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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0284, 1946-02-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1153

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1153 Date: 6 Feb 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 284

ITEM 1 Public Opinion On Constitutional Revision - Mainichi Shimbun - 4 Feb 46. Translator: M. Kojima.
Full Translation:
The problem of revising the Constitution will have important significance in deciding the future of new JAPAN. At a time when not only the Government but also every political party and scholars are actively examining this problem, the Public Opinion Research Institute (in the SANGYO-KEIZAI Building, KOJIMACHI-Ku, TOKYO), which had drawn up 5,000 copies of an inquiry into the four most urgent problems that is, the methods of revising the Constitution, approval or disapproval of the Emperor-system, renovating the parliamentary system and the continuance or abolition of the present Privy Council, has questioned various persons in the political, official, educational, business, religious and legal fields and also the various ranks of workers, students, young men and women.
The general conclusion of these inquiries was published 3 February. It is worthy of note that the contents of these conclusion will give important hints not only to a Government-sponsored bill for constitutional revision, but also to the dogmatic opinions on the revision in every quarter. Lists of inquiries had been directly handed to or sent to the afore-mentioned persons by reply-paid letters. They had been asked to judge the problems from their own points of view. The contents of inquiries had been theoretically analysed and arranged. The total number of letters in reply to the inquiries was 1,240. That is to say, the ratio of replies to inquiries is one to two. These replies were sent from persons whose intellectual levels are quite high.
I. Methods of revising the Constitution.
Concerning methods of revising the Constitution, public opinion has absolutely requested the formation of a constitutional amendment committee publicly elected by the people. Thus, other methods of revision have been ignored. It is especially worthy of note that the bill for revision decided by both the Constitutional Reform Inquiry Commission as a Government organization and the Diet has been repudiated. That is to say,
Supporting the method in which the Emperor should present the refer bill as has been decided in the present Constitution: approvals: 473 (20% of the total).
Supporting the method in which the reform bill should be presented in the Constitutional Amendment Committee of the Diet; approvals: 581 (24%).



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POLITICAL SERIES: 284 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)
Supporting the method in which the reform hill should, he investigated by the Constitutional Amendment Committeemen elected by the people; approvals: 1,289 (53%).
Others; 53 (3%).
(II) Approval or disapproval of the Emperor-system. Concerning the problem of the Emperor System, the public opinion, disapproving both of the radical reform bill drafted by civilians and the conservative reform bill drafted by the Government puts the Emperor outside the sphere of administration, and generally supports him as both the general head of the Japanese people and the fountainhead of morality. Repudiation of the Emperor System amounted only to nine per cent of the total. The number of persons approving communism from among the persons disapproving the Emperor System is particularly small. Public support of the Emperor System can be called decisive, even if the theoretical grounds for each reply is different. That is to say,
Supporting the Emperor System; approvals: 2.184.
Supporting the present system; approvals: 281 (l6%).
Support for putting the Emperor outside the sphere of administration and regarding him as both the general head of the Japanese people and as the fountainhead of morality; approvals: 1,084 (a little over 45%).
Supporting the Emperor in a system whereby the administrative power can be held together with the Diet on points of harmony between rules and ruled; approvals: 680 (28%).
Others: 36 (1.5%).
Repudiating the Emperor System; approvals: 205.
Supporting a republican government, that is to say, a presidential - system by means of election as in the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; approvals: 137 (5.6%)
Supporting the system in which a sovereign should he elected by a committee publicly elected as in SOVIET RUSSIA; approvals: 64 (2.6%).
Others; 4 (0.16%).

(III) How to renovate the parliamentary system. Concerning the renovation of the parliamentary system, the number insisting on the continuance of the present system was only 2.5% of the total. Concerning methods of the renovation, the number of the persons supporting both the one House-system which has hitherto been discussed in every quarter and the system of a House of functional representatives are small. On the contrary, a new method devised by the Public Opinion Research Institute in which the second House will be formed by governors publicly elected, functional representatives and men of learning has been supported by persons amounting to 45% of the total.
Supporting the present two House-system; approvals: 6l (25%).
Supporting the abolition of the House of Peers and the formation of a simple people's parliament; approvals: 420 (18%).
Changing the present House of Peers into a House of functional representatives; approvals: 519 (22%).

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POLITICAL SERIES: 284 (Continued)

ITEM 1 (Continued)
Forming the second House with Governors publicly elected, functional representatives and men of learning; approval: 1,082 (45%)
Reduction of the authorized limit of rights of the present House of Peers and establishing only the House of Representatives approvals: 275 (11%)
Others; (2%).

(IV) Continuance or abolition of the Privy Council. Concerning the continuance or abolition of the Privy Council, approvals for its abolition have amounted to more than one half of the total. This will probably mean the future disappearance of this system.
Supporting its Abolition; 1,377 (58%).
Supporting the plan of aggrandizing the present Privy Council through personal renovation by a small number of chosen peers; 576 (23%)
Supporting the method in which privy councillors should be publicly elected; 358 (17%)
Others; 34 (12%).
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0284, 1946-02-06.
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