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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0020, 1945-11-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0068

call-number: DS801 .S84



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 68 Date: 16 Nov 45

SOCIAL SERIES: 20

ITEM 1 Proposed solution of the Japanese population problem - Yomiuri-Hochl - 13 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Two years from now when repatriation is finished JAPAN will have a population of approximately 80 million. But in contrast to other densely populated countries, JAPAN has less arable land (BELGUIM 35 per cent, HOLLAND 33 per cent, JAPAN 16 per cent of entire territory). Before the Chinese conflict, the Japanese rice production was 67 million KOKU, one Japanese consumed yearly one KOKU, one TO, five SHO. Even if the rice harvest could he raised again to the same figure, JAPAN, with a population of 80 million, would he short at least 23 million KOKU.
It is, therefore, evident that JAPAN cannot feed her population on her rice production. In 1930, when JAPAN had her worst economical depression, it had employed 30 million persons, that is, 46 per cent of the entire population at that time. At present, JAPAN can employ at the best 38 per cent, that is, at the same population figure, 64 million persons less would he employed. To solve this great problem of Japanese surplus population YOMIURI recommends the redistribution of the Japanese population.
The population of the sir TOHOKU prefectures will have the same density as those of YAMASHINA or NAGANO province. The population of HOKKAIDO is to be doubled. The trend of industrial population is to concentrate on the KANSAI district and not TOKYO. By this measure YOMIURI believes housing and feeding questions will be relieved to some extent. YOMIURI suggests intensive fishing as another contribution to solve the food problem combined processing the fish for food near the coast to prevent spoilation.
YOMIURI thinks birth control a passive method of solving population problem, and points out that the birth rate has already fallen sharply, and since the death rate has increased, preference should be given to social measures.
ITEM 2 Repairing schools and apartments for housing war sufferers - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
To cope with the difficulty of constructing temporary, simple dwellings, the necessity of which is now keenly felt in view of the speedily approaching cold weather, the government has been encouraging the conversion of half-burned buildings in war devastated area into apartment houses. Mr. ASHIDA, welfare Minister, inspected, on 12 November, the state of repair of TS[illegible]RUMAKI Primary School, WASEDA, USHIGOMH-KU, which is now being changed into an apartment house. The school was destroyed by fire, but the ferro-concrete framework remained standing.

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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Altogether it is expected that 115 rooms eill be constructed. One room of sir mats is to be alloted for each bachelor or small family and two rooms of sir mats each to large families. Gas will be supplied and one kitchen be provided for every two families. Several physicians are expected to live in the apartment, thus facilitating medical treatment.
In addition, baths and dining rooms will be provided and hot water win be distributed at four or five SEN per tea kettle. The former lecture hall will be made into a movie theater. On completion, this will be an ideal cultural apartment. The ward Officer will act as manager and the rent will be about four YEN per mat. The same Ward Office is now hurrying to reconstruct, as apartment houses, the YAMABUKI Primary School and OKAZAKI Hospital. Simple dwelling houses of about 220 capacity will be constructed on the sites of several other primary and middle schools in the same ward.
ITEM 3 Two Crime Cases - Yomiuri-Hochi - 13 Nov 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
Five burglars broke into the house of HARADA, Hambo of the Far East Diving Company, (TOA SENSUIFU KABUSHIKI KAISHA) of 309, KAWANA, FUJISAWASHT at 0025 a.m. 12 November and, threatened YASUI, Chi, caretaker, with pistols, daggers, and clubs. They robbed the house of 39,000 yen in cash.
A burgler broke into the home of MORIMOTO, T., age 53, carpenter, residing at 5758, IT0-CHO, OI, SHINAGAWA-KU, at 0.350.11 November, MORIMOTO, was cut about the face and other parts of his body with a sharp edged tool while he was asleep. He grappled with the burgler, but before neighbors could come to his aid the burglar escaped, MORI- MOTO died from excessive bleeding.
