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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0280, 1946-02-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1137

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1137 Date: 5 Feb. 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 280

ITEM 1 Views of Woman Political Candidates-Provincial Paper Chubu Nippon Shimbun (NAGOY) -31 January 1946. Translator: NISHIHARA, H.
Summary:
The general election will be held on 31 March. Reflecting the voice of woman voters, four women will run as candidates in the CHUBU District. In addition, a few more are expected. How are the candidates thinking about the solution of the problem of the women whose occupation is limited to home life and bringing up children? Strong opinions must be voiced in this connection. Now let us hear the opinions of the candidates.
YAMAZAKI, Michiko, Social Democratic Party, of SHIZUOKA-Ken, said, "Concerning women's right to vote the Social Democratic Party will carry on its campaign with the slogan, A vote from a womesn will connect kitchen life to politics." Women's political ideas are weak, and they will be pressurized by husbands' opinions. I want to make them really recognize the true meaning of a vote by a woman by voicing strongly that a vote has much to do with the improvement of their way of living. "With regard to the food problem, the dangerous situation of food is keenly felt by the public. In large cities, the reserve of food is very low, and distribution will stop if rice is not sold to the Government quite regularly. I think it possible to guarantee a minimum standard of living with distributed food if control over distribution is completed from a socialistic point of view.
"Birth control. The economic and social situation of JAPAN will not be able to support the increasing number of the population. Knowledge must be given to women of a certain age through social organs on the practice of birth control."
YONEYAMA, Hisako, independant of ISHIKANA-Ken, said, "On women's rights: (l) Equal chance must be given to women in education, (2) the irrational laws must be revised, (3) social works must be encouraged, (4) improvement of female workers' treatment must be affected, (5) reform of bad conventions in women's daily life. These five items will be part of our campaign.
"On item (1) Government universities must be opened to educate female labor leaders as female leaders are very few new. In every technical school, lectures for women should be given, and the girls' school courses should be reformed, thus encouraging self-respect of women. On item (2) for instance, if a midlife gives an injection to a sick man, it is against the regulations even when the injection may save the man. To reform such a situation, the abilities of midwives and nurses must be improved but at the same time the regulations also must be revised. On item (3), when a woman wants to attend lectures

