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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0277, 1946-02-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1124

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1124 Date: 4 Feb 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 277

ITEM 1 Central of Speech is Being Attempted by the Government - The Tokyo Shimbun 3 Feb 46. Translator: S. Hirata.
Summary:
Together with the development of the democratic movement, the organs of expression such as press, radio etc. in our country have been roused into remarkable activity since the termination of the war. And just at a time when the importance of the role to be played by the news-organs is beginning to he strongly felt, it is reported that the Government is now making preparations for the enactment of an information control rule. The wartime control of speech in our country has been effected by various Imperial Ordinances based upon the Military Secrets Protection Law, the National Defense Security Law, and the General Mobilization Law, etc, and there was the censorship system of the Information Office as the press ban organ. All kinds of news were limited to the so-called "official announcements" and to that which was instructed by the authorities. Although various control rules or organs have been abolished since the termination of the war, the independence of information is beginning to be threatened again by the revival of the gag law.
It is reported that the Government purposes, firstly, to secure the verity of information and have false reports rectified at once; secondly, to ban either exaggerated or agitative information; and, thirdly, to adopt a prudent policy to keep the secrets of government offices. Though the Information Bureau has already been abolished, it is not desirable for the Government to transfer the censorship under the control of the Home Ministry, on the ground that it would give an impression of control by compulsory competence. It is reported that the Cabinet itself is going to take over the censorship.
The intention of the authorities seems to be limited to the security of reliable information; but the discrimination between truth and falsehood as regards information is a delicate question. If control of speech is utilized by reactionary bureaucats what will become of the freedom of information?
ITEM 2 Labor Unions Request the Resignation on block of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet Yomiuri Hochi 3 Feb 46. Translator: S. Sano.
Full Translation:
Labor Unions have been stirred up by the joint statement of the four Cabinet Ministers issued on 1 February. They say that the statement is oppressing labor by insisting on the maintenance of the lowest standard of living because of the solitary case of the NIPPON Steel Tube Company (KOKAN) and is revealing a plot to nullify the right to strike which is recognized in the Labor Union Law. A meeting was held by the representatives of the preliminary labor Union of the KANTO Metal Industry Company and the KANTO local labor union council at the SHINAGAWA office of the OKI Electic Company on 2 February, and they made the following resolution to request the prompt resignation on bloc of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
We can clearly recognize the intention of supprressing the labor disputes and abolishing the right to strike as outlined in the statement of the four Cabinet Ministers, and we are going to make a strong protest against the statement.
Control in the management as measure against labor dispute is the only method of releasing the people from poverty end tiding over the crisis of starvation and inflation against the sabotage of production by the capitalists. It is only with the clear intention of oppressing labor that the Government is taking no policy against sabotage by the capitalists who, after occasioning Labor disputes, try to check the disputes under the name of the infringement of ownership. It is because of the insincerity of the capitalists that outrages such as violence and threat etc., are happening. The government authorities are ignoring the fact proposing to call in police interference. We are absolutely opposed to the statement and request the prompt resignation on blog of the prose undemocratic cabint which is going to aggravate the tyrannical situation
The above was agreed to on 2 February at a preliminary meeting of the labor Union of the KANTO Metal Industry Company.
ITEM 3 "The Course Of A Democratic Popular Front In Japan". Talks By NOZAKA, KATAYAMA AND ARAHATA. Mainichi-Shimbun 2 Feb 46. Translator: H. Kato.
Extracts:
MAINICHI: "The statement of the Communists to the Social Democrats points out a reactionary attitued in the Social Democrats' leaders. According to one point of view the announcement might be considered as aiming to split the party. So some Social Democrats still complain of it. The Communists seem to take no meausures against it."
NOZAKA: "I think this has resulted from the fast that a united front has not yet been brought about. In short, I should truly like to see it formed immediately, for it is for the people and apart from party advantages. I would like my sincerity on this question appreciated by everyone.
KATAYAMA: "As I said in the reception rally in honor of NOZAKA, personality, morality or love for humanity must underlie the Government. In the unification of a democratic front, real confidence or understanding must grow out of these ideas. I keenly feel it to further the subjective situation."
ARAHATA: "There is no advantage in mutual abuse, but it is not because of democratic habits in JAPAN that they are worried about such things, as the Communists have come out strongly for the formation of a popular front. They should refrain from this behaviour. A welcome mass meeting in honor of Mr. NOZAKA held on 26 January at HIBIYA. Public Park was planned with a view to giving him a hearty reception, apart from the political parties and views. Those who welcomed Mr. NOZAKA, I think, placed emphasis on the fact that the agitation for the formation of a popular front would become markedly intensified by his return. True, Mr. NOZAKA's speech in the meeting was full of meaning in many points, and displayed the ideas that was the best party. For instance he emphasized in his speech that the Communists fought valiantly against the war and represent the people. This may be a trifle, but very delicate.
NOZAKA: "The reason was that I would like to have my opinion or the views of the Communists heard by the nations. As this problem has hitherto been very vagne. I thought it preferable to bring the issue before the public.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
I did not mean to go so far and did not intend to advertise the Communists. The Japnaese Communists have been branded as traitors, but they are the true patriots, along with other democrats."
MAINICHI: "It seems that it will take some time before the unification of a democratic front will be realized. Such is the trend of the times. In order to effect the unification, can such a body as the Democratic Federation come into existence? And how will its organization and maneuvering be done?"
