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Press translations [Japan]. Social Series 0001, 1945-11-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: social-0001

call-number: DS801 .S84



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ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
SOCIAL No. 1 Date: 5 Nov 45
ITEM 1 Measures to combat malnutrition - Asahi - 2 Nov 45. Translator: K. Gilbert.
Summary:
Professor KAKINUMA recommends that even crickets and grasshoppers be pulverized and rationed as food. He states that malnutrition is due to undernourishment quantitatively as well as qualitatively. In the present war it was first noticed amongst Japanese soldiers on the Chinese front, who showed signs of dysentery, had fever attacks, and grew thin. They were first treated for dysentery, malaria and tubercolosis. Then malnutrition was recognized.
Malnutrition further causes atrophy of the organs, swelling of the limbs, general fatigue and eventually causes death. Cases of sickness due to malnutrition were noticed in the Tokyo Imperial University Hospital ward two years ago, and an increase was noticed during April and May of last year; conditions this spring could not be ascertained due to air raids. A patient of malnutrition will, in some instances, go to the pantry at night to steal food, but it will do him no good, as his condition will not allow digestion. Malnutrition cannot be combatted by giving a person only one good meal a day. The present system of rationing; issuing only sweet potatoes for ten days, and the next ten days only beans, will not erase malnutrition.
The professor declares he has subsisted on government rations only, and as a result lost weight from 20 Kans to 16 Kans (75 kilos to 60 kilos) and recently has had dizzy spells. He then suggests that special care be taken to increase the albumen content in rationing, as a measure to combat malnutrition. Albumen is contained in marrow bone and sardines. Any fish head or bone will do. He suggests that even grasshoppers, crickets and locasts be pulverized and rationed in order to combat malnutrition.
ITEM 2 Food situation In Omori Prison - Asahi - 2 Nov 45 Translator: K. Gilbert.
Summary:
Seeing a picture of General Tojo in the Omori War Criminals Prison, the first thought may be: "Look at him, eating a big fish, much better than our food!"
Recently, the Food Department of Tokyo received a petition from the inmates of the detention camp for better food. According to this petition, the inmates at first received foreign ford from the American Occupation Forces, but, since 3 October, the food changed to Japanese food. This food was considered by the inmates as "Bad beyond endurance!" They wish to have "Foreign food, as before, with [illegible]occassional Japanese meal from outside!"

