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Press translations [Japan]. Political Series 0247, 1946-01-30.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: political-1028

call-number: DS801 .S85



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1028 Date: 30 Jan 46.

POLITICAL SERIES: 247

ITEM 1 New President of the Supreme Court of Justice - The Asahi Press 29 Jan 46. Translator: S. Hirata.
Full Translation:
A fundamental policy for the changing of personnel in the judicial field, due to administrative readjustment of the Government, has been decided on at the recent assembly of national judicial governors. In accordance with the large renovation plan which caused the voluntary retirement of 50 persons (nearly one third of the 150 of the rank of CHOKUNIN), such as the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, SHIMOYAMA; Attorney-General NAKANO; several presidents of the Court of Appeal and chiefs of public prosecutors, after tendering their resignation, returned to their respective hosts of duty and are now engaged in the selection of their subordinates to be placed upon the list of resigners. In the case of the Ministry of Justice, the highest ranking officials who should resign are being decided on by Minister of Justice IWATA and Vice-Minister SAKANO, and it is expected that the appointment of new personnel will take place during the early part of February and April.
The post of President of the Supreme Court of Justice is attracting attention. The resignation of SHIMOYAMA, President of the Supreme Court of justice, is generally regarded as definite due to the purport of the present large renovation. As regards his successor, the opinion of those who advocated the promotion of the President of the Court of Appeals, MIYAIE, Shōtarō, has been taken into consideration; but the appointment of Mr. KIMURA, Tokutarō, President of the Imperial Solicitors' Society, is being regarded as most promising not only on account of his excellent personality and superior knowledge but also for the greater purpose of effecting the unification of non-official solicitors and Government judicial officials in accordance with the plan formulated by the Deliberative Council for the reform of the judicial system. If his appointment is effected, it may be regarded as an unprecedented case of the promotion of a man by judicial authorities, especially at a time when it is expected that time status of President of the Supreme Court of Justice will increase in political importance in the future. The formal decision is expected in the early or middle part of February.
ITEM 2 The Government is impatient to revise the draft of the Constitution Mainichi Shimbun - 29 Jan 1946. Translator: H. Naoji.
Full Translation:
Many prudent suggestions were made by the Investigation Committee of the Government, and the fundamental principles of the draft for the revision of the Constitution are to be settled at the investigation Committee meeting which is to be held on 2 February when the final draft plan will be drawn up. It was decided that Minister of State MATSUMOTO will submit this tentative draft to the Constitution Revision Advisory Committee, which is to be created at the beginning of March, for discussion after he has examined this draft of the revision of the Investigation Committee. By choosing Mr. FURUI, Yoshimi as his assistant in his work he aims to arrive at a final plan as quickly as possible.