ARAHATA: "The apinion of Mr. YAMAKAWA is first to create a go-between party. On this account, Mr. YAMAKAWA is asking various influential figures such as scholars, leaders of the Social Democrats, and Communists to join the party. The party, when formed, will have representatives of all bodies, labor unions, and farmer's association form a preparatory committee where platforms and policies will be adopted. Many preparatory conferences nay he formed in the near future. Therefore I should like to deal with the pressing problems of committee organized by the Social Democrats and the Communists. On the other hand, such organizations as the Peoples Front Council will be established in various districts to solve local practical problems. This will have momentum and give firm foundation to the solution of impending problems and the nation wide organization and activity of a popular front. I want you to have enough courage to tide over the natural individual and party feelings."
MAINICHI: "In the formation of a popular front there will, as a matter of course, arise the problem of power. If at that time the SHIDEHARA Cabinet remains in power, what will be its relation with the Government?"
NOZAKA: "There would surely be a gap produced between the Government and the masses. We must deal with the concrete problems in a common fight for a stop-gap. Frankly speaking, its success depends upon the decision of the Social Democrats."
ARAHATA: "It depends on the decision at he Communists, too."
NOZAKA: "In my welcome mass rally, I felt that the masses were very fervent. This is feeling of the masses that I have never experienced before."
ARAHATA: "If a common fight cannot be promoted from above, I don't think there can be mutual friendship."
KATAYAMA: "The Social Democrats may appear to press the movements down, but the apposite is the case. Regarding a united front, feelings are unexpectedly taking a turn for the worse. Co-operation was much retarded because the Communists took on a provocative attitude."
KATAYAMA: "Immediate co-operation or the formation of a democratic front goes to far. I so could like to say, 'Be cautious.'"
MAINICHI: "There are some local districts where co-operation from above has been promoted."
NOZAKA: "According to my information, there are many examples in TOKYO of co-operation being carried out. In short, it is the high-up that lack fervor."
KATAYAMA: "We never pressed, the movement down and headquarters never ordered the negation of a united front."
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POLITICAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
MAINICHI: "The key to break the deadlock is to do away with the feelings between the two parties and to make public the fundamental principles or programs of the Communists."
NOZAKA: "As far as programs are concerned, it is out of the question. The Communists as well as the Social Democrats have their own programs. Their publication gives no reason for immediate co-operation. It is essential for as to take a mutual stand and to adopt common action on the pressing problems. On this account, how should we tide over the crisis? How can we better the people's life?"
MAINICHI: "We cannot be sure that the SHIDEHARA Cabinet will not collapse before the general election. I cannot say who will be his successor to power, but after the election, the popular front will have to cope with many urgent problems. How would you cope with this situation?
NOZAKA: "Mr. MIZUTANI said on this matter, 'The SHIDEHARA Cabinet has remained in power by its reshuffle without collapse. That is because a united front has not yet been formed.' A split among democratic influences will only prolong the life of the SHIDEHARA Cabinet."
ITEM 4 Criticism on the Government Inspired Draft Proposal of the New Constitution by SUZUKI. Yasuzo.- Mainichi Shimbun 3 Feb 46. Translator: S. Ono.
Extracts:
SUZUKI, Yasuzo, famous scholar of the constitutional problem, has made the following criticism on the Government-sponsored draft proposal of the new constitution, claiming that the constitutional revision, without permitting popular participation, can never attain the objectives of emocratization. He has recently, in co-operation with KONO, Iwasaburo, and MORIIO, Tatsuo, published a draft of the revised constitution.
In the first place, the proposed draft, with the articles concerning the sovereignty of the Emperor unchanged, provides a significant hindrance to the promotion of democratization. Furthermore the progress of democratization no doubt will enlighten the political common sense of the people, while the political immunity of the Emperor will become intolerable to their political consciousness.
A sovereign ruler with political immunity and inviolability is politically irrational as well as harmful to the national welfare. Desides, there is still much danger of the appearance of a self-styled dictator who, under the name of the Emperor, will exercise despotic power over the Nation. All in all, if the Nation is to be reconstructed along the lines of democratization, the sovereignty of the Emperor should at any cost, be abolished.
In the second place, the articles on the rights and obligations of the people leave much to be desired. The anachronistic character of the draft is revealed in the adoption of the term "subjects", in place of "people" or "ration", which now are in common use among the democratic nations.
The bill of rights, with provisory clauses attached as heretofore, is, even granting the Governments sincere efforts to be considered very regrettable, "What we request is a stipulation to read that the rights of the people shall be restricted by no act or edcree. The nowly stipulated article on the rights of labor with a provisory clause reading, "according to the stipulations of the law etc," is in danger of being misused, This provision, since it is not clearly formulated in the constitution itself, is of no use. Further, if the workers are considered to form the basis of a democratic nation, the constitution of that nation must be provided with stipulations to guarantee their rights.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 277 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Thirdly, the draft fails to stipulate equal opportunities for education, as well as equality of rights regardless both of sex and race.
Fourthly, the problem of the Diet must be considered. To begin with, three month Diet session is too short to meet with popular demands. On other hand, the formation of a Chamber of Councilors by the representatives of the local governments and the professional groups will invite the dangers of reaction. The Chamber, if it is to carry out its function properly, must be formed of persons of deep learning and representatives of the working classis. There is no need to reiterate the necessity of abolishing the Privy Council.
Fifthly and lastly, we request the Government to add stipulations to the effect that the dissolution of the Diet and the appointment and dismissal of state ministers, when democratization reaches a certain stage of development, are to be decided through the national vote.
To concluded my criticism, I wish to sropose strongly that the government establish a national congress to create, through the exfressed will of the people, a new constitution.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0277, 1946-02-04.
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