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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0041, 1945-11-30.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0140

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 140 Date: 30 Nov 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 41

ITEM 1 Round Table Conference on Food Question - Yomiuri-Hochi - 22 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
YOMHURI-HOCHI brings the first part of a Round table conference-on the food question, attended by agricultural Minister MATSUMURA, farmers and consumers representatives:
MATSUMURA: Only after the Japanese Government and people have exerted themselves to the utmost, can they expect help from Allied Headquarters. This means in other words, discipline on the part of the consumers and the will to supply all they can on the part of the producers. I am of the opinion that if we can only tide over this years bad crop, the future will not be so dark.
Next year the land reform will be carried out, additional land will be reclaimed and an increased production of fertilizers will be fostered by all interests. So if the weather is in any way favorable at least an average crop of rice, that is 10 - 12 million more than this year can be expected with reasonable certainty.
It should be possible to produce so much food in JAPAN that JAPAN con get along with an average yearly import of two or three million and five million in a bad year.
Producer Ono of YAMANASHI-KEN: If YAMANASHI-KEN had only to take care of its own normal population of 700,000, and the Government would take care of the 300,000 people who have come to YAMANASHI from the war devestated areas, the demand for three go of staple food instead of two go one shaku could be met.
This years crop in YAMANASHI is approximately 370,000 koku of rice and 300,000 koku of grain and about 160,000 koku of potatoes, besides, there is additional crop of maize and soya beans. Therefore even YAMANASHI which depends on food from other provinces can afford three go rations.
YOMIURI: The authorities say there is not enough food. Now a consumer however says that there is enough food to raise rations from two go one shaku to three go,no wonder that the Allied Headquarters doubt the accuracy of the Japanese figures.
ITEM 2 Reorganization of Neighborhood Group Associations - Asahi Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
In order to put an end to the existing town and neighborhood associations which are reputed to be "officially-governed and arbitrary" and replace

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SOCIAL SERIES: 41 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
them with new and democratic organizations, preparations have been going on and a draft of the regulations containing opinions from various directions has been made.
It will be submitted for action at a meeting of the "Operation Committee of the Neighborhood-group Association" to be held at AOI KAIKAN, SENDAGAYA at 1500 on 22 November.
The summary of the draft is as follows: Maintaining its original nature a local mutual organ based on the free will of citizens living in the same ward, the neighborhood group association must undertake to enlist the collaboration and assistance of the public for the welfare of citizens and administrative business, in accordance with Article 153, § 3 of the existing Municipal Regulations.
Area and Organization —- The measures to be taken by the chief of the ward concerning the designation of the areas of each neighborhood group association and the change thereof will follow the principles fixed by the Municipal Office of TOKYO in April 1943.
The number of neighborhood group associations which was reduced to 1,697 on 1 November from the pre-war number 2,700 throughout 35 wards of TOKYO will be maintained. When the area of a neighborhood group association is designated or changed, the chief of the ward will hear opinions and take steps in accordance with the general vill of citizens concerned. Works to be undertaken by the neighborhood group associations will be fixed autonomously, according to local circumstances.
Organization of the office-holders, their function and manner of election will be left to the individual neighborhood group associations, but the representatives or vice-representative (chief, managing chief, assistant chief or assistant managing chief) must be so appointed in accordance with the general will of citizens, by election or other appropriate measures.
Enactment, abrogation and modification of regulations shall be done in the manner based on the general will of citizens.
Assumption of office by representatives:
In case of appointment or change of representatives of the association, permission must be obtained beforehand from the chief of the ward.
Neighborhood Associations and their chiefs:
Distribution, division and amalgamation of neighborhood associations shall be made by chiefs of neighborhood group associations after hearing citizens' opinions. In electing chiefs of the neighborhood associations, the rotation system will be discontinued, and some other systems reflecting the general will of the citizens must be adopted.
Business collaboration:
Businesses having a direct connection with the security of citizens shall not be included in the neighborhood group, associations, especially business concerned with simple transfer of labor. Thus hampering the autonomous nature of the neighborhood group associations or other complicated business must not be included. The relation between neighborhood group association and local consumptive guild is to be studied separately.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 4l (Continued)
ITEM 3 Radio Speech of Premier on Emperor's Trip to ISE - Mainichi Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
The Emperor left TOKYO on 12 November and went to the KANSAI district where he reported the termination of the war and prayed at the Grand Shrine and Imperial Mausoleum for the revival of JAPAN.