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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
However, after taking up the matter on the 29 October, it seems the food situation was bettered after the 15 October, so there is no need for anxiety that General Tojo and the 45 other [illegible]will suffer from malnutrition.
ITEM 3 Food Situation - Asahi - 2 Nov 45. Translator: K. Gilbert.
Summary:
The government decided in the Cabinet meeting of 1 November that rationing of staple food will be made mostly in rice, adding wheat for balance, for six large cities. Potatoes will be rationed as supplimentary food. This decision might ameliorate conditions in these cities for the time being, but without imports the food situation cannot improve in the long run.
Interview with Minister of Agriculture
Minister declares that the government will try to raise nutrition by rationing mainly rice as the staple food, beginning in mid-November. Asked whether the government will not lower the rice supplies over a period of time by adopting such a measure, he declared that fluctuations in the rice supply will be unavoidable. At present soya beans imports are stopped and soya bean rationing is impossible, even if government desired to effect it.
The minister then declared that the government asked permission to import rice, but as yet no definite agreement on rice imports has been effected. He emphatically denied the danger of food revolts. He, however, declared that present conditions could not continue indefinitely, and concluded that an understanding on part of farmers for government compulsory rice sales allotment was necessary. Otherwise, there is a danger of more rice going to the black market.
Report of food situation in TOKYO, KOFU, OSAKA, MORIOKA.
TOKYO housewife with family of four declares food rations insufficient. She has had to buy, besides rations, an average of 190 yen per month from the black market. Other necessary expenditures bring the figure to 350 to 500 yen monthly. The family income is only 250 yen per month, therefore, they are approaching bankruptcy. According to the calculations of a trained university student, this family consumed daily food averaging only 1,200 to 1,500 calories per member. 2,400 calories are required for health.
KOFU had to import 150,000 KOKU rice annually to feed the normal population. However the population has increased approximately 100,000, due to evacuatees and refugees from War devastated regions. There was a very bad crop this year. YAMANASHI Province contracted to import 46,000 KOKU of rice from NIIGATA Province, and 20,000 KOKU from SAITAMA Province, but these measures proved insufficient to meet the acute food situation. A wife with a family of four, in KOFU writes that ten days rations are consumed in five days, and she has to buy sweet potatoes from the black market to feed her family for the remaining five days. One Kan (3.75 kilos) of sweet potatoes on the black market in KOFU costs 25 yen. The income of this family is not even 200 yen per month, while monthly household expenses average
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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
500 to 600 yen. Expenses are met by using savings, or exchanging clothing for food.
A family of four, in OSAKA, have a monthly household expense of 500 yen, but an income of only 220 yen. Use of savings and the changing of household possessions and clothing for food make up the difference. They ask that government rations be raised to 3 GO staple food per person daily, or, if this is not possible, 2 GO 3 SHAKU be the minimum. At least once every three days 30 MOMME of vegetable and once a week 30 MOMME of fish be given, then they would not worry so much over their food.
In MORIOKA many mothers go without lunch in order to give their children some. Two high schools work only during the morning owing to food shortage. Not only citizens of MORIOKA, but, even peasants in city environment are suffering from the food shortage. In one village, they have started collecting roots of bracken as food.
ITEM 4 Reform of RIKKYO University - Asahi - 2 Nov 45. Translator: K. Gilbert.
Summary:
After the heads of RIKKYO (St. Paul's) University were discharged by command of MacARTHUR's Headquarters, the faculty of St. Paul, with the professors of the Economic Section taking the initiative and encompassing the professors of the whole University, Preparatory School, and Scientific College, proposed to the directors entrusted with the reform the following reform plan: (l) freedom of belief, (2) establishment of a democratic organization within the school, (3) systematization of the self-rule, and, (4) welfare of the student body. The student body in a general assembly on the 31st supported this proposal. The directors appointed Superintendent K. SUDO to the post of acting President of St. Paul's University.
ITEM 5 Rates for Comfort Houses - TOKYO SHIMBUN - 2 Nov 45. Translator: Lt. Kayano.
Full translation:
Reception houses (SETTAI SHO) whose aim is to entertain officers and men of the Occupation Army, and brothels have recently increased in numbers. According to the district, price varies, and among them there are some who charge exhorbitant prices.
Lately, the Metropolitan Police Board has indicated the maximum amount to be charged as an entertainment fee at comfort houses (IANSHO), etc. The details will be at the descretion of the police authorities concerned. The set price will also apply to the case of overseas Japanese comfort houses.
Reception house (SETTAISHO)
High class comfort house - (KOKYŪ IANSHO).

Not to exceed 50 yen within one hour.

Not to exceed 200 yen for the entire night.

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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)

ITEM 5 (Continued)
Brothel house (KASHI ZASHIKI). Ordinary comfort house - (FUTSU IANSHO)
Not to exceed 30 yen within one hour.
Not to exceed 120 yen for the entire night. (Note: For the entire night means the time from 2200 hours to the next morning. If the time of entertainment of one hour is exceeded, the maximum rate plus 50% the maximum rate will be paid for each hour thereafter).
The comfort houses within the city have recently been closed according to a MacARTHUR Headquarter order, pending the removal of venereal disease infected and unqualified women, and efforts are being made to exterminate the poisonous liquor.
ITEM 6 Commission to certify teachers - YOMIURI HOCHI - 2 Nov 45. Translator: R. Aoki.
Extracts:
In reference to the General Headquarters directive regarding suitable administrative machinery and procedures for effective investigation, screening, and certification of teachers and educational officials, the spokesman of the Department of Education expressed on 1 November the following views:
"We are considering how to establish fair investigation commissions. We shall, much as possible, avoid appointing government officials to these commissions. For jurisdiction of commissions three forms are conceivable. These are: a central commission centered in the Department of Education, prefectual commissions, and one at each university."
"For the above noted central commission, members of the committee shall be selected from civilians and heads of government schools. The prefectual organs may be composed of 14 members, of whom five are appointed by Governors and three each selected from principals of elementary schools, young men's schools, and middle schools."
"Ordinarily the heads of schools shall be charged with the responsibility of naming individuals who may be tried by the commissions. But prefectural Governors and the Education Minister also may retain the right to do so. A central appeal commission shall be formed."
"Since these amount to thought tribunals, we need very careful consideration about organization procedure. Nevertheless, we are determined to execute the above plans immediately."
ITEM 77 Solving coal production question - Asahi Shimbun - 3 Nov 45. Translater: Nishihara.
Full translations:
The preparation association of the Miner's Union in JOBAN District, held a committee meeting on the evening of 31 October at NAIGO-MACHI,
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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
FUKUSKIMA KEN. The committee made the following recommendations which will be submitted to the founding meeting of SHAKAI - TAISHU - TO, 2 November 1945. The committee stated: "This coal scarcity must be settled by us miners."
Government ownership and government control must be established.
Large quantities of explosives for use in the mines must be supplied immediately.
A higher price for coal and better pay for miners must be provided.
Immediate supply of wire ropes, and mending materials for machines and tools must be provided.
Distribution of three "go" of staple food stuffs must be made to the miner's.
An additional allotment of salt, miso, and shoyu is desired.
A supply of labor suits, and rubber-soled tabi is desired.
A six hour labor system in shaft must be established.
ITEM 8 Ikegai works dispute settled - Yomiuri Hochi - 3 Nov 45. Translator: F. Mitsuhashi.
Full translation:
(KAWASAKI Tel.) 700 workers of the Ikegai Automobile works at KAWASAKI held a workers' meeting on 30 October and decided to request entrance into a labor union, and disposition of the balance brought about by the dissolution of the Industrial Patriotic Body (SAMPO) ([illegible]). On the 2nd of November the companies accepted all the requests made by the workers.
ITEM 9 Essay on Education - Mainichi Shimbun - 2 Nov 45. Translator: A. Kido.
Full translation:
A Plan for Building a New JAPAN
The best essay
"Neo-dieal of Education" by Yasusada KUMAZAWA
Introduction:

