bombing by the Americans in order to construct the airfield there. In January 1944,500 of us moved to ENTAPI*, an island of about six square miles, situated to the South of TRUK. There we worked on the airfield under the hardship of bombing, strafing, and tropical heat. We lost about 100 men as a result of enemy actions and disease.
"After September 1944, we had no communication with the outside and were forced to form a self-sustained unit of 400 men. Our food supply diminished rapidly, so we had to live on a ration of 50 grams per man. Before long, we were completely out of stored food, so we ate bread-fruit, rats and lizards. We had a good harvest of pumpkin from seeds given us by the natives, but that didn't last long. Many more died of starvation and disease. By May 1945 we had devoured everything edible.
"We had given up all hope. Then the transport arrived at the island in October. The arrival of the ship was like a dream. By that time, 400 had lost their lives and none of us expected to see JAPAN again. It is a pity that some of those who lived to see the ship succumbed on the way home".
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0042, 1945-12-01.
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