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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0286, 1946-02-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1163

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 1163 Date: 6 Feb 46


IIEM 1 Democracy and monarchy by Prof. USHIODA, of KEIO University - Jiji Shimpo - 4 Feb 46. Translator: S. Ono.
Before the sudden resurrection of democracy, the Japanese, who have been separated so long from a democratic way of thinking, are quite at a loss. First comes the question of whether or not democracy is compatible with monarchy. Having been deceived by the propaganda of the self-styled despotic militarists, the Japanese at present are very suspicious. They are sick of propaganda for home consumption. What they want to hear is news which will be acceptable throughout the world. Now, political theory common throughout the world classifies the forms of polity into monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. This classification derived from ARYSTOTLE, still, in principle, holds good. To make an etymological inquiry, monarchy means the rule of a single person, while democracy signifies the rights of the people. The answer, therefore, is that democracy and monarchy are incompatible.
The fact is, however, that one quite often finds some country, the polity of which does not fit into any one of the above classifications. This is not unique in the modern age. Polybius, successor of the Aristotelian theory, recognized the existence of a mixed polity, He, who stayed in ROME as a hostage for sixteen years, found a fine example of the mixed polity in the Government of ROME. According to his opinion, the council, senate, and lower house, represented monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, respectively. Monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, when adopted separately, exhibit weaknesses. The national Polity of ROME, however, adopting these three kinds of polities together achieved perfection.
What is discussed above is common knowledge in polities. In the present day world, the polity of GREAT BRITAIN could not be explained other than as a mixed polity of the three. Nowadays, no scholar of polities will, in regard to the problem of polity, find much interest in divorcing democracy strictly from monarchy. The difference is that the sovereignty is delivered by heredity in the case of monarchy. The compatibility of monarchy in a democratic country cannot be doubted, Monarchy or republicanism is not a matter of serious concern. You will find no book on polities, in which the author insists on the incompatibility of democracy with a sovereignty which is passed on by inheritances.
ITEM 2 The Communists' Statement on the JAPAN Farmers' Association - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Feb 46. Translator: R. Ochiai.
Full Translation:
In the hope that the JAPAN farmers' association, which is to be established on 9 February, will develop into a pan-Japanese association, the Communist Party stated, yesterday that it should be formed in a democratic way without distinction of parties.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 286 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
"At this time of the organization of the JAPAN Farmers' Association, we desire that democratic unions will be formed in all the farmers' movements. In this way only, can they attain the basic conditions for establishing democracy among them, prevent the Government from forcing orders on their quotas, and acquire their own land. However, in order to make a democratic farmers' front, the following action must be taken, for which, accordingly, the Communist Party is making every effort.
In order to unify all the autonomous farmers organizations of every description that exist at present, their free participation in one body is essential.
Every organization should allow freedom to support any political party and no one should be dogmatically shut out from the union because of a difference in a political party. Thorough democratic principles should be adopted in forming the union.
In spite of their differences in political stand point, we hope all the forces of farmers' activities will sincerely and effectually cooperate together in their earnest desire, to overcome the food, crisis and. to develop democracy.
ITEM 3 The 4th day of ISHIDA's trial - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sano.
Mr. MATSUDA, Kanji, tile station master of HYOGO in KANSAI district, appeared in the court of the 4th day of ISHIDA's trial as a witness of the defense counsil and stated that the accused was a man of few words, diligent and kind during his service period in HYOGO, but he was placed in a false position because of his haughty attitude.
He presented a written petition from 97 comrades of the accused to the military tribunal. As other witness of the defense council, MR. FUKUDA and others, had not yet arrived, the trial was suspended until noon.
Mr. MURAI, Ichiro, of the staff of the NIPPON IRON Company who was des-patched to the HIROHATA Camp, was examined as a witness for the defense council in the afternoon. Further, former Corporal FUJITA and MIYAZAKI who are imprisoned at the SUGAMO Camp and who were serving in the HIROHATA Camp, were sum[illegible]oned at the trial, because, their features were so resembled ISHIDA's that there was a fear of the mistake between them.