In a radio broadcast on 21 November, Prince SHIDEHARA reported as follows on the Emperor's pilgrainage.
"According to Home Minister Horikiri and Transportation Minister TANAKA, who accompanied the Emperor, the spontaneous, sincere way in which the people greeted the Emperor was truely impressive. Everywhere along the way of the Imperial journey, crowds had gathered. Farmers and fishermen working in the fields or on the sea straightened their bodies to salute the Emperor. Many such examples showing the people's full devotion to the Emperor can be cited and all of them are the expression of a natural feeling coming up from the bottom of the nation's hearts."
The Premier went on to say, "After the Emperor returned to TOKYO, I was granted an audience, when His Majesty expressed his satisfaction over the new simplified guard system at the time of the Imperial journey and said that by this step he felt for the first time the people's hearts came directly in touch with his with no reserve. I feel very happy to be in a position to observe that the Emperor has become very light-hearted as the result of his personal inspection of the country during the recent journey."
ITEM 4 Establishment of Relief Bureaus for 1,700,000 Japanese Repatriates 80% Sick.- Mainichi Shimbun - 22 Nov 45.- Translator: K. Minagi.
Summary:
According to a directive from General Headquarters, all matters concerned with repatriations will now be handed by the Minister of Welfare. Local Repatriation Relief Bureaus will be set up at all parts of debarkation, including URAGA, MAIZURU, KURE, SHIMONOSEKI, HAKATA, SASEHO, and KAGOSHIMA besides a YOKOHAMA branch office of the URAGA Bureau, SENZAKI branch office of the SHIMONOSEKI bureau, and a MOJI branch office of the HAKATA bureau.
The Repatriation Bureau will also handle the affairs of Korean and Chinese nationals going home. The Bureau will supply food, clothing, housing and medical care.
The numbers of Japanese nationals scheduled for repatriation this year is 1,000,000 military and naval personnel and 500,000 civilians. By 11 November, over 500,000 Japanese had already been brought back to their homeland.
According to a report from YOKOSUKA , those landing at URAGA are divided and sent to one of three places. Military personnel goes to MABORI, Naval personnel to KURIHAMA, and all others to KAMOI. Repatriates stay at these installations three months.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 41 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
There are at present 4,500 at MABORI, 3,800 at KURIHAMA, but conditions are still not crowded. Out of 5,000 civilians arriving at KAMOI up to 19 November, only 1,000 went home. The others are LUCHOO Islanders who have no place to go.
Over 3,500 at KAMOI require medical attention, with 15 to 20 deaths reported daily.
The civilian repatriates all have deep seated hatred of the army.
A YOKOSUKA report says that three naval vessels are scheduled to bring 715 army and 353 naval personnel, and 691 civilians home from TRUK soon. Other groups will come on American ships. Out of 78 deaths reported at KASIMI, 58 were of children. Malaria and malnutrition was given as the cause.
ITEM 5 Japanese-American Relations in the Family (Part I) - Tokyo Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
According to the first in a series of articles on" Japanese-American Relations in the Home" by KIMURA, Takeshi, Prince KONOE's statements have received unfavorable criticism from the General Headquarters spokesmen as well as the foreign press. This may be partly due to carelessness in the choice of words on the part of the Prince himself, or due to inaccurate translation by the interpreter. The author goes on to say that now no one feels what the average Japanese has to say is as important as the Prince's statements. But he warns the reader that with increased social intercourse with Americans a chance for misunderstanding will no doubt increase and so the Japanese in-the-street should also be careful about what he says.
KIMURA writes that 14 or 15 years ago, he often invited foreigners to his house. Of course, he did not attempt to invite Ambassadors and Ministers of the first class powers, because they would not have come, but he did invite a number of ministers and consuls of second and third rate powers and they loved to come. KIMURA writes that he entertained George Bernard SHAW and calmed down the latter's anger against the Japanese GUMBATSU. He writes that SHAW took a great liking to Mrs. KIMURA. He also entertained the French Novelist Maurice DEKOBRA, but he could not make DEKOBRA out. Incidentally, when DEKOBRA returned to FRANCE, he turned out an Anti-Japanese film "YOSHIWARA" which was banned in JAPAN.
KIMURA says he was thankful that he had not guided DEKOBRA personally to the YOSHIWARA, for if that had been the case and it became widely known, he would have been finished socially.
