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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0028, 1945-11-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0097

call-number: DS801 .S84

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NO. 97 Date: 26 Nov 45


ITEM 1 University Reformation—Nippon and Hosei - Mainichi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: M. Ono.
Full translation:
The reformation movement at NIPPON University moved gradually from the prep-school students all the way to the faculty. A mass meeting of the students of the medical school, preparatory and special medical department of the university, was held on 15 November, demanding the resignation of both the president, YAMAOKA Mannosuke, and the staff heads as well as a reorganization of the school board.
That evening, the representatives handed their resolutions to President YAMAOKA who was in the hospital. Tue resolutions declared that YAMAOKA must make reply by 1000 on the 17th. If the answer was not given by that time, another mass meeting would be held to seek further solution of the problem.
As the university was to have refined closed till the 23rd, the attitude of the students is attracting public attention
Another mass meeting was that of all the students of HOSEI University, held on the 14th, in opposition to the policies of President TAKEUCHI, Kakuji, founder of "Kokuhon-Sha" and advocate of militarism who has not yet retired from his post as president and has evinced no intention of reforming, the University. Then made clear their demands, among which was removal of the elements opposed to democratization, establishment of a commission consisting of students and professors, restoration of the functions of the professor's conference, the return of KIDO, Bantaro, MINOBE, Ryokichi, ABE, Isamu, SUZUKI, Syun and the other eminent professors.
On the 15th, the representatives negotiated with President TAKEUCHI in regard to their demands, but TAKEUCHI seemed to be lacking in conviction.
Consequently, on the 16th at noon, all the students held a 2nd mass meeting, demanded the prompt resignation of the president, and went on strike.
ITEM 2 Enshrinement at Yasukuni Shrine - Mainichi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
His Imperial Majesty the Emperor has granted that the YASUKUNI Shrine hold an extraordinary Grand Festival for a period of three days from 19 November to 21 November in order to enshrine the Spirits of the deceased heroes, who are to be deified at tile shrine now that the war is over.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 28 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The Godly Spirits will be place a in the Spirit Recalling Pantheon for some time. Those who are definitely deified will be enshrined in the Main Pantheon during the ordinary festivals in spring and autumn. The memorial ritual will be held at 1800 on 19 November and will last for about an hour and a half, while on 20-21 November at 0900, the ritual will last for about two hours.
The bereaved families of the deified heroes as well as ordinary worshippers will be permitted to worship on 19 November at 1800, on 20 November, at 1100, and on 21 November from early morning until 2000, the MAINICHI reports.
ITEM 3 Arrest of 9 officials in connection with Black Market Activities Asahi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Nine officials of the Agricultural Association were arrested by the KAWAGUCHI police and indicted on charges of embezzlement and graft. The accused, taking advantage of the free sale of water-soaked sweet potatoes and utilizing their official positions, have been grafting by misappropriating the ill-gotten sweet-potatoes, rice and barley, and so on to factories and other buyers through brokers. The names of the accused and the sum of their illegal earnings are as follows: KANAO, Negishi, 38 years old, of the Agricultural Association of SAITAMA ken, KITA-ADACHI branch—1,797 yen; YUICHI, Sekine, an agricultural engineer, 43 years old—150 yen; KEIICHI, Akaishi an agricultural technician—2,065 yen; SHOJI, Saito, a clerk, 43 years old and KOKICHI, Maejima, a clerk, 43 years old—1,760 yen; KUMA, Hamano, a clerk, 4l years old—4,100 yen; KAMENOSUKE, Kawai, Managing Director, 42 years old—l,782 yen.
ITEM 4 Most of the 600,000 Unemployed in TOKYO are too much interested in Black Marketeering to look for work - Yomiuri Hochi - 17 Nov 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
Estimated that there are a many unemployed and that there will soon be a flood of idle people in TOKYO are quite contrary to actual conditions. The number of those who have applied for employment at the employment offices does not equal the number in demand. The number actually employed is less then 20 per cent of those needed. It may seem strange but the ret son for this fact is that many have lost the desire to work because of our defeat in the war. There are also certain personal matters which prevent an earnest desire to look for work, and the anxiety over food and housing problems adds to this feeling.