"Rome was not built in a day" says a Western proverb. If Japanese culture may boast of its 3,000 year tradition, so it must be said that occidental culture has been built on the traditions since Greece and Rome.

Deleting self-praising prejudice, and judging history justly, the nucleus which forms modern Western Culture is the result of the bloodshed of the Renaissance, the Reformation and the French Revolution; while the root of Japanese Culture since the MEIJI Restoration has been nothing but a narrow minded patriotism based on an Oriental

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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)

ITEM 9 (Continued)

feudalistic idea, bent on ranking among the advanced rations and competing with them for so-called "National prestige". In the case of the MEIJI Restoration, which, unlike the French Revolution or American Independence, which were brought about by the self-awakening of the people, had been carried out by leading men, stimulated by international relations, and the modern armament race for a ranking position among the powers. Capitalistic industry along has seen rapid progress, but the feudal society was left at large in thought, ideals, and custom. Thus the foundation of the Japanese culture has been left in its Oriental-feudalistic state.

Though we have had, through the past 80 years since the MEIJI Restoration, more or less of a reform movement, the thought foundation of the majority of Japanese has remained Oriental-feudalistic, which has allowed the state of things to become a background for militarism, which at the point of sword has deleted the modern spirit. This caused Japanese culture to fall far behind the level of Occidental culture.

In short, for the past 80 years Japan has merely become a modern nation, outwardly, the base of the Japanese inward culture still has remained unaltered feudalism. The Chinese saying: "A hog in armor is still but a hog", might be applied.

The MEIJI Restoration was carried out without the awakening of the people, or by their power, and it was quite apart from the people's thought or sentiment. The change was forcibly brought about by threatening international circumstances and the old feudalistic force could scarcely be kept without its telling of how defective the MEIJI Restoration had been as a modern revolution. In this defect lies the grave cause of defeat in the war. In debating the problem of rebuilding a new JAPAN, we must seriously consider the point of feudal thought. In forcing a neo-ideal of education, therefore, we have got to start with consideration to the radical problem of cleaning up the deep-rooted evils and basing our new thought on a full understanding of the modern spirit that has been deeply rooted in humanity. Otherwise there is no advantage to the building of a new Japan.
Education Based on Confucianism.

The ethical thought that is deep rooted in Japanese educational circles, and has a feudalistic power, is the moral idea based on Confucianism. This idea became quite common among the people of the feudal age and could not easily be removed even after the MEIJI Restoration, Especially in elementary and middle school education, learnings of CHURSE and WANG MAN-HING have been misconstrued as if they were the racial idea of reason proper to Japan. These learnings have been taught by teachers, admitting no critism and demanding obedience.