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POLITICAL SERIES: 247 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
As for the Constitution Revision Advosory Committee, its organization will be promulgated at the beginning of March and will be composed of fifteen or sixteen members including Ministers of State, Privy Councillors, and members of both Houses, who will be regarded as officials specially appointed by His Majesty the Emperor and the list of these members who are now being chosen by Minister of State MATSUMOTO will be made public simultaneously with the publishing of the government organization and revision of the Constitution.
The revision plan on the part of the Government is not as drastic as those of the Liberal Party or other four private Constitutional Revision Associations. However, these will be the most significant points in that revision; that the title of the House of Peers will be changed to the state Councillor Board, and that members drawn from Princes of the Blood and of the princes will be completely excluded'. As a result of this, the reform plan of the House of Peers Law which was already approved by the Government, is to be re-discussed. However, it may happen that if the number of members of the Diet who are to quit their membership owing to the "purge" directive of General MACARTHUR's Headquarters will amount to so many that it will result in it being impossible for the Diet to deliberate on this matter, the Government will principally reform the House of Peers by this reform plan as the first step and after that, reform it thoroughly as the second step. The other point is that the Privy Council will continue to function since it is primarily useful in keeping the administration from becoming autocratic and partial. Moreover, the Government is making preparations to submit this draft for the revision of the Constitution at the next extraordinary Diet session, but, at the same time, it must provide for the revision of the imperial Household Law, the State Councillors' Board Law, the Imperial Ceremonial Regulations,. Administrative Litigation Law, the Law for the organization of the Courts of Justice, the Financial Law, the government organization of the Cabinet and the government organization of the Privy Council which are all laws directly connected with the Constitution. So, it is expected to be difficult for these laws to be completely discussed at the coming extraordinary Diet session.
ITEM 3 Talks on Democratic Education (2) </em>- Jiji Shimpo - 29<em> Jan 46. Translator; J. Weiller.
Summary:
Conversation between Education Minister ABE and the Chief Editor ITAKURA.
ITALKURA: It is fortunate for youths that there is no more conscription. One more good aspect of the disappearance of conscription is that up to now schools which adapted themselves to the rules laid down by the Education Department were accorded only the privilege of the postponement of conscription of the students, so that with the elimination of military service, schools will be in no need of such a privilege. Therefore, in the future a liberal education free from Government interference, can be given to youth according to the founder's own views and ideas.
ABE: I quite agree with you on that point. What the so called democratic education will be is a problem, but all agree that the breaking up of formal and uniform education is one of the main objectives.
ITAEURA: It is a good idea to allow the founders ample scope to put their initiative into education, but at the same time the educational authorities should impose on the schools the minimum work they are to give the students.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 247 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
ABE: It is my intention to do this.
ITAKURA: One more unfortunate result the war has brought on our learning is the suspension of importing books since 1940 It is a great blow to all branches of learning. We do not know what kind of study is being made abroad or how far a particular research has gone ahead. Furthermore, due to an adverse exchange now, perhaps we have to pay 30 or 50 times pre-war prices if we are to import books. Even if a MACARTHUR's Headquarters permits us to import them the price will be prohibitive to individuals. Something ought to be done by the State to cope with this deplorable situation.
ABE: Anyone who has some interest in learning is keenly alive to the situation. Before the war a certain section of people had an anti-foreign notion and asserted that JAPAN could pursue her learning without dependence on foreign countries, but I do not think there are now any who seriously think in this way. However, as it is almost impossible to secure books as in pre-war days, it is necessary to work out such measures as to utilize a limited number of books as widely as possible. It seems that library books for instance, were not efficiently made use of before. Some people took out books from a library and kept them for two or three years to the inconvenience of others who wanted to read such books. I know many cases where library books wore burnt during the war because they were scattered in private houses. In order to distribute books evenly a common catalogue in the various university libraries was suggested by my friend Mr. KOMIYA of the TOHOKU University and I think it is a good idea. Another thing I would like to suggest is a big scale translation organ in order to diffuse to a certain degree foreign ideas and learning.
ITLOTRA: It is most necessary to let the people become intimate with the learning and conditions in other countries in order to make this a peace loving country. But as to the exchange question, in view of the present national condition there is no prospect of recovery in the near future.
ABE: In order to equip ourselves with such cultural instruments a fairly big expenditure is needed, but if we remember we have spent so much money on armaments the matter will not be so difficult if we really go about it in earnest.
ITAKURA: I think I can definitely declare that the import of foreign books for such specific purposes can not be done by individuals, but should be attempted by the combined efforts of the government and moneyed classes. As to translation, I suggest that we should set up something like the "Foreign Books Investigation Center" (BANSHO TORISHIRABESHO) instituted at the end of the TORUGAWA Era, where they translated Dutch books into Japanese. As in the manner of the CARNEGIE Institute, which is doing creditable work in translating the classics of the world into English, we should set up such a place here by the combined efforts of the Government and private person:
ITEM 4 Young Men in GUMMA-Ken Expel Militarists from Public Offices, - Asahi Shimbun - 29 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Akabane.
Summary:
Whirlwinds are now raging to purge and expel social leaders of the old type by the young men of GUMMA-Ken. Already over 28 town and village heads and 150 councilors of town and village assemblies as well as office-holders of agricultural associations in 193 towns and villages throughout the Prefecture have been forced to retire. This is due to the fact that they are guilty of war-profiteering through the illegal disposition of allotted rice, delivered by farmers, and rationed materials. The purge is threatening to increase in scope.
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POLITICAL SERIES: 247 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Most of these young men are demobilized servicemen and what they saw on returning home was bleak reality and moral decadance. The village leaders, or rather bosses, had not changed, and their egotism was even greater than it had been before. The ex-soldiers cried, "this must be done away with". However, it was necessary for them to be strong by uniting and to have sufficient enthusiasm to expel these leaders from their feudalistic posts. Some of the ex-soldiers were arrested by the police, while other were disowned by their relatives for being "instigated by the Reds".
Most noteworthy of the democratic actions of these young men is the expulsion of the mayor and councilors from the assembly of MINOWA-Machi. The town's mayor, TAKEKOSHI, Tokuzo, has great influence in prefectural political circles, being head of the prefectural agricultural association. The young men united, persuaded the citizens to act, and at last succeeded in ousting the mayor together with all the town councilors on 20 January.
It is especially noteworthy that the young men in farming villages have been speedily awakened to their political senses these days. Communists and social democrats have also closely united in the above movement, which served to stimulate young men to become politically conscious.
In preparing for the forthcoming general election, the young men are demanding debating meetings by the various political parties, and lectures on political education. It is estimated that over 50,000 are now participating in young men's movements. In addition to the expulsion of leaders of the old type, there are many other movements taking place, such as the prevention of junevile delinquency, cooperation with the police, and so forth.
Many young men now entertain doubts as to why is it not good to support the abolition of the Emperor System as demanded by the Communist party. The "Outline for the Establishment of Young Men's Societies", issued by the Ministry of Education contains a passage demanding the protection of the national constitution and clarifying the principle for supporting the Emperor System.
The prefectural authorities seem to be at a loss as to how to deal with the question of the Emperor System in relation to the guidance of young men's societies. The authorities said in this connection: We well understand the feelings of young men returned from military service in expelling leaders of the old type for the sake of village reconstruction. But if they indulge in disputes and become so desperate that they can not live a model daily life, they will be useless in filling the positions of new leaders. In fact, the percentage of attendance at some of the young men's schools in the Prefecture has been so markedly lowered of late as to make it impossible to continue teaching".
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Political Series 0247, 1946-01-30.
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