In the investigations made by the Labor Department of the Metropolitan Police Bureau, 5,428 factories, and 560,583 laborers were active during the war, but this number decreased, after the end of the war to 3,167 factories and 269,800 workmen. Moreover, of those laborers still employed at the factories, one-third are absent from the factories, and so are employees in theory only. The number of unemployed resulting from the closing of factories amounts to only 400,000. If the number of Japanese repatriates and demobilized soldiers were to be added to this amount, it would be approximately 600,000.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 28 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
The extent of employment as of the end of last month is as follows: against 37,000 vacancies (27,092 men and 9,908 women) there were 25,913 applicants (21,218 men and 4,695, women). This means that the number of applicants is less than ten per cent of the total number of unemployed. Out of these applicants, only 6,240 (980 men, and 1,252 women) were actually employed. They were all under 30 Factory laborers: 45 per cent Demobilized: 29 per cent Others: 26 per cent.
Where, then, are those colossal numbers of unemployed? Most of them, attracted by the black market are now street stall-keepers and brokers. All are at work in black market circles. What are the reasons for this? 1. Factories which survived the air-raids are too far from the homes of the workers to permit travel daily, and also, traffic is terribly congested. 2. Regular daily employment at the factories does not allow workers any time off to go to the country for making food purchases. 3. The future prospect for factories is not very bright due to a lack of materials.
ITEM 5 Letters Sent to Prime Minister Deal mostly with Food Problem. Number Decreases. Letters from Intelligentsia Increases - Mainichi Shimbun 17 Nov 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
As a means of direct communication between the government and the people, the last cabinet encouraged the writing of letters addressed to the Prime Minister. The practice is being continued in the SHIDEHARA Cabinet. Since 1 October, 1,000 letters have been received.
Upon receipt they are sorted into various categories such as; Political, Food, Military, Official, Public, Educational, and Provincial Affairs.
The Prime Minister reads them, forwarding those with practical suggestions directly to the department concerned. Most of the letters are signed. Some have been received from well known people.
Serious and constructive letters are welcome. They should be addressed to: Prime Minister SHIDEHARA, Kijuro, Prime Minister's House, NAGATACHO, KOJIMACHI-KU, TOKYO.
Of 460 letters received two weeks after the formation of the present cabinet, 150 pertained to food problems; and of these, more than half requested the staple foods ration be increased to three go daily, adding that this increase could be accomplished by importation, land reclamation, realloting rations and government purchases, and an increase in the ration of fertilizers. Letters assailing the black market and the practices of farmers were numerous.
Among 58 letters dealing with political matters, 13 supported restrictions; 37 were concerned with aid for the homeless and impoverished; 18 demand the activities of officials end leaders in public affairs be regulated; and 18 pertained to education; and only one advocated abolition of the Emperor system. Forty six letters concerned the repatriation of Japanese troops, and the protection of Japanese abroad.
Of the remainder, 20 letters demanded abolition of war-time controls. A letter from KEIZO, whose father was HAMADA , Matsutaro, captain of the sunken AWA MARU, states that although eight months have elapsed
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SOCIAL SERIES: 28 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
since the sinking of the ship, only the names of passengers attached to the Foreign Office nave been published. No mention had yet been made of the captain and his crew. The son considered this a lack of respect on the part of the government for his father.
Since the end of October, 90 letters nave been received, among which one insists on revision of the Japanese national anthem, KIMIGAYO, in the interests of democratization. Others attacked hoarding of staple foods; while still others assailed breweries and distilleries, advocating their abolition.