The nucleus of the moral thought of Confucianism consists in idea of "Teaching - Learning". By "learning", it is meant that the student is required to imitate truly and perfectly, and these who act against it are declared contrary to the basic principles. "Teaching" means the leader is a model for imitation. More concretely it is "the way of ancient wise kings", which means the ethical ideas of the idealized

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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)

ITEM 9 (Continued)

old Chinese community. The Chinese do not like anything that puts weight in modernization, or utility, or things that constitute a scientic reasoning or demand a phylosophycal foundation. Even in their "way of ancient wise kings", their characteristics have been revealed. As can be seen in their ritual and music or "Six Arts", which contain much of their worldly wisdom and are indispensable for actual life, the Chinese have always rejected all other learning as not being practical learning. In the analects of Confucious is the saying "A decent man is not an instrument", which can be interpreted to mean that science or technique are not right things for an educated man (a politician in Confucianism). Such an ideology, together with the above mentioned uncriticised learning attitude, has resulted in producing flattering people only true to the ways of father and son, of sovereign and subject, and has given rise to the idea of suppressing research and making learning only a means of serving the social purpose, without even asking the reason why. This idea has come become prevalent in modern Japan.
Education of Militarism.

As can easily be seen, the general tendency of the society was as mentioned above, but the inward culture of Japan, though everything had been outwardly reviewed by the MEIJI Restoration has never been a perfect modernization. At the end of the feudal age, HASHIMOTO Sanai, speaking on current affairs, said, "We have in us humanity and justice, and therefore we have got only to learn from the Western nations of machinery and technique". This implies two problems, which have become the criterion of later Japanese culture.

First of all the phrase, "We have in us humanity and justice". This idea prevents, through its Confucian and state for the state principle, the way of building a modern state based on humanity. The idea of the latter phrase, "we have got only to learn from the Western nations of machinery and technique", constitute the militaristic idea, aiming at utilizing science, technique and other learnings for state purpose only. When a backward nation is striving for a position among advanced nations, it is quite understandable that it takes such measures as mentioned above. In the former half of the MEIJI era we have seen wonderfully rapid imports of knowledge concerning machinery, technique, industry and economy, while the import of learning regarding philosophy and other sciences was greatly neglected. The same thing can be said of the inward culture side of army, diplomacy, industry, arts, social structure, politics, etc.

Such a tendency has brought about the idea of putting major emphasis on education for utilization or practicality, tending toward neglect of research for truth, which paves the way towards deciding the lasting fate of a nation. In this case the leading idea has been the Confucian thought of "Way of sovereign and subject". Men, who have been taught to respect royalty as the highest virtue attainable, may make perfect patriots, from the standpoint of the individual towards state; but as members of society, what would is result? Confucianism has the idea of "etiquette", but it prescribes the relation of individual to individual rather individual to society, and the conception "society" does net exist in "way of ancient wise kings". In JAPAN this idea has resulted in the social moral or public morality receiving only slight consideration.

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SOCIAL No. 1 (Continued)

ITEM 9 (Continued)

Such an education, which has become extremely nationalistic, exclusive and militaristic, neglecting social morality, has resulted in the recent oppression of learning, obsolescence in science, stoppage of industry and economy through burauratic control, and further resulted in terrible demoralization.
ITEM 10 Address of Prince Takamatsu Governors conference on Mission of Red Cross - Mainichi Shimbun - 3 Nov 45. Translator: Carl Gilbert.
Summary:
Prince Takamatsu declared that at the end of the war there were in some quarters the mistaken notion that the mission of the Japan Red Cross had ended, but from an international as well as internal standpoint it remains Japans duty and obligation to care for its sick and wounded discharged soldiers, A new field of work is also opened for the Japan Red Cross by the expressed wish of her Majesty the Empress on the occassion of the 53rd General meeting of the Japan Red Cross to take care of the ill and wounded among the Japanese civilians amongst the war sufferers in Japan and the Japanese returning from abroad. On the field of international cooperation Japan may also be able to contribute her share in the future with the resumption of international friendly relations and assist thereby to the welfare and happiness of mankind and establishment of world peace.
DISTRIBUTION NO OF COPIES
GPA 3
Public Health 3
Natl. Resources 3
Legal 3
CIS 3
CIE 3
ATIS 3
Govt. Sec. 3
File Sec. 50
Info See 1
Trans Sec 1
Peri. Sub Sec 1
G-2 SCAP 2
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Social Series 0001, 1945-11-05.
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