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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0263, 1946-02-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1076

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1076 Date: 2 Feb 46

POLITICAL SERIES : 263

ITEM 1 For the Hungry Public: by KUROKI, Shigetoku Magazine: Shinsei - Feb 46 Issue. Translator: T. Masu[illegible]ura, and J.S. Ito.
Summary:
It is obvious that our country faces a food crisis. We must take adequate measures of our own for this food problem, even though there are Government measures. I will clarify the causes of, and adequate measures for, the problem as the Communist Party sees it.
It is said that the food crisis is due to the failure of crops, but we must study the causes more deeply. Simply open any almanac since 1940-1941, and you will find that the cultivated-field area, the amount of chemical fertilizer, the productivity of the land, and the labor supply all started along a downward curve. All the world except the Japanese knew that the war would bring the above-named shortages in agriculture. In other words, the present food crisis in our country is due to the war. Despite that, every cabinet during the war would not consider any policies except those that aimed only at controlling prices. Even now, despite orders issued by SCAP, the Cabinet can do nothing to remedy the problem. Also, while pointing out the Government's policies as one of the causes, we must remember that we can expect nothing of those who are the representatives of the rich landowners who have extorted more than half of the crop from the farmers.
Now, let us study the solution of the problem. First, we must impeach the Government for its irresponsibility. We will demand that the Government publish detailed figures on the food situation. We want to know the figures of supply and demand, and we expect the issuance of figures from the Government, if it is a people's Government. But in view of the attitude expressed by the Government, it appears it will take no steps until the last grain of food has been consumed. At present every political party takes up facilitating of delivery of produce by the farmers as its platform on the food situation. City dwellers have a grudge against the farmers for their part in the food shortage. We must consider the justness of this feeling. The farmers who do have a lot of rice to sell are a few rich farmers. Since the war began, the workers had been drafted into the army, and the farmers had to deliver their rice for almost nothing.
It is plain, that rice production should drop under such conditions. Moreover, when the actual trend of the war became more and apparent, the farmers naturally became indifferent about delivering their produce. The rice owned by the farmers is to be used for their own food until the next harvest. On the other hand, the price of farming tools and fertilizer has gone up. We must also remember that all the rice that the farmers delivered is not distributed to all the people. The farmers know there is corruption in influential positions. Therefore, the city-dwellers should learn the true circumstances before blaming the farmers. The Government, backed by

