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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0266, 1946-02-03.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1096

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPRME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1096 Date: 3 Feb 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 266

ITEM 1 A New Plan for Hearing the Opinions of the People - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichinichi Shimbun (Kyushu) - 28 Jan 46. Translator: S. Sano.
Extracts:
In order to learn the citizens' opinions for re-establishing MIYAZAKI Shi five boxes have been set up for contributions in front of the MIYAZAKI Municipal office and at four other principal places in the city.
These opinions will give a clear indication of the citizen's daily life and go far toward aiding municipal administration. The citizens can send their opinions regarding the municipal administration directly to the Mayor through these boxes and the city authorities are planning to organize a Committee which will be made up of the leaders of various circles in the city, such as municipal leaders, industrial leaders, leaders of schools, and of the press etc, to see that these opinions are reflected in municipal administration. Good opinions worth putting into practise will be carried out directly, after their approval by the Committee. However, personal sentiments and destructive opinions will not be accepted and the municipal authorities are inviting every sort of constructive opinion from among the citizens.
ITEM 2 Unification of Democratic Organizations in MIE-Ken - Provincial Newspaper Niigata Nippo (Niigata) - 31 Jan 46. Translator: A. Kido.
Full Translation:
Unification of Democratic Organization in Mie Prefecture
In preparation for the forthcoming general election, all the democratic organizations in MIE Ken recently set up a council of the MIE Ken Democratic Organization in order to form a united front. Affiliated with it are the following 9 organizations: The Rural Young Men's League, IGA Liberals' Club, KANSAI Cultural Club, MIE Young Men's League, MATSUZAKA Young Men's Confederation, Prefectural Farmers' Council, MIE United Labor Association, Communists' MIE Local Committee, and TAKI Branch of the Social Democratic Party.
In order to make arrangments on the matter of the general election, the inaugural meeting will be held in the near future.
ITEM 3 Focus of the Tentative Bill for Revision of the Constitution - Mainichi Shimbun - 1 Feb 46. Translator: K. Murakami.
Full Translation:
Important principles seen in the tentative bill of the Constitution Investigating Council ore as follows:

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POLITICAL SERIES: 266 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
In Article 1 and Article 2, it is clearly outlined as a basic principle that our national regime is a monarchy and that the sovereignty is in the hands of the Emperor. These two articles are decided on along the lines of Minister without Porfolie MATSUMOTO's personal opinion which was expressed in the last Diet. At a meeting of the Council for the Establishment of the Constitution in the MEIJI Era, the question arose as to whether to write "JAPAN" or "Great JAPAN" in the Constitution, when Mr. ITO, Hirobumi preferred "Great JAPAN", thereby suggesting his ambition for the future development of this country. This time, however, the tentative bill used "JAPAN" only.

The phrase "The Emperor is sacred and inviolable" is struck out in Article 3, and a new clause provides that the Emperor is not responsible for what is enacted. When the Diet is not in session, a standing committee in the name of the Council of the Imperial Diet is set up to discuss emergency Imperial Ordinances and other problems on behalf of the Diet.

Due to the disbandment of the army, the word 'military' is struck off from "civil and military officer" in the item of the Emperor's prerogative of appointment. Article 11, prerogative of supreme command, and Article 14, prerogative of proclaiming a state of siege, were also abolished. When entering into a treaty, if it has relation to the law or seems to burden the people with serious duties, it must be approved in the Diet.
In Article 19, it is provided for that all the Japanese people are legally equal. Thus, fundamental rights are respected and the feudalistic system of status is done away with. In the same way, "peerage" and "order" have been struck from the clause on the prerogative of honor. Moreover, a new provision is added that abolishes the previleges of shrines under the freedom of religion, thus reducing them to the same level as other religions. In this section, the rights and duties of the people are fully secured. Besides, it is a remarkable fact that the rights and duties of labor are newly included as a natural result of the present social situation.
The House of Peers is reorganized into the House of State Councillors. Princes and peers are completely excluded, and it is composed of representatives from various districts and circles. For this organization, the Law of the House of State Councillors will be enacted, doing away with the privileges of the House of Peers. The method of electing the members of the House of Representatives is specified, and the ordinary, equal, direct, and fundamental rules of secrecy are enacted. Prolongation of the session of the Diet, the date and convocation of the Extraordinary Diet have hitherto been decided according to an Imperial Order, but his time they are to be brought the Diet.
Hitherto, a state minister has been responsible to the Emperor alone, but hereafter, he must be trusted by the Diet. This is a step towards a parliamentary cabinet system. It was provided for in the Government organization of the Cabinet that the cabinet was to be composed of state ministers, but this time it is expressly stated in Constitution, thereby establishing the cabinet system and clarifying its responsibility. As for the Privy Council, Dr. MINOBE and Mr. MIYAZAWA, professors at TOKYO Imperial University, advocate its abolition and at the same time, the drafts of the Liberal Party and the Commoners' Constitution draft also excluded the Privy Council. Under such circumstances it is a matter of keen interest how the Government's bill disposes of this problem.
The Court of Administrative Litigation is abolished, and the Judicial Court takes charge of this place.
The right of the House of Representatives to discuss the budget is especially respected. The House of State Councillors says only "yes" or "no" to the decision of the former. When the budget estimates could not