His wife, TOMOE, the only member of the household, was away from home on a visit to NAGANO. The crime is now under close investigation by the TOKYO Metropolitan police office of which OI Police station is the head office.
ITEM 4 Confusion of Japanese Evacuees in Changchiakow is due to too Hasty Directive of Japanese Officials - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
Summary:
The first ship carrying Japanese nationals from MONGOLIA arrived at FUKUCKA, YASUI, Tohoru, General director of the Mongolian News Agency (MOKYO TSUSHIN SHA) who returned on the shin, stated, "Most of the 20,000 Japanese in CHANGCHIAKOV, on 8 August did not wish to evacuate. They wanted to maintain friendly relations between JAPAN, CHINA and MONGOLIA. At that time, the Japanese embassy, after conferring with military authorities, assembled all Japanese residents, in PAOTOW(population 2,000) and KOWA ([illegible]) (population 5,000), in CHANGCHIAKOW and waited further steps to be taken before the arrival of' special forces. However the 8th Division of the Chinese Communist Army and some Soviet troops rushed south and threatened to invade CHANGCHIAKO[illegible]on the 16 August, with the result that there was no time for HACHIRI, the Japanese Minister to negociate between the Communist 8th Division and the Mongolian Army.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Rifle end gun fire broke out early on the morning of 20 August. It was an unforgetable day for the Japanese nationalists in MONGOLIA. The Japanese were assembled in the First CHANGCHIAKOW Primary School and ordered by the Japanese Embassy to evacuate to TIENTSIN by rail. Women and children from PAOTOW and KOWA left first. Those remaining followed that evening. No one was allowed, to take luggage because there was a chance they would have to walk part of the way. Mothers threw away the swaddling-clothes of their babies. People on the roofless trains were soaked by rain. It took four days to cover the distance between CHANGCHIAKOW and TIENTSIN, ordinarily a ten hour ride.
A number of Japanese army officers had left before those evacuated by the embassy. The officers used trucks and private cars for themselves and their baggage. Some were accompanied by their geisha girls.
In a few days three Japanese who remained at CHANGCHAKOW and TOKITA came to TIENTSIN to see the Japanese there. These three said that the plundering by the Communist 8th Division in CHANGCHIAKOW was a groundless rumor. The Japanese who had remained there were protected and maintained in hotels. Japanese possessions plundered by the Chinese were all restored. The action of Japanese embassy and military officers had thrown the Japanese into needless confusion."
ITEM 5 Welfare Minister Helps in Rebuilding Schools and "Dugout, Shacks" into living Houses for the Homeless - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: K. Minagi.
Summary:
In an effort to find measures for relieving the housing shortage, Mr. ASHIDA, Minister of Welfare, visited two sites selected for rebuilding homes. One of the sites selected is WASEDA TSURUMAKI Primary School, the interior of which was completely demolished by fire. It will be rebuilt at a coat of ¥270,000, into an apartment house for 115 families, Securing cement for the project is the greatest problem, the Minister was told. He sold he would ask for a supply from the Department of Commerce and Industry.
The Minister also visited to the First HONGO Neighborhood Association where he was told there is a shortage of materials for converting war time "dugout shacks" into permanent homes. Seven hundred and ninety five families are now living in the shacks.
Mr. KANEHARA, head of the association reported to the Minister that authorities have inspected their neighborhood eight times but nothing has come from these inspections.
The Minister promised a high priority for re-housing projects. He suggested building large dormitories to relieve the critical shortage.
The Minister's next visited the ASAKUSA HONGAN JI (temple), where some three hundred homeless are now living in the basement. The sick and dying among this groups are without medical care and already twenty have died. Mr. NAKATANI, chairman of NIPPON SANPO KAI is now working through the Minister of Welfare, and trying to get medical aid for this group from the SAISHI-KAI (Charity Hospital Association).
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 6 Report on unfair rationing and demand for a revision of the rationing system - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Quite apart from the demand by the general public that staple food rations be raised to two GO five SHAKU or three GO, there are a number of complaints on the rationing system itself. In the present rationing system, each member of a family does not get the present ration of two GO one SHAKU, but some get a little more and others less.