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POLITICAL SERIES: 263 (Continued)
ITIM 1 (Continued)
bourgeois landowners, wants a conflict between the city-dwellers and the farmers, We must be careful that this does not happen.
First, let us study the question whether farmers will deliver rice or not. The answer is simple. The farmers will deliver. They cannot refuse to deliver because they cannot live on rice alone. The farmers need fertilizer, farming tools, clothing and salt. They must pay high prices for such things at present.
Second, we, instead of the Government, must bring into the light the war materials that have been illegally disposed of and hidden at the end of the war by certain military officers, civil officials and the bourgeoisie. The Government does not intend to investigate the problem. We must not expect the farmer to be eager to deliver his crops unless we do this ourselves. We must remember that food management by the people has become an unavoidable conclusion.
Third, let us study the problem of importation. The total crop cannot supply the demand. Everyone knows that. We have to import about 30,000,000 koku of rice. Where can we get the funds to pay for imports? One means would be from the sale of Imperial property as put forth by SCAP.
The government has carried out none of its promises in its post-war plan. The Emperor, it is said, seems to know nothing even of the war which has continued for more than eight years, or of the B-29 attacks on TOKYO, or of the starvation of the people as a result of the war. We cannot depend on such persons. We must settle the problem, ourselves. We, the people, must first manage the distribution of food ourselves, and we must produce goods for export in order to pay for food to he imported. This should be managed through all the nation's organizations such as the labor unions, agricultural associations, and other bodies. The labor unions should be at the head because the laborers are the ones who produce export goods. We must start quickly. It means a purge of the old order. That is to say, it means the abolition of the Emperor System and certain Government agencies, and it means the punishment of war criminals. Not only will we be able to tide over the present crisis if we accomplish the first two measures, but we will also face the food problem of next year better prepared. We cannot avoid the land problem and we must solve it in order to settle fundamentally the food problem. The key point of the land problem depends on how the land will be transferred from the landowners to the tenant-farmers. Transfer for value will result in promoting a huge inflation because an estimated 100,000,000,0 yen will circulate throughout the country. Therefore, this plan is impractical.
Next we must cultivate uncultivated land with tractors rebuilt from tanks. The laborers can do the rebuilding. Until these aims are carried out, the tenant-farmers should not be required to pay taxes and should be allowed to pay rent in cash. In this manner, the Japanese people will be kept from starvation. This is the platform of the Communist Party. Just when I had written this, an important order regarding a political purge was issued by SCAP. We must grasp the true significance of this order, and start to build a people's government. We must not be afraid to hear the words "revolution", or "abolition of the 'Tenno' System." We must carry out fundamental reforms. It is the Emperor and his Government that want reaction. Our Communist Party urges a complete revolution.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 263 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Slave-like Masses: by TAKANO. Iwasaburo Magazine: Shinsei Feb 46 Issue. Translator: Asaka: and T. Sugihara.
Summary:
In the eyes of Americans the Japanese must seem incorrigible as far as their reception of democratic doctrines is concerned. The author, who has been reared, strangely enough, in the free tradition, can himself understand the ridiculousness of the Japanese predilections for Governmental control.
Dr. TAKANO, Iwasaburo, the author, was born in NAGASAKI in the MEIJI era when the feudal age had for the most part vanished. Since his birthplace was a free port, the constant presence of foreigners has given him a cosmopolitan outlook. His manner of living has been different from normal Japanese life which is constrained by custom and tradition. Hence he writes from the viewpoint of an inherent believer in democracy rather than one who has converted his ideas to conform with the trends of the day. Ideas of democracy arising from among the masses of the Japanese are not unusual, for as long ago as 1894, it was the fashion to think of democracy along the lines of the FRENCH REPUBLIC. At that time there was no legislative body in which the people were represented. But the hue and cry for a people's Government, the abolition of economic monopolies, and the elimination of the aristocracy, much like the current indignation at the militarists, was answered by the formation of the Imperial Diet soon after. More recently, as Japanese Imperialistic tendencies increased, the hold of the military on the masses tightened and freedom was curtailed to an extent not unlike that of feudal times. With the defeat of the Japanese war machine and the subsequent American attempt at democratization, it would seem reasonable that the average Japanese would hold less to deifying the Emperor. Unfortunately, superstition still holds.
There are many conflicting points of view concerning the position of the Emperor in a democratic scheme of things. Perhaps the clearest conception of the issue was evolved by Professor YOKOTA, Kichisaburo of TOKYO University. Professor YOKOTA said that there were too many emotional ties involving the Emperor, making cool judgement in political matters impossible. He believes it would be impractical to reconcile political democracy and the TENNO System; per se the Emperor must go. Professor YOKOTA went on to analyze British constitutional monarchy. He pointed to the roles of the King and Parliament. His argument was that only one was necessary and desirable, viz., the legislative body. He stated further that in the last analysis the dominant power in matters of legislation must belong neither to the Emperor nor the State but to the people at large. At the sane time he is not for total abolition of the Emperor's position. As long as he remains only a figurehead, Professor YOKOTA maintained, he could do no harm politically and might add immeasurable cultural and traditional value.
Dr. TAKANO proposes to abolish the TENNO System and establish a truly democratic regime to reconstruct JAPAN. The mistake made by many leaders at present is that they discuss only that which pertains to the TENNO System controversy. Equally important are problems of economic and social democracy. The proposed amending of the constitution must include such measures as these: the development in cultural fields, equality of educational advantages between the sexes, elevation of the standard of living, and freedom of religion. The new Constitution must regulate the people's political, economic and cultural lives. It must furnish a firm basis for the development of national well-being
With these points in mind Dr. TAKANO has presented a nine point Constitution with a President as chief executive in a republican form of government. The rights and duties of the people are clearly stated as well as their privileges and it defines the position and power of the President, the legislative body and the ministers.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0263, 1946-02-02.
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