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POLITICAL SERIES: 280 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
to educate herself, her children must be in safe circumstances. For this purpose, children's nurseries must be opened. Women's assembly halls and women's clubs must be established to give education to women. A system of community cocking should be tested. For instance, a bakery to distribute bread to every home should be established, thus easing women's home life. On item (4), pay is the most important problem. All women have complaints about their pay when they compare it with that of a men. For instance, female teachers, as well as school masters or school inspectors. When a woman works after she is married, enough holiday must be given when she has a child. I also desire that women be given posts as officials. On item (5); In daily home life, every husband and father-in-law supressed the woman's opinions, Many husbands may desire their wives to be duly educated, but they will not give any aid in educating their wives. Such conventions must be reformed.
"On the solution of the food problem. As a drastic solution, the allocation of three "go" of rice is essential. For this purpose, the importing of rice is enevitable, but at the same time, illegal trading of rice must also be stopped. Nationalization of all rural land may be necessary in this connection. The illegal trading under the present circumstances where a farmer must offer rice to obtain daily necessities must be reformed, and minimum necessities must be secured for them. If three "go" of rice is allocated to every one, there will be no illegal trading.
"On bringing up children and birth control. Organs for protection of women's health are necessary in connection with the solution of children's problem. Enough knowledge on the part of women for bringing up children are also desired. A decreasing quantity of milk is raising a new and difficult problem. Fair distribution of milk and an increase of cows is desired."
KOSHIHARA, Harieko; Reborn Citizen Party (SHINSEI KOMIN TO) of AICHI-Ken, said, "We must remove or revise laws which restrict women's liberties. In no other country except JAPAN is such priority are given to men by law. Husband and wife should have equal rights over their children, but in our country a wife has almost no rights. All women in JAPAN are treated like fools. In the future, all women will work on the same plane as men. But I do not mean to destroy all the good tradition in families in JAPAN. I merely want to develop the social positions of women who want to work to rebuild JAPAN. In connection with the solution of the food-shortage, the daily home-management by women must be rationalized. In our country, all wives are working all day merely cocking. In AMERICA, they bake bread about once every two weeks, so they have enough leisure time which could be used for other purposes. If we make flour from what I have been throwing away and make bread, time will be saved and more nourishment will be obtained. If purchasing unions are formed to purchase from the producers directly and the members include women, women's knowledge will be developed, thus helping settle the food problem.
"On bringing up children and birth control. Children in the future should have self-respect. I cannot support birth control, if it is practised by all people. It must be practised on such a basis that men of good abilities only should have children. In the future, scientific and rational birth control, based upon marriages, is desired.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 280 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
TASHIMA, Hide, Communist Party of AICHI-Ken, said: "Grass which is oppressed under a stone has no power to grow higher even after the stone is removed. The women in JAPAN are like such grass, losing themselves and busying themselves in cooking for their families. The women in JAPAN are living in a slave-like condition which could not exist in any other country. Proper positions are not given to women in politics, economics and social life. In addition to this irrational state, they are forced to work as tools to give profits to capitalists and land-owners. Working women were slaves to capitalists in one sense, and in another slaves of the hones where they were, confined to their house work. The leaders of JAPAN have been fooling them in the name of the beautiful traditions of the Japanese women. True liberty is not obtained if they are net emancipated from laws which give priority to men and from the exploitation of the capitalists and land-owners, and from the ZAIBATSU, GUNBATSU, and bureaucrats which stand as the basis of the Emperor System. The will emancipate the women from the food-shortage? In JAPAN, nobody will, unless we fight and struggle for ourselves. As for birth control, we must settle the problem for ourselves. If we do net throw away the former attitude in which we begged the support of men, we cannot save our people from this miserable state of living.
ITEM 2 The Japanese Young Communist League held a general meeting for liberation of the people-Asahi Shimbun-4 February 1946. Translator: N. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
The first national meeting of the JAPAN Young Communist League (NIPPON SEINEN KYOSAN DOMEI) was held on 3 February at the hall of the JAPAN Red Cross Cesiety (NIPPON SEKIJUJI SHA) at HAMAMATSU-Cho, SHIBA-Ku, TOKYO.
The assembly-hall; where the portrait of MARK and a red flag were hung, was filled with about fifty local representatives, about three hundred students, workers, and others who had come to listen, and more than fifty young women. Mr. SAKURAI, Koji, general editor of the party's paper 'Young Men's Flag (SEINEN NO HATA)', conducted the meeting, and Mr. KUROISHI central preparatory committeeman of the Young Communist League, was chairman.
Mr. HAKAMADA, commissioner of the central committee of the Communist Party, explained the guiding principles of the control committee of the Communist Party toward the Young Communist Loague. Mr. YANO, of the Youths' Socialist Party, and Mr. OTA, of the Youths' Liberal Party, sent [illegible]cassuring messages. They stated that both parties strove for the liberation of the people even though they had different policies. Moreover, there were reports on local conditions, a debate on the rules and policy, and election of the candidates for the central committee.
On 4 February, the second day of the meeting, a round table conference is to be held at the same assembly hall.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 280 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Admiral NOMURA's Note on the Negotions Between JAPAN and the UNITED STATES is to be completed soon-Tokyo Shimbun-4 February 1946. Translator: N. Tachibana.
Full Translation:
Former Admiral NOMURA, Kichisabure, former Japanese [illegible]nb ssador to the UNITED STATES, is one of the persons who is best acquainted with the negotiations which took place between JAPAN and the UNITED STATES. He took charge of these negotiations with President ROOSEVELT and former Secretary of state HULL and was in WASHINGTON until just before the outbreak of the war. He made desperate efforts to achieve success at the conference between JAPAN and the UNITED STATES.
Now he is abosorbed in finishing the draft of "My Notes on the Negotiations Between JAPAN And The UNITED STATES" (NICHIBEI KOSHO SHUKI), which he has written himself to give the true facts of what happened at that time to the public. He had already been urged by his friends to publish his notes on the negotiations between JAPAN and the UNITED STATES so as to give the people accurate information about the situation at that tine. He has been writing, since the end of last year, referring to his diary and scraps of newspapers which Mrs. NOMURA hid at her temporary residence in YAMANASHI-Ken during the war when she feared that the worst might happen to the Admiral.
In reply to the reporter who visited him at his temporary residence at YUKIGAYA-Cho, OMORI-Ku, on 2 February, Admiral NOMURA said as follows: "As it seems that some people misunderstand the truth of what happened at that time, I have made up my mind to write only the part which I took charge of so as to have the people accurately acquainted with the negotiations between JAPAN and the UNITED STATES.
"In this book, I have expressed the facts about the claims of JAPAN and hopes of the UNITED STATES as they were, and have avoided adding my opinions or making criticisms from my individual point of view. I entered the affairs of that tine in my dairy and I want the readers to reach their own conclusions."
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