The rationing is fixed according to six age groups: 1 - 2, 3 - 5, 6 - 10, 11 - 15, 16 - 60 and above 6l years of age. The public demand is that this discrimination by age be abolished so that all members of a household win receive equal rations irrespective of age. In this connection, it is a remarkable fact that youth from 16 - 20 receive three SHAKU less than those from 11 - 15. The reason is that during the war, youth 16 and over were mobilized for war work end received special rations outside the home as war workers. This is no longer the case.
Another complaint concerns the special rations given to industrial workers. At present, numbers of unemployed workers continue to receive their special ration in many factories. These special rations are leading to black market transactions, and dissatisfaction is being expressed because of the fact that all factory workers receive the special ration whether the factory is necessary to national welfare or not.
The Metropolitan Food Control Bureau, as well as the Metropolitan Police Board, realize that the present rationing system has many weak and unjust points. KATAYANAGI, sub-manager of the Food Control Bureau, admits the unfairness of the present rationing system but declares that his department is so busy that it has not been able to work out a new system. KATAYAMA further states that the abolishment of age discrimination is worth considering and that the special ration system for factories has been a complete failure.
A particular case in which the rationing system did not function well is seen in the following example of a bank employee with a wife, and six children. In the morning one SHO of rice mixed with sweet potatoes is cooked for the whole family. This amount must suffice for the break fast and lunch of the entire family of eight. It does not suffice, however, because a sufficient amount of sweet potatoes cannot be obtained to mix with the rice. At noon the housewife must be satisfied with only 500 - 600 MOMME of sweet potatoes. In the evening a broth is made of five GO of rice and a few sweet potatoes. This amount is scarcely sufficient to enable each person to have more than two cups of the broth.
ITEM 7 Food made from air - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
Lieutenant KUDO and Engineer KOYAMA of the Army Food Arsenal have discovered a method of obtaining albumen from air. The equipment found in beer factories is sufficient for the carrying out of this process. By using the AZOD Bacteria, nitrogen in the air may be turned into albumen. This discovery is considered a valuable contribution toward the solution of the national malnutrition problem. As yet, however, no assistance has been received from the Japanese Government in putting this process into operation.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
A second food product, which consists of grain and oil, and which is sufficient for one day's meals, has also been discovered. Due to the sympathetic co-operation of the MacARTHUR Headquarters, its production will begin early next year.
ITEM 8 Recent black market trends - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
The story is told of a mar who started out selling children's dresses on the black market and is now proprietor of a shop. It is possible to make as much as ¥10,000 a day as operator of such a black market stall. At GINZA 8 CHOME, there are now 73 such shops selling nearly 300 different items at fancy black market prices which run as high as times the official price. One demobilized soldier selling carpenter tools at the GINZA, has a daily income of ¥2800, half of which is said to be his profit.
In ASAKUSA ward, near the park and NAKAMISE, there are now as many as 850 shops. But contrary to what happened at the GINZA, the increase in the number of shops in ASAKUSA has brought prices down to one half or one third of what they were just after the war. This section is under the control of a ward boss, by the name of SHIBAYAMA, from whom permission must be obtained in order to open a now shop. Every shop-holder must work during certain hours of the morning at cleaning away the debris of nearby devastated areas and at caring for the grounds around the Temple of the ASAKUSA, goddess of Mercy.
ITEM 9 Japanese figures of war dead mistaken, will "be revised - Tokyo Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: F. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
Confirmation of death in battle is a grave problem for bereaved families. Army authorities publicize the list of war dead as soon as possible, after investigation data has been thoroughly confirmed.
But, among the large numbers of those who are regarded as dead, a certain number are probably alive as prisoners of war.
Some of those alive as prisoners of War were once thought dead and were enshrined in YASUKUNI shrine. This problem which has been thoroughly discussed by those who know the facts, has now become a political and social problem of great importance. As a. result military officials desire to settle this problem, immediately.