A very sad letter was received from a 17 year old girl of MORIOKA who expressed great anxiety for the plight of her war-victimized family. She contrasted the suffering of her family with the opulence in which government officials live, adding bitterly that she had been taught they were her "superiors".
Letters have been decreasing in number because in no way have they taken effect.
ITEM 6 Messages to Japanese abroad - Mainichi Shimbun - l6 Nov 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
The Allied Powers have granted permission for repatriation ships to carry letters to Japanese nationals now living abroad.
These messages must be passed by American Army Censors and must observe the following forms:
For civilians, only post cards are allowed, and their contents may only refer to personal matters.
Government offices, may send both post cards and letters, but their contents mast be about matters concerned with repatriation.

Government message can be sent to all territories maintaining army post offices during the war except MANCHURIA. Civilian messages can be sent to all territories maintaining, army post office except NORTHERIM KOREA, KARAFUTO, KWANTUNG Province and MANCHURIA.
Army post offices can be addressed in the same way as during the war except that romaji must also be used on civilian post cards.
The postage is five sen for post cards, 10 sen for each letter up to twenty grams, and 10 sen for each additional twenty grams. This rote applies to all army post offices as well as KOREA, TAIWAN, INNER and SOUTH CHINA.
Post cards and letters addressed to MALAY, Outer South Sea, INDO-CHINA, and SIAM are fifteen son. Letters to these areas are thirty sen for each 20 grams.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 28 (Continued)
ITEM 7 TOKUSHIMA SHIMBUN Reports Many Cases of Black Marketing Seen in Local Cities - Tokushima Shimbun - 12 Nov 45 Translator: K. Minagi.
The black market is not peculiar to big cities. Farmers in remote provinces also trade illegally.
Exhorbitant prices are established by the evacuees and refugges from big cities and then the producers, that is, the farmers, demand still higher prices. In TOKUSHIMA City, in addition to a number of evacuees, there are many ex-military men, squandering money.
ITEM 8 Lack of Good Faith on Part of Yomiuri President Results in Indictment of Union Officials - Yomiuri Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: Lt Matsumoto.
The employees of the YOMIURI Newspaper have been disputing with the paper's president for the past three weeks. The employees wanted democracy within the organization. The dispute was being mediated by KOBAYASHI, General manager of the paper, but lack of good faith on the part of the president of the paper resulted in the indictment of four members of the Executive Committee of the employees. They are SUZUKI, Tomin; SHIGA, Shigeyoshi; SANNO, Toshio and BUN, Ren. They were charged with unlawful occupation of the premises and the obstruction of business.
The employees are requesting the resignation of president SHORIKI in favor of MUDAI, managing director of the newspaper guild, formerly an executive of the YOMIURI paper. Negotiations were in -progress concerning management and personnel relations.
As a result of the indictment of their fellow employees, the 2,000 employees of the paper held their seventh meeting and discussed their future course of action. They sent representatives to ask the president whether he was ready to hold direct negotiations with the employees to which he replied, "no".
The dispute has been referred to the Mediation Board to be activated by the ministry of welfare.
ITEM 9 Census of Tokyo Population to be taken Dec. 1 - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
A census to determine the proper distribution of staple foods is planned by the metropolitan authorities and will be carried out on 1 December. The scope of the census will include the entire area of TOKYO-TO with the exception of the islands.
The aim of this census is to check up on the postwar drift of the Metropolis' population, as well as to clarify false population figures. The object of the census is to determine number people usually get their staple food distribution at home, how many eat their meals out, and the number of producers of rice and barley, and landlords, who usually don't receive a food ration.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 28 (Continued)
ITEM 9 (Continued)
The head of each household should tender a written report of all the household members to the chief of Neighborhood Association, The latter upon receiving such a report should check and determine whether the report is correct and then send the papers to the Metropolitan authorities through the President of Street Association, In case any false report is found out, the distribution of food to the submitter of such a report will be suspended.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0028, 1945-11-26.
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