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POLITICAL SERIES: 266 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)

be compiled, it was hitherto provided for that the Government follows that of the preceding fiscal year. In this bill, however, a three-month provisional budget will made in such cases.
The Diet has a right to propose the revision of the Constitution if approved by one-third of the personnel.
ITEM 4 Four of the Various Party Camps - Tokyo Shimbun - 1 Feb 46. Translator: J. Weiller.
Full Translations:
The date of the general election has at last been fixed, when each elector's ballot will decide the fates of vicious inflation and threats of starvation. It is easily imaginable that both parties and their candidates, who have been impatiently awaiting official announcement of the date, preparing posters, etc., are showing signs of excitement and activity. The Progressive Party, which winced under the Purge Directive, now appears to be more or less rallying from the depression, while its rival, the Liberal Party, is watching for a chance to encroach upon the farmer's conservative constituencies. On the other hand, the ambitions Social Democratic Party is hoping to be the first party raking together the laborers', farmers', fishermen's votes, against which, the Communist Party, though apparently standing aloof, is by no means neglecting preparations. At the moment the prospect is so chaotic that all the parties can be called dark horses. The following is the observation of our reporter after his tour of inspection of the various camps.
The Progressive Party. In the spacious room of its Headquarters at NISHI GINZA, only girl clerks and boys could be seen. The quiet atmosphere showed much less activity than expected. This was contrary to the surmise that the Party was firmly rooted in conservative influences. The lack of excitement is due to the absence of the members who were then meeting at the Election committee held at the MARUNOU-CHI Building, studying measures against the campaign. "As we thought the election would be held during January we have practically made every preparation," said one of the employees. The clerks were busily engaged in addressing envelopes.
The Communist Party. The reason for no sign of activities being perceived here is that the Party held the organizers' conference on 30 January where the fighting methods of the local chapters in the coming election were decided upon by the three big herds, NOZOKA, SHIGA, and TOKUDA. They have decided upon the policy of overthrowing the present cabinet on the ground that fairness cannot be expected in the reactionary SHIDEHARA regime. The Party has already started a fight, putting up candidates with a view to securing half of the 466 seats.

The Party, however, is averse to making empty promises and believes that its daily combat can be made an election campaign. It is intent on extending the common front from both top and bottom, through the food question. For this purpose, it will call out to women who are keen, to get several candidates for the election. Being deficient of funds, the Party must rely on the masses' small contributions for its election campaign, but, it is hoped that the collection will prove to be instrumental in the enlightenment of the masses. With this in view, it will advance the campaign by holding a number of speech meeting and small local conferences.
The Social Democratic Party. "Rise or Fall, Socialism or Capitalism?" With that slogan, the Party has already fired the first shot with its foothold among the laborers, farmers, and fishermen. With HIRANO, Rikizo, as the election manager, it issued orders one after another to the JAPAN Federation of Labor, JAPAN Farmers' Union, Federation of Co-operative Societies, Fishermen's Unions, etc. It will nominate over 300 candidates.



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POLITICAL SERIES: 266 (Continued)

ITEM 4 (Continued)

It is hoped that 230 to 250 will be elected to make it the first Party. According to MATSUOKA it appear that the Party has already nominated 161 candidates and an additional 158 will be selected at a committee meeting to be held on 16 February. There seems to be no doubt that it will become the first majority party. As farmers have more time to spare in March, the party intends to work on item, by speeches and propaganda. So far, 3 women candidates are going to run. A majority of its candidates are intellectuals of the working and farming classes. MATSUOKA further assures us that there will not be rivalry with the Communists because they are to send out a small number of fighters to the front. It has been learned that the Party will conduct street and field speech meetings in front of railway stations, as well as in the open air markets.
The Liberal Party. The headquarters has suddenly become as active as a bee-hive, with constant coming and going of the members, since the Announcement of the date. The manager KONO spiritedly told our representative, saying, "The best plan to alleviate the food difficulty is to import rice to eliminate the restless feelings, and the price of rice payable to the farmers must be well balanced with the prevailing economic condition. People's control over the purchse of rice is out of the question. The present much-discussed labor questions will automatically be solved by the diappearance of inflation. An improvement in treatments without foresight will only aggravate the vicious inflation. To make economics gradually free, where possible, is a short cut to economic reconstruction. We have had enough of economic control, don't you think? On this point, a control-maniac like Mr. CTA, Masataka, of the Progressive Party - - -" Mention of the name of the Progressive made him suddenly excited. No wonder, for the Party is to compete with the Progressives in the same old limited electorates.
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