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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0257, 1946-02-01.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1061

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1061 Date: 1 Feb. 46

POLITICAL SERIES: 257

ITEM 1 How to accelerate formation of the Democratic Front? Yomiuri Round Table Talk (Continued) -Yomiuri Hochi-31 January 1946. Translator: ONISHI. K.
Summary:
SUZUKI: "We cannot justify the Liberal and Progressive Partie's reason for not joining the democratic front to which the Communist Party holds, as appeared in the press. By taking such an attitude they run the risk of being branded as the people's enemy. On this point, I ask you to explain the opinion of the Liberal and Progressive Parties, Mr. KITA."
KITA, Reikichi (Standing Councillor, Liberal Party): "It is clear that a democratic revolution is now going on in JAPAN, but there can be no realization of pure democracy in the world. There are such types as American, English and Russian. We must mold democracy into a Japanese type, but democracy is not yet thoroughly understood in this country. Democracy is considered to stand opposite to a monarchy, but what stands opposite a monarchy is a republic. Democratic monarchy is seen in ENGLAND, STEDEN, NORWAY, DENMARK, etc. On the other hand, there are republican nations which cannot be said to be democratic; I mean SPAIN and the ARGENTINE. The [illegible]MAR Constitution was said to be the most democratic and modern constitution, but on account of the wrong operation of its democracy it contrarily made Hitlerism flourish. Now, we Liberal's intend to encourage democratic movements on condition that a monarchy is maintained. After the de truction of harmful feudalism, the influence of American democracy will gain considerably strong ground, and the Belshivik thought and organization of Russian Communism will also rise to power. They differ widely but agree in the point of being a democracy. In order to form a democratic system that is unique to JAPAN, we must remove all feudalistic irrationalities.
All political parties do agree on this point and in the abstract it appears that coalition is not impossible, but in the concrete it is extremely difficult. As far as I understand, the Progressive Party adopts the "Soveroignity-with Emperor" theory while the Communist and the Social-Democratic Parties adopt "Sovereignty-with people" theory. Our party adopts "Sovereignty-with-Nation" theory, as already announced in the declaration of our platform; JAPAN is to consist of the Emperor with a certain prerogative and the people with equal rights but without prerogative. In view of the fundamental differences in opinions concerning the type of Japanese democracy, joint activity will be difficult."

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POLITICAL SERIES: 257 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
MIZUTANI: "Mr. KITA said that the Communist and Social-Democratic Parties adopt the "Sovereignty-with-People" theory, but it is due to the misunderstanding. It is true that some of the party members hold the opinion that the problems of Emperor system and Constitutional reform of the Social-Democratic Party should be given an importance at least equal to that of the Constitutional reform of the Social-Democratic Party should be given an importance at least equal to that of the Constitutional Study Society surrounding Dr. TAKANO, Iwasaburo, but what was confirmed by the Central Executive Committee on 16th was the "Sovereignty-with-Nation" theory. Immediately after the meeting of the 16th, standing Executive Committee established the constitution Committee which Mr. TAKANO and Mr. MORITO also joined, to study the problem the result of which I do not kn[illegible], but for the present moment the "Sovereignty-with-People" theory is not adopted by the Social Democratic Party'.
NOZAKA (Communist): "What is the probable turn-out in that Constitution Committee?"
MIZNTANT: "It is not clear whether it is likely that it will be revised or confirmed again, though it was decided that they would start a new on the study.
NOZAKA: "I just want to ask Mr. KITA: an I to understand that in your interpretation you consider that the Social-Democratic Party and the Communist Party almost agree with each other on the problem of the Constitution?"
KITA: "Yes".
NAZAKA: "Then, we do not understand the ground for the rejecting co-operation with the communist Party through they may cooperate with the Liberal and Social-Democratic Parties.
KITA: "What Mr. HOTOYAMA said for all I know may have been due to his sticking to the first saying of the Social Democratic Party, that they would acknowledge the Emperor system.
