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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0283, 1946-02-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1150

call-number: DS801 .S85

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No. 1150 Date: 6 Feb 46


ITEM 1 Chinese Communism and Democracy - Mainichi Shimbun - 4 February 1946. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full Translation:
With NOZAKA, Sanzo's return as a turning point, the movement of JAPAN's democratic front is shoving sudden activity. Concurrently, through the Political Consultative Conference, a firm cornerstone has been laid for a democratic CHINA, and her much strived for revolution is now nearing perfection after 35 years. The principal factor which has guided CHINA's democratic front to success was both the internal and external situation which constantly demanded peace and democratization, but what powerfully propelled the progress was the Communist Party's "New Democratic" policy. The broad new de[illegible]ocra[illegible]of the Chinese Communist Party, adaptable to all, will be a guide to JAPAN's democratic front.
What is the new Democracy? According to her theory, the Chinese Revolution can be divided into two stages. In view of the situation in that country which does not permit an immediate socialistic revolution, the program in the first stage was while resisting JAPAN's imperialistic and agressive war on one hand, to destroy internal feudalistic influences, and reactionary militaristic and bureaucratic politics on the other. This is necessary in order to win "Independent and Democracy", and realize "democratic politics by the federation of several revolutionized classes" which will steer a middle course between European or American democracy and that of the SOVIET pattern from which she will move into the second stage of socialistic revolution.
Having such a program in mind the Communist Party does not unreasonabl reject other sects or parties nor do they deny Sun YAT-SEN's "Three Principles" and they are willing to shake hands with all parties, including their avowed enemy—-the nationalists. With great objective like anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism before them, all political parties must discard their ego and combine this in the consistent motto throughout the new democracy. They do not reject capitalism but go further in admitting that feudalistic economics will develop into capitalistic economics. This can be terned as constant "advances by a half step" instead of "a step back and two forward". The present Chinese Communists, in spite of being a revolutionary party, have no bloody taint and here lies the people's affection for them.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 283 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Be that as it may, the party has a terroristic past. At the split of the First Nationalist-Comniunist conference caused by Chiang KAI-SHEK's anti-communistic cump[illegible]d'etat, the pary became involved in the YUNAN Riot. After inciting the strike of the YU[illegible]A[illegible]Workmen's Federation and spreading a storm of revolutionary activities as the farmers' riot, extending over HO-[illegible]N, HU-PEI, KIA[illegible]G-SI and KWA[illegible]G, they set up a provisional government of the Chinese Soviet Republic at SUE CHANG KIAING-SI Province in 1931. During that period the people who were massacred in the three provinces of KIANG-SI, HO-[illegible], and HU-PEH were estimated at 540,000, while 8,000,000 were expelled from those regions. A revolution by such brutal force became a red terror and incited the people's extreme hatred toward the Communist Party. Having thus lost popularity, in addition to being attacked by Chiang KAI-SHNK's expeditionary forces, their Capital of SUE CHING fell in 1934 and Mao TZE-TUNG, the leader of the Soviet Government (at present the leader of the Central Political Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party), with 250,000 dollars price on his head, escaped to YE[illegible], after traveling 6,000 miles through 12 provinces at the head of 100,000 thoroughly beaten troops.
Since that calamity and until the [illegible]ARCO POLO Bridge Incident, which was instrumental in the formation of the Second Nationalist-Communist Coalition, the party was at its lowest ebb.
Taught by this bloody experience Mao TZE-TUNG made a sudden turn by telling his followers "Be a Communist Party beloved by the people, refrain from strife with the nationalists and adapt ourselves to the surrounding situation, both internal and external". Thus the "New Democracy" was born which was adopted, as a new thesis on 20 April 1940 under the name of "Mao TZB-TUNG LO SIEN" (MAU TSU TUNG's" Route).
The characteristics in the structure of the New Democracy are marked by the fact that it is an autocratic federation of various revolutionary classes and the form of government is a concentrated democracy. The local administration under the communists regime is divided into five areas of KA[illegible]MTEN PIEN CEU ([illegible]KANGSI, KAN SUO, and NIUNG SHA Provinces), TSIN TSA CHI (SHANG-SI, TSAHALU, HOU-PEH Provinces), TSINSUE (SHNY-SI and SUE IUANG Provinces) TSI[illegible]CHI LOO YU (SHANG-SI, HOU-PEH, SHANG-TUNG and HOU-NA[illegible]Provinces) and CHI[illegible]NIE LIAU (HOU-PEH, NIE HOU and LIAU NIUIG Provinces). Under each area (PIEN CEU) government, five sub-divisional governments in the order of FUN CHU, SHEN, CHU, SHIANG and TSUNG are placed. Apart from the local governments there are four units in the order of SHIANG, CHU, SHEM and PIEH CHU, each one provided with a democratic assembly; both the members and government committeemen are popularly elected. Both sexes over 18 years old are enfranchised and they elect a village (TSUNG) representative ([illegible]ne representative for each 20 villagers) who in turn elects SHLANG, CHU,SHEN and PIEHCHU representatives, each class or sub-division forms its own assembly, from which the leader of each local government and committeemen are elected.