KOMURA, War Department Adjutant, explained the fact by saying, "Mis-concertion of the number of war dead is probable. A certain number of soldiers considered killed on SAIPAN, IWOJIMA and OKINAWA, are actually alive as prisoners of war. Therefore, troops in foreign territories made lists of their members living before leaving their territory and brought the lists back to the regiments to which they formerly belonged. Consequently, adjustments of the lists will be finished in early December, and mistakes corrected. Mistakes in the list of those enshrined in YASUKUNI Shrine will also be corrected after Imperial permission is granted".
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 10 Gas supply to be further restricted - Asahi Shimhun - 13 Nov 45. Transistor: Y. Akabane.
Summery:
The daily gas supply for the TOKYO and YOKOHAMA districts had been restricted for use three times daily, morning, noon, and evening, a total of eight hours a day since 2 November. But from 13 November, it has been further restricted to twice daily: from four to seven in the morning and from four to seven in the evening. Although this restriction will greatly inconvenience the citizens' homelife, it has been made because of the necessity to conserve the gas supply for factories, laboratories, hospitals, and so forth.
The cause of the new restriction is attributed to the lack of coal and unsatisfactory land and sea transportation services. Although the authorities have been doing their best to continue the gas supply, there is a danger of it being stopped. The supply of coal in the gas factories is decreasing day by day and there is no alternative left but to prolong the gas supply by further curtailment in the use of coal.
The daily volume of gas consumed by each family since 2 November reached an average of 1.5 cubic metres as compared with the standard volume consumed of one cubic metres. If such a state of affairs is left to take its own course, the consumption of coal will far exceed the estimated amount.
ITEM 11 American Moving Pictures - Tokyo Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: H. Nishihara.
Full Translation:
American film will soon be imported, according to recent reports.
The problem is what to do with the 208 films, both released and unreleased, and motion picture equipment of American companies, that were confiscated by the Japanese Government during the war.
The Finance Ministry which handled the confiscations, made the JAPAN Movie Company responsible for safe-keeping the property.
The rental charges on the films amounts to about 300 million dollars and will be paid to American movie companies in the near future, hut interest on the rental fees, and charges which were not settled be fore the war may cause trouble.
The most troublesome problem, however, seems to be the 208 films which have never been released in JAPAN. Included in the list are: "Gulliver's Travels", "Gunga Din", "Reau [illegible]este" and five others.
Now, raw films were made from them, the army confiscated some and others were lost, broken, or burned while they were on lease.
Because of air-raids and the abruptness of the army's demand for the film, books were not kept regularly; end as a result the NIPPON EIGA - SHA may be held responsible for the loss of the film.
In any event, American films will be shown again after the JAPAN branch of the American Film Company re-established.
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 11 (Continued)
The new films will probably be released soon; that is, if the American movement does not consider the films productions for amusement only, but as a method of publicizing their policies. Profits from the film showings are not being considered.
ITEM 2 State Lottery - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: T, Akabane.
Summary:
The central hall of the MITSUKOSHI Department Store in NIHONBASHI was full of dreamers for ¥100,000. A little past 10 o'clock, 12 November 1945, a pipe organ began to play, perhaps to calm the beating of hearts of these dreamers. The player ironically selected a strain of Beethoven "Destiny". On the stairs at the front, old people and women were kneeling, as if the seat of destiny appeared there. On the platform 2 sets of glittering silver drawing machines were placed. In the mean-time, two young girls were selected from among the audience and stood on the platform to operate the machines, which soon began to roll. In a loud voice "Number 74" was announced. The winning numbers for the fifth, fourth and third prizes were speedily fixed.
The hoarse-voiced announcer was replaced. Them came the drawing for the first prize. A Clamour was raised and the two girls were visibly tense. The announcement of the winning number for the 1st prize "137842" caused curious groans here and there, and merry and cheerful tones of the pipeorgan followed. The winning numbers are as follows:
1st - 137,842.
2nd - 178,705, 152,191, 143,912.
3rd - 134844, 187,666, 183,620, 197,303, 182,190, 144,568, 102,614, 110,055, 138,818, 188,838
4th - Numbers ending in "08".