NOZAKA: "As for us, we want to get cooperation for a democratic popular front which we are going to form in order firstly to solve the problem of food and other vital questions which have direct bearing on the people's living secondly to destroy anti-democratic elements, the re[illegible]ants of feudalistic influences, and thirdly to achieve the democratization of JAPAN. Of course, the problem of the Emperor system will have to be dealt with some time in the future. We have our own stand, and our own insistence, but if democratization in our insistence to the end. I think it is clearly seen that our party always has room for compromise."
KITA: "In that regard, we are thinking in such a way; after marching with joined hands for some distance, they will soon part; that is on account of the problem of the Emperor system. On the problem of food, we can cooperate, but in such a fundamental problem as democratization, though we can cooperate as far as destruction of feudalistic influences, we cannot go further together. In other words concerning freedom, freedom in a positive sense, emancipation from all irrational elements—such positive freedom under which one can freely choose and bring to been what is true, what is good and what is beautiful, I think our opinion will naturally differ from theirs".
NOZAKA: "When differences take place it would be better to get then settled in a democratic way, that is, by a majority. What we
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POLITICAL SERIES: 257 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
are most struggling for now is the destruction of feudalistic influences and the substantial democratization of JAPAN. There surely is the problem of the Emperor system. When we arrive at this question we want it to be decided by a majority.
KITA: "We are thinking otherwise in this connection too. That is to recognize my own father because other persons so recognized him. The problem of the Emperor is the root of us all."
NOZAKA: "If so, you disagree with the Social-Democratic Party, don't you?"
KITA: "Cooperation may be impossible."
NOZAKA: "For all that, your party, time and again proclaimed specific exclusion of the Communist Party. Have you any special latent intent in doing that?"
KITA: "On that matter, Mr. MIZUTANI has touched just a little. I am also of the same opinion as Mr. HATOYAMA: the intent of the Social Democratic Party is that, at first they attract the public by a moderate policy and after reading a certain stage they may show their eleven hoofs, aim at proletarian autocracy and take a stand which disagards private ownership.'
NOZAKA: "We do not mean to dissolve ourselves to get together. Each party has its own insistence which must be regarded by each other, but we want to take the form of common front on the point where there is agreement. All the democratic elements must get together on the problem of how to break through the present national crisis."
ITEM 2 "The Council For Enacting A Democratic Constitution". By MATSUMOTO, Juji-Minopo Shimbun-31 January 1946. Translator: KATO, Hirokasu.
Summary:
At the reception really in honor of NOZAKO, Sanzo at TAISHOKAKU, TOKYO, on 21 January, the proposal was made by KONO, Iwasaburo, and SUZUKI, Yasuzo, to convert the council for enacting a democratic constitution around the middle of May. The conference, on principle, being held independently by the people, it is said that all the representatives of such popular organizations as the Social Democrats, Communists, former's Co-operatives, labor unions, cultural bodies press organs, etc., should be invited. With respect to the revision of the Constitution or the enactment of a new Constitution, there have been outlines of the revisions of the Constitution privately proposed by Minister without Portfolio MATSUMOTO, and draft plans of its revision drawn up by the late Prince KONOE, the Constitution Research Institution, the Japan Allied Bar Association and the Liberal Party. However the draft plan for the Constitution reform, as drawn up by KONO and SUZUKI is the concerned. The procedure by which the Constitution will be revised is first most essential in the revision or enactment of the Constitution. For it will almost decide whether or not the substance of the Constitution is democratic. It is next to impossible to expect a democratic draft of the Constitution from the Government and the Official Council tow which its revision has been left. Under the present circumstances it may be admitted that the most democratic procedure for the Constitution revision considered at present is to improve upon the draft plan as proposed by KONO and SUZUKI which reflects the unequiv[illegible]al aspir[illegible]tichs of the whole nation.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 257 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Of course, it must be taken into consideration that the conference which the people will independently convene is set up so as to reflect the views of the people in as democratic a way as possible. If such a conference can [illegible]held successfully, we will never fail to realize the anticipated result. The Social Democrats as well as the Communists will make public a draft plan for a new Constitution in the near future, while labor unions, farmer's organizations and other cultural bodies will have their own opinions about the Constitution in question. It goes without saying that "the question of the Constitution [illegible]evisi[illegible] [illegible]in point of fact, go into the enactment of the new Constitution. It is desirable that the Constitution problem must not be an obstacle in the way of forming a democratic front, but produce a good result which its free discussion will make among the democratic influences in a spirit of friendship and confidence. Though parties or organizations may have their own view as regards the Constitution, it will be proved a few months later by now keenly they feel the necessity of the united front for the Constitution problem.