The government committeemen and members of the assemblies embrace all classes and occupations, women village leaders and assembly members are not rare and even Japanese can participate in such functions. In YEMAN, ballot boxes are hung at the entrance of public houses and street corners, and, naturally, an intervention, bribe or surveillance in connection with the election is entirely unknown.
The seats of the government committee and members of assemblies of each class are equally divided among the communists, nationalists and non-partisans, each occupying one third. In this [illegible]anner, even the
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POLITICAL SERIES: 283 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
capitalist class is included in the revolutionary camp, in order to form the new democratic front which is an "autocratic federation of the various revolutionary classes."
A noteworthy measure taken up by the party is the land policy; landownership simultaneously protects both owners and tenants. In other words, by reducing rent and interest on loans, while protecting the landowners' and farmers' rights, it protects the tenants against the owners' feudalistic exploitation and promotes the tenants' life end increase of production. On the other hand, by ordering payment of rent and interest, it mates the tenants fulfill their obligations to the owners. The rent just before the CHINA Incident used as a standard from which 25 per cent is deducted, is the rent payable to the owners. The owners' income is limited to 60 per cent of all the crops (in case of staple food less than 37.5 per cent Interest on loans advanced before the Incident has been uniformly lowered to 15 per cent per annum (before it was 20 to 40 per cent). Superficially, the land policy seems to favor capitalism, but in practice, on account of reduction in rent and interest and also the uniformly graduated tax, the owners, giving way under the burden, gradually let go of the land, so that ownership is by degrees becoming balanced. This is done by raising poor farmers to medium ones while rich farmers are being brought down to the medium class, and consequently eliminating feudalism. The latest statistics of 32 villages of 12 SHE[illegible]s of TSIN TSA CHI clearly illustrates the above fact.
1937 1943
% %
Landowners 3-69 2.56
Rich farmers 6.69 6.00
Medium farmers 31.57 44.41
Poor farmers 46.67 39.55
Tenant farmers 4.78 2.90
Others 6.60 4.58
The uniformly graduated tax is collected in both cereals and c[illegible]sh by multiplying graduated tariff on "wealth" which is fixed according to the respective incomes from land, farming, commerce, etc. Taking into account non-propertied classes the tax ratio is higher on the upper class than lower. The taxation system of CHI[illegible]A was very complicated for she had over 30 types of taxes, but the Communist Party has reduced them to three.
Parallel with such policies they are making ardent endeavors to increase production. There is the so-called agricultural hero WU MANYU .Movement, which is a campaign for increased production after the pattern of an industrious farmer of the name of WU who made considerable success in increasing production. There is also the industrial hero CEAO TSUNG KUE movement, which has started from the example of a man who practicing eight hours of work succeeded in attaining a record increase and shared the profit equally between management and labor. In both cases the party's aim is, while rejecting exploitation to strive for increased production in a similar manner to the SOVIET', "STAHANOFF" Movement.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 283 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
With the above mentioned policies in practice, the people in the communist region are proud of the happiness of SAN WU (T[illegible]Three no's) that is to they have no jobless, no idlers and no beggers. The party is also doing its best in popularizing itself as is manifested in the "SAN WU SUO TSU[illegible]" Movement (movement regulating three morals). The SAN WU means the Morals of Learning, Party and Culture. It warns the members against abstract and empty theories or arguments or their taking pride in writing difficult literature or making pedantic speeches or attacking other parties or expelling the ig[illegible]oran It encourages members to exchange opinions and to be always introspective and threatens those who disobey the rules with expulsion.
According to the acknowledged communistic formula the way the Chinese Communist Party chose is a claim of conciliations and concessions. It has achieved wonderful growth with these tactics.
Fighting against Japanese troops and being blockaded by the nationalist forces, it has expanded so as to put under its control the wide "Emancipated Area" with HOUA P[illegible]E as the center, extending over HOUA CHONG, HOUA-N[illegible]and MANCHURIA which contain over 400 SHENS and 88,000,000 people, defended by 600,000 regular soldiers and 2,000,000 militia. Furthermore, having its legitimacy recognized by the occasic of the Political Consultative Conference, it is new guaranteed freedom of activity throughout CHINA to expand its strong organization. The two stage revolution of the Chinese Communist Party is now completing the course of the first stage of the New Democratic Resolution. Now that a new situation has raised as a result of the recent conference, it is worth our attention for the future of a new CHINA as well as JAPAN, in what formula the Chinese Communist Party will adopt for the course of the second stage.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0283, 1946-02-06.
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