5th - Numbers ending in "74", "02", "69", "60" or "01" or "01".
ITEM 13 Comment of American Officer and MP on the Emperor’s trio to ISE Shrine - Asahi Shimbun - 13, Nov 45. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Full translation:
(Dispatch from NACOYA)
Several officers and men of the Occupation Forces, who had welcomed the Emperor, were unanimous in admiring the splendid attitude of the Japanese people in greeting His Majesty. In this connection, chaplain SHUSU, attached to the American troops, and Mr. MURANTO, a Military Police officer commented as follows:
Chaplain SHUSU, - "His Majesty seems very young and impressive. The attitude of the Japanese people in welcoming the Emperor was so splendid that I felt it should be adopted by us”.
Mr. MURANTO, - "Quite a procession! We ought to respect this calm and strict manner of observance, which made me feel rather lonely. This is the first time I have seen the Emperor of JAPAN, but His va[illegible]esty has such a sagacious appearance that even if I happened to meet him unknowingly, I would certainly recognize who he was at once."
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 14 Government goes out buying, potatoes at black market prices - Tokyo Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Summary:
As a counter measure to curb the death-defying TOKYO citizen's potato buying tries to the provinces, the government decided to break the official price (67 sen per KAN) and buy a special quantity of sweet potatoes at five yen per KAN to be delivered onto KAN per capita to the TOKYO citizens, to be received at the nearest station, freight charges extra. This belated measure of the government is criticized in all quarters. It is pointed out that at this late date, it only endangers the delivery of the potato allotments at the official price, it is dubious whether it will keep the private potato buyers away from provinces. It will help fix the present ceiling black market price of 20 yen per KAN and endanger the official prices for other vegetables. It has made a laughing stock of the government with the peasants who declare this "Official potato buyers trip" are "unconditional Capitulation[illegible]of the government.
ITEM 15 Greater Japan Educational Association (DAI NIHON KYOIKUKAI) to be Reorganized - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summary:
The Greater JAPAN Educational Association held a general meeting yesterday at 1300 hours in the Education Meeting Hall (KYOIKU KAIKAN, KANDA). Representatives assembled from all parts of the country at the meeting numbered 300.
A resolution to revise the articles of the Association was adopted. According to the formal articles the Minister of education will appoint the President and Vice-President of the Association. But according to the revised by laws, they will be appointed by councilors previously selected by the membership.
ITEM 16 Teachers Union Formed - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Ogawa.
Summery:
The plan to organize a new Educators' Union (KYOIN KUMIAI) consisting of all educators from, the metropolitan area and the adjacent prefectures, has been underway at Room No. 229, No. 21 MITSUBISHI Building, MARUNOUCHI. The first Organization Preparation Committee meeting will be held on 21 November at 1000 at the same place.
The committee includes a staff of 36, selected from the presidents of all the public and private universities; and principals of middle schools and national schools in such territories as TOKYO, CHIBA, SAITAMA, YAMANASHI, KANAGAWA, SHIZUOKA and NAGANO.
The participation of other educators and those who have been illegally discharged has been requested.
ITEM 17 Impressions of a Foreign Cameraman on the Emperor's Trip to ISE - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: C. Gilbert.
Extracts:
MAINICHI reports the impressions of TOM. L SCHAEFER, (SAPUA) FAR[illegible]AST-ERN representative of the ACME photo News Company, who was the only
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SOCIAL SERIES: 20 (Continued)
ITEM 17 (Continued)
foreigner present at the Imperial procession to the Grand shrine at ISE.
He observed the procession at the station, and the outer shrine and inner shrines.
He remarked that he was surprised at the extraordinarily quiet way in which the Japanese people greeted their beloved Emperor. On the way to ISE, he had observed several million Japanese subjects standing along the railway tracks waiting for the Emperor's train to pass. The attitude of the Japanese peasant was almost mystic. It was quite a different scene from an American reception of a national figure.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0020, 1945-11-16.
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