Finally, from the statement of YASHIKI, Nobuichi, former navy man who was serving in the camp, it was ascertained that the accused used a stick. This was named "the leading stick, or the sincerity stick" for beating the prisoners. The[illegible]trial adjourned at 1600.
ITEM 4 The 6th day of FUKUHARA's trial - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sano.
The court opened for the 6th day of FUKUHARA's trial on 4 February with the examination of a witness, INARIDA, Inasuke, who was the b ad of the MITSUIKE Mine of the MITSUI Mining Company. He made the following testimony regarding the kindness and sympathy of the accused:
"When the head of the war prisoner's information office, TAMURA made an inspection of the mine, some of the foremen hit the prisoners. Angered at the atrocity, FUKUHARA suspend the prisoners from working in the mine till the company authorities apologized for their action.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 286 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Further, he always made great efforts to secure food for prisoners.
Mr. HAYASHI, Govo, the chief of MIKAWA mine road in the MITSUIKE mine, testifies next that the accused had refused three times to allow the prisoners to work in the mine.
After the noon recess, Mr. MURASHIMA, Tanehiko, a doctor of the MITSUIKE Mine, was called by the defense council Major PHILIPS and he testified that many of the prisoners were weak when they arrived at the camp and it was because of the climate and food conditions that their weights were generally reduced, He made statement regarding the medical equipment, and treatments which the prison doctor [illegible], and the physical conditions of prisoners in the mine, While Captain KAUFFMAN, a prosecutor, testified that the doctor of the camp HURAO had some tendency toward disc is nation distruction in his feelings and explained the relation between the camp and the mine company. The trial adjourned at 1600.
ITEM 5 English and Japanese will be used in the Trial of Major War Criminals - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sano.
Regarding the international military trials of General TOJO and other Japanese major war criminals, which will be carried out in the near future, a spokesman of MacARTHUR's Headquarters made the following statement on 4 February:
"It is not decided as yet when the international military tribunal of major Japanese war criminals will open. However, as a tentative plan of the chief prosecutor KEENAN, it is considered that the trials of General TOJO and others are to be carried out using two languages, English and Japanese, as is the case at the NUBEMBERG trial in GERMANY.
Further. it is also expected that all the important documents in the trial will be translated into Japanese and the principal arguments of the prosecutors are to be interpreted in Japanese.
ITEM 6 Mass Meeting to Form JAPAN Farmers' Union Approaching - Yomiuri Hochi 5 Feb 46. Translator: K. Onishi.
Full Translation:
The organizing of a mass meeting of the JAPAN Farmers' Union which is to be held on the 9th is expected to accelerate the formation of a unified front of farmers' democratic movements throughout the country. Availing themselves of this apportunity, some of the rightist staffs of the JAPAN Agricultural Association harbor an intense eagerness to turn the Association into the "Farmers' Section" of the Social Democratic Party in substance, and in regard to the qualification for representatives they have stipulated: "The All—JAPAN mass meeting shall be composed of the representatives of the local branches whose r[illegible]sters are registered with the main organizing office of the Union and whose dues are paid."
By resorting to this provision they intend to limit tie attending representatives to those of the local branches which are registered with the main office on approval of the rightist staffs, and exclude all non-registered and consequently unqualified bodies. Their plan is to force out all who do not come within the scope of their influence and lead the mass meeting in a direction quite opposed to the unification of a farmers' front. In spite of their plot, a trend supporting KURODA's statement is so deep-rooted among the agrarian population throughout the country that the local councils in KANTO, Central JAPAN, and KINKI districts have already declared their support and the same trend is also seen overwhelmingly in the CHUGOKU SHIKOKU
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POLITICAL SERIES: 286 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
SAITAMA, and GIFU districts and also in a Part of the OSAKA Area. The general trend towards the unification of a farmer's front has already reached its zenith and recriminations are now being bandied about against the rightist staffs [illegible]olot of forcing through the mass meeting in line with their own designs by the exclusion of these who are outside their influence.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0286, 1946-02-06.
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