The present ruling class and the Government are planning to let p[illegible]s in the forthcoming extraordinary Diet Session the conservative plans of the Government which has such ambiguous expressions as "The Emperor is one supervising the sovereignty and its chief executive. If now, when a constituency is too conservative, the newly-risen influences cannot keep step, the plan of the Government will be in danger of sucess. In order to present such danger it is nessessary to enlighten the masses above all for the democratic people. This the formation of the common draft plan will give more impetus to the enlargement and consolidation of a democratic front. In this view, it is desired that the council will be held, if possible, before the general election without waiting until the middle of May.
ITEM 3 Dispute over Common Fight For Democratic Front In Social-Democratic Party-The Yomiuri Hochi-31 January 1946. Translator: M. KOJMIA.
Full Translation:
At a time when the people's expectation that a democratic front will certainly be the only patrictic front capable of tiding over our present crisis which becomes more and more obvious, a meeting of the standing executive committee of the Social-Democratic Party which influences the success or failure in a democratic front, was held on 29 January.
As a result of this meeting it was decided to establish a committee with the object of developing a common fight for a democratic front. But, before the decision was made to establish the committee, a considerably heated dispute developed between the so-called leftists such as KATO, Kanju and KURODA, Toshio who insisted on the immediate formation of the committee and the so-called rightists such as ASNUMA, Inajiro, KONO, Mitsu, HIRANO, Rikizo, and NI[illegible]IO, Suchiro who insisted on the postponement of the formation at the meeting on that day. That is to say, some of the leftists said, "A grand meeting of the Social Democrats of the whole country must be held in [illegible]rder to listen to all our partymembers' opinions as fast as possible and if their active eagerness to form a democratic front is not shown, there will be danger of chaotic confusion [illegible]rising within out party". On the c[illegible]ntray, the rightists said, "Since a meeting of the Central Executive Committee
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POLITICAL SERIES: 257 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
was held only on 16 January and the general election was decided to be held on 31 March there is no time to make preparations for a grand meeting of our party members throughout the whole country." Thus the rightists made an objection against the leftists statement.
Mr. MIZUTANI Chozabure, unable to bear the confused atmosphere of the meetings advocated the plan of establishing a common fight committee devised by Mr. SUZUKI, Mesaburo, who was not present at the meeting. Then Mr. NIS[illegible]IO who had been stubbornly objecting to the formation of a common front, unexpectedly approved of the plan. Thus, their heated dispute on a common front, unexpectedly approved of the plan. Thus, their heated dispute on a common front at the meeting on that day was calmed down. The leftists insistence on the formation of a democratic front seems to have passed, but judging from the organization of the communities consisting of four committeemen belonging to the rightists and of [illegible]committeemen belonging to the leftists, we cannot help observing p[illegible]mystically the degree of their eagerness to form a democratic front.
Furthermore, as soon as Mr. MIZUTANI said that there was great significance in the establishment of a committee, Mr. NISHIO said that it had been agreed that they should form a democratic front after the general election on the basis of re-examination of their policies decided on 16 January. Be that as it may, speeches and behavior of such rightists as Mesers. ASNUMA, KONE, HIRANO, etc., had been criticized during the war and Mr. NISHIO is afraid of having his constituency invaded by a leftist. Therefore, in short, they think selfishly that if they join a common fight for a democratic front, their present positions will be weakened. Moreover, we cannot deny that they are sentimentally harboring antipathy towards the Communist Party and the leftists.
At any rate, the future moves of the social democrats headquarters and branches at every constituency will be worthy of note.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0257, 1946-02-01.
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