Later in KIMURA's social career many NISEI came to JAPAN and put his English to shame, so he did not invite foreigners to his home anymore.
Recently, however, KIMURA invited some American Naval officers for tea. They were introduced to him by Miss SAKANISHI, Miho, graduates of the University of Virginia, and head of the section for Far Eastern Research.
Miss SAKANISHI, has worked with President TRUMAN, is a friend of Mrs. ROOSEVELT's and has translated several books from Japanese into English. With a introduction from someone like Miss SAKANISHI, KIMURA says, he was delighted to receive his American guests who included Commanders FORTUNE and WALLACE and Admiral ARMSTRONG.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 41 (Continued)
ITEM 6 Teachers Union Formed - Yomiuri Hochi- 22 Nov 45. Translator: M. Ono.
Full translation:
The first meeting of the JAPAN Teacher's Association will be held 2 December in KURAMAE Industry Hall under chairman KAGAWA, Toyohiko. The aim of the association is to campaign for educational freedom and teachers' rights.
A preliminary meeting attended by KAWANO, Mitsu; KAWAZAKI, Natsu; NIKAI, Geniehi; KODAMA, Kujyu; YANA, Kanjyo; and 18 middle school principals from neighboring prefectures, was held in the MITSUBISHI Building, MARUNOUCHI, on 21 November to discuss democracy in education.
At the meeting, it was decided to interpret the General Headquarters directions on education ordering all militarists and ultra-nationalists out of the educational system as not applying to teachers.
Teachers, the Association maintains, did not decide policy in the past. They are sending a petition to this effect to General Headquarters and the Ministry of Education.
Members of the Association will include the majority of the 400,000 teachers now practicing in primary and higher schools, as well as universities, throughout the country. Teachers illegally dismissed from the school system before or during the war also be asked to join.
ITEM 7 YOMIURI Internal Struggle - Yomiuri-Hochi - 22 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
The JAPAN Peoples Union will hold a public rally in HIBIYA Park on 21; November in support of the YOMIURI employees. The Oriental Freedom of Culture Union of NAGOYA, the Japanese Shoemakers Union, the HOKKAIDO Labor Union Congress, and the HOKKAIDO Coal Miners Labor Union all sent messages expressing their support of the YOMIURI employees.
ITEM 8 Jury Law - Asahi Shimbun - 22 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Full translation:
Democratization of the trial system must now be brought up. The jury law was hindered by the oppression by the TOJO Cabinet, and at present its revival is naturally demanded. I hope that the jury law will not be a mere revival, but that there will be several revisions. First, Articles 2, 3 and 4 must be revised.
Article 2. A case involving the death penalty or penal servitude for life or imprisonment is tried before jury.
Article 3. A case involving penal servitude or imprisonment for over 3 years is put before a jury when the accused demands If it is a matter which is within the jurisdiction of the local court.
Article 4. The following crimes are not tried before a jury in spite of the provisions of the above articles.
Crimes which are under the jurisdiction of the special powers of the Supreme Court.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 41 (Continued)

ITEM 8 (Continued)
Crimes covering chapters one to four and chapter eight of the second volume of the Criminal Code.
Violations of the law for the maintenance of the public peace.
Violations of the law for the security of military secrets and violations of the military penal code or naval criminal law code.
Violations of the public election law.
Because there is a limited number of cases submitted to the jury, there is not adequate use of the jury system. Secondly, Article 14 must be revised. This sets down those who are not qualified for jury duty. By such limitation, many men of ability are excluded from jury duty. This is contrary to the spirit of participation in trials by all the people. Thirdly is the revision of Article 107.
Article 107. Jury expenses fall on the accused wholly or partially when a sentence is pronounced in the case of Article 3. Consequently an accused who is not able to pay jury expenses may avoid the use of the jury.
Lastly, the revision of Article 95 is most important.
Article 95. The court is empowered to put a case before another jury, regardless of the type of suit when the court deems the finding of jury unreasonable. As long as this Article exists, the revision of the jury law is of no significance. It must be mandatory for a judge to follow the finding of the jury when the same verdict is given by two juries.
Irrespective of the jury system the following system should be given due considerations. Every court has men of ability in its district as counselors, and counselors must answer the judge's questions. Sometimes, however, they voluntarily state their opinions. It will be well for the time being for a counsellor to be appointed by the court itself, but in the future they should be elected by the people.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0041, 1